CAPTAINS-COMPANIES-DUTIES IN CAMP AND GARRISON, ETC.
758. Captains or commanders of companies
fill one of
the most important stations in the service, when they are viewed in
relation to the direct influence they exercise upon the soldiery; to
them attaches the high responsibility of the instruction, good order,
efficiency, and discipline of their companies; and no one should be
willing to accept the post who is not qualified, or ready to qualify
himself, for a faithful discharge of all the duties of the office.
It is the duty of every captain to make
familiar with tactics, or at least so much of it as will enable him to
command his company properly in every situation; and to become
perfectly acquainted with its interior management.
In the case of a vacancy in the office
or in his absence, the command of the company devolves on the officer
next in rank. Captains should require their lieutenants to assist them
in the performance of all company duties, the knowledge thus acquired
being essential to every company officer.
In the volunteers and militia, the
lieutenant are elected by the company after its organization; the
non-commissioned officers are either elected in the same way, or are
selected by the captain.
759. Arms and accoutrements are issued
by order of
the adjutant-general to volunteer companies after their organization,
and to such of the militia as the Governor may deem it proper to arm.
Before a volunteer company can receive its arms, the captain must
DUTI E S OF CAPTAINS –
COMPANIES - ETC. 639
the following certificate from the colonel of the regiment to which the
company is attached.
Inspection Return to enable a Volunteer Company to receive Public Arms.
I) A. B.) commandant of the ___ Regiment
Militia, do hereby certify) that on the ___ day of ___, I mustered and
inspected the (troop of cavalry) company of artillery, company of light
infantry or riflemen, as the fact may be,) commanded by Captain _____,
(attached to or belonging to, as the fact may be,) the said regiment;
at which muster and inspection there were of the said company ___ men,
fully and completely uniformed, in the mode prescribed by law.
Given under my hand this ___ day of ____, 18__.1
760. The militia laws of many of the
volunteer companies to choose their own uniforms; all experience proves
that the plainest and simplest uniform is the best for service. It is a
mistake to suppose that handsome and expensive uniforms are to be
preferred; the best uniform is that which combines comfort,
appropriateness, and durability.
Plain and substantial overcoats with
always form a part of the uniform; and some simple fatigue dress, to be
worn when off duty, or on fatigue, will always be found to be a great
saving to the uniform.
Each man of the company should be
provided with a
knapsack for his clothing, a haversack for his rations, and one or two
thick blankets. In addition, there should be one bedsack for every two
men, to be made of substantial linen or cotton goods; it should be made
about six and a half feet long, by three and a half feet wide. sewed up
at both ends, and having a slit in the centre, provided with strings to
tie it close, so as to prevent the straw working out, The haversack
is made of white linen or cotton duck; it is wore from the right
shoulder to the left side; it should be large enough
1 This is the Virginia, form;
each State has its own form.
640 MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .
to contain at least three days' rations of bread and meat,and would be
much improved by having a small tin box in it large enough to contain
the meat ration. Fig. 171 is a representation of the haversack. The
company should at all times be supplied with tents, etc.,
for service in the field; together with the requisite number of camp
kettles, tin table furniture, ctc.
761. There are several forms of'
tent, covering an area of about seven feet square, and capable of'
accommodating from five to six men; the wall tent, usually used by
officers, about nine feet squarc, and having its roof' protected by a
second piece of canvas, known as the "fly;" the Sibley tent, which is
conical in shape, has but a single central pole, with an arrangement at
the top to admit of a fire in the centre for cooking purposes, or for
DUTIES OF CAPTAINS-COMPANIES,
in cold weather, and sufficiently large to accommodate from twelve to
fifteen men; and the shelter tent of the French. The Sibley tent is in
general use in the U. S. service. Fig. 172 is a representation
of the Sibley tent, and Fig. 173 of the shelter tent. The latter is 1D
valuable in a summer campaign, when transportation is limited.
A new invention has been lately introduced into the U. S. service,
which promises to be very useful; it is called the tent knapsack, and
serves the purpose of a knapsack on the march, and a shelter tent when
in camp. It is a piece of gutta-percha, five feet
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .
three inches long, and three feet eight inches wide, with double edges
on one side, and brass studs and button holes along two edges,
and straps and buckles on the fourth; with two sticks, three feet eight
inches long, by one and a half inches in diameter, and a small cord.
When used as a knapsack, the clothing is packed in a cotton bag, aml
the gutta-percha sheet is folded around it, lapping at the ends. The
clothing is thus protected by two or three thicknesses of gutta-percha;
the knapsack adapts itself to the size of the contents, so that a
compact and portable bundle can be madde, whether the the
be entire or not; and with the cotton bag, it forms a convenient,
commodious, and desirable receptacle for all a soldier's clothing and
necessaries, (Fig. 175.)
The studs and eyelets along two edges of
knapsack are for the purpose of fastening a number of them together,
and thus making a large sheet which may be used as a shelter tent. When
used the sheet is to be stretched on a cord supported by two sticks, or
by two rilles, muskets, or carbines, and pinned down at the sides with
small pins. The sheet of four knapsacks is ten feet six inches long,
and seven fcet four inches wide, and when pitched on a rope four feet
four inches above the ground, covers a horizontal space of six feet six
inches wide, and seven feet four inches long, which will accommodate
from five to seven men (see Fig. 173). Or four of these knapsacks may
be united, an edge pinned to the ground, and the opposite one secured
to a pole facing a fire, forming a half-faced camp, as is shown in Fig.
762. Every man should be provided with
articles at all times, such as are not on the person to be kept in the
DUTIES OF CAPTAINS-COMPANIES,
Two woollen under-shirts.
Two pair thick cotton drawers.
Four pair woollen socks.
Two pair stout shoes, with broad, thick
soles, for footmen.
Onc pair boots, and one pair shoes for
Towels, handkerchiefs, comb and brush,
tooth-brush. Stout linen thread, large needles, a bit of wax, a few
buttons, paper of pins, and a thimble, all contained in a small
buckskin or stout cloth-bag.
In addition every man should be supplied
with a tin
plate; quart cup with the handle well riveted on, so as to serve tIle
soldier for making his coffee, etc., in case of necessity, as well as
for an ordinary drinking cup; knife, fork, and spoon. The plate may be
carried in the knapsack,
or on the outside of it under the straps, or all. the plates of the
company may be packed in the camp-kettles; the cup may be carried on
the waist belt, or on the knapsack strap and the knife, fork, and spoon
should be carried in a leathern sheath which slips on to the waist
belt, to be worn in front, and on the left of the centre of the body.
Fig. 176 shows the manner of arranging
Every company should be provided with a
small chest petitioned
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
off into several compartments, and large enough to contain a week or
ten days' issue of the small rations, such as beans, rice, coffee,
sugar, salt, etc, The issues of bread, pork, etc., should be
transported in the original packages,
When a militia company is called into
captain should, at the earliest possible moment, have it properly
uniformed and equipped, and taught how to take care of its arms,
clothing, etc. ; each man should be provided with his knapsack,
haversack, blanket, knife,and fork, spoon, tin plate, and cup.
Canteens are also necessary in most
cases; they are worn, over the haversack.
763, The captain should cause the men of
to be numbered in a regular series, including the non-commissioned
officers, and divided into several squads, each to be put under the
charge of a non-commissioned officer. As far as practicable, the men of
each squad are quartered together.
Each of the lieutenants is charged with
a squad for
the supervision of its order and cleanliness; and captains should
require their subalterns to assist them in the performance of all
company duties The utmost attention should be paid by captains to the
cleanliness of their men, as to their persons, clothing, arms,
accoutrements, and equipments, and also as to their quarters or tents.
The name of' each soldier should be
labelled on his
bunk in quarters, and his compsny number should be placed against his
arms and accoutrements.
The arms are placed in arm-racks, the
the muzzles, the cocks let down, and the bayonets in their scabbards,
the accoutrements suspended over the arms, and the swords or sabres,
when these are worn, hung up by the belts on pegs.
The knapsack of each man should be
placed at the
foot of his bunk when he is in quarters, packed with his
and ready to be slung, the overcoat rolled, strapped, and placed under
the knapsack; the cap on a shelf, and his boots well cleaned. Dirty
clothes should be kept in an appropriate part of the
nothing to be put under the bedding .
Cooking utensils and table furniture
should be clean, and in
CAPTAINS-COMPANIES, ETC 645
their appropriate places; blacking and brushes out of sight; the fuel
The cleaning up should take place at
least once a
week. 'The chiefs of squads should cause bunks and bedding to be
overhauled, floors cleaned, and arms, accoutrements, etc., all put in
Non-commissioned officers, in charge of
should be held immediately responsible that their men observe what is
prescribed above; that they wash their hands and faces daily; that they
brush or comb their heads and beards; that those who go on duty put
their arms, accoutrements, dress, etc., in the best order .
Commanders of companies should see that
the arms and
accoutrements in possession of the men are always kept in good order,
and that proper care is taken in cleaning them.
Arms should not be taken to pieces
permission of an officer. Bright barrels should be kept clean and free
from rust without polishing them; care should be taken not to bruise or
bend the barrel. After firing, wash out the bore, wipe it dry, and then
pass a bit of cloth, slightly greased, to the bottom. In these
operations, a rod of wood with a loop on one end is to be used instead
of the rammer. The barrel, when not in use, should be closed with a
stopper. For exercise, each man should keep himself provided with a
piece of sole leather to fit the cap or countersink of the hammer, to
prevent breaking the nipple.
All field pieces in the possession of
companies should be kept clean and dry; their vents frequently examined
to see that they are clear; the elevating screw wiped clean, worked and
oiled. When tarpaulins are placed over them, they should occasionally
be removed, the guns and carriages brushed off, and, if damp, allowed
The implements should all be kept clean
cover, the harness and leather articles should be brushed and greased
with neat's foot oil as often as their condition requires it, and if
they have a reddish hue, mix a little lampblack with the oil. First
brush the leather, then pass over it a sponge wet with warm water, and
apply the oil before the leather is quite dry.
Arms should not be left loaded in
armories, quarters, or tents, or
646 MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
when the men are off duty, except by special orders. The ammunition in
the possession of the men should be inspected frequently, and any
damaged, wasted, or lost by neglect, should be paid for.
Knapsacks should be black; they should
be marked on
the outside with the number of the regiment, and on the inside with the
letter of the company, and the number of the soldier, on such part as
will readily be seen at inspections.
Haversacks should be marked on the flap
number and name of the regiment, the letter of the company, and the
number of the soldier.
Both officers and men should wear the
prescribed uniform in camp or garrison.
In camp or quarters, the officers should
kitchen daily and inspect the kettles, food, etc., and at all times
carefully attend to the messing and economy of their companies.
The company rations are usually taken
charge of by
the orderly sergeant, and issued daily to the cooks by whom they are
prepared and served to the company. The men of the company serve in
turn as cooks, two being the usual number serving at once. When in
camp, the men present themselves at meal times to the cooks, who issue
to each man in turn his proper allowance; in garrison, or quarters the
tables are set out, and the cooks place each man's ration on his plate,
and in his cup, before the company is marched in.
When not actually in the field the
ration is in most
cases more than sufficient, so that by care on the part of the orderly
sergeant and cooks, there is more or less saved on the rations of the
company; this saving is sold for the benefit of the company, and
constitutes what is denominated the Company Fund.
DUTIES IN CAMP AND GARRISON.
764. The duties in camp and garrison are
conducted, as far as practicable, in the same manner and on the same
The Reveille is the signal for the men
to rise, and
the sentinels to leave off challenging. It is usually sounded at dawn
of day, except when the troops are on the march, when the signal may be
sounded at a much earlier hour. The men form on their company
CAPTAINS-COMPANIES, ETC. 647
parade grounds, and as soon as the reveille ceases the rolls are called
by the orderly sergeants, superintended by a commissioned officer.
Immediately after the roll call (after
in the cavalry and light artillery), the tents or quarters should be
put in order by the men of the companies, superintended by chiefs of
squads; the parades, streets of the camp, etc., are cleaned by the
police police of the day, in charge of a non-commissioned officer, and
superintended by the officer of the day, and the guard house or guard
ten by the guard or the prisoners, if there are any.
Breakast call is sounded at ___o'clock
in the morning, and is the signal for breakfast.
The Troop sounds at ___ 0' clock in the
the purpose of assembling the men for duty, inspection at
guard-mounting, an morning dress parade, when the commanding officer
The Surgeon's call is to sound or beat
o'clock in the morning, when the sick, able to go about, are conducted
to the hospital by the first sergeants of companies, who hand to the
surgeon a list of all the sick in the company.
After the surgeon has passed upon the
first sergeants proceed to make off the morning reports of their
companies, which after being signed by their captains, are taken to
regimental headquarters at first sergeant's call.
The morning report of the company is
made off in a
book kept for that purpose, called the morning report book, and in
accordance with Form No. 1. The rulings extend across both pages of the
book when open; the report occupies but a single line each morning, so
that if the number of lines are sufficient, a single heading will
suffice for the reports of an entire month.
The Dinner call is sounded at ___
o'clock, and is the signal for dinner.
The Retreat is sounded at sunset, when
there is a
roll-call and the orders for the day are read. When the weather
permits, there is a dress parade at retreat, and the orders are read
out at the close of it. Each regiment or battalion has an independent
parade, commanded by the colonel.
The Tattoo is sounded at ___ o'clock in
the evening, when the
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA..
rolls are called; no soldier is allowed to be out of his tent or
quarters after this hour, without special permission.
In the cavalry, stable-calls are sounded
after reveille, and an hour and a half before retreat; stable-calls at
the hours directed by the commanding officer.
The Drummers' call is beaten by the
drums of the
police guard five minutes before the time of beating the stated calls,
when the field music assembles before the colors of their respective
regiments, and as soon as the beat begins on the right is taken up
along the line.
Calls for drills are sounded at such
hours as the commanding officer may designate.
765. Daily duties must be announced in
the officers to perform them are detailed according to the rules of the
The number and rank of the officers for
are to be regulated by the strength and circumstances of the camp or
garrison; the officers detailed for duty, should remain in or about the
camp or garrison during their tours of duty.
Besides the officers detailed for guard
officers for daily duties in large commands are as follows:
A General officer of the clay for each
field officer of the day for each brigade; and a regimental officer of
the day for each regiment.
In camps or garrisons of one regiment or
officers are as follows: officer of the day, and officer of the guard.
The General of the day is to superintend
regularity and discipline of the camp of the division, visit the guards
and outposts, call out and inspect the guards as often and at such
times as he thinks proper; to receive all reports of guards, and make
immediate communication of any extraordinary circumstances, to his
commanding officer, or to the General-in-chief.
The Field officer of the day has the
superintendence of the camp of the brigade; he is to be present at the
mounting and dismounting of the brigade or grand guards; he is to call
them out to inspect them; to order such patrols, posts, and outposts as
may be necessary; to see that the grand guard is vigilant, that none
are absent, and that their arms and accoutrements are in order; that
the officers and non-commissioned officers are acquainted with their
CAPTAINS-COMPANIES, ETC. 649
duty, and that the sentries are properly posted, and have received
The Regimental officer of the day in
and in commands less than a regiment, is charged with the order and
cleanliness of the camp or garrison; he has the calls beaten by the
drummer of the police guard; he attends the parading of the guards, and
orders the roll to be called frequently and at unexpected periods, and
report everything extraordinary to the commander of the garrison or
camp; he is to visit the hospital at various hours and make a report of
its state to the commanding officer. He should satisfy
frequently during the night, of the vigilance of the police guard, and
prescribe patrols and rounds to be made by the officer of the guard. He
should give attention to the condition of the sinks, the regulation of
the camp fires, the removal of rubbish, etc,; and for these purposes a
fatigue party will be furnished him when necessary.
766. Each company has its tents in two
on a street perpendicular to the color line. The width of the street
depends on the front of the camp, but should not be less than five
paces. The interval between the ranks of tents is two paces; between
the files of tents of adjacent companies, two paces; between regiments,
The color line is ten paces in front of
the front rank of tents.
The kitchens are twenty paces behind the
of company tents; the non-commissioned staff and sutler, twenty paces
in rear of the kitchens; the company officers, twenty paces farther in
rear; and the field and staff, twenty paces in rear of the company
The company officers arc in rear of
their respective companies; the captains on the right.
The colonel and lieutenant-colonel are
centre of the line of field and staff; the adjutant, a major and
surgeon, on the right; the quartermaster, a major, and assistant
surgeon, on the left.
The police guard is at the centre of the
line of the
non-commissioned staff, the tents facing to the front, the stacks of
arms on the left.
650 MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
The advanced post of the police guard is
paces in front of the color line, and opposite the centre of the
regiment or on the best ground; the prisoners' tent about four paces in
rear. In a regiment of the second line, the advanced post of the police
guard is 200 paces in rear of the line of its field and staff.
The horses of the staff officers and of
train are twenty-five paces in rear of the tents of the field and
staff; the wagons are parked on the same line, and the men of the train
camped near them.
The sinks of the men are 150 paces in
front of the
color line; those of the officers 100 paces in rear of the train. Both
are concealed by bushes. When convenient, the sinks of the men may be
placed in rear or on a flank. A portion of the earth dug out for sinks
to be thrown back occasionally.
The front of the camp of a regiment of
1000 men in
two ranks will be 400 paces, or. one-fifth less paces than the number
of files, if the camp is to have the same front as the troops in order
of battle. But the front may be reduced to 190 paces by narrowing the
company streets to five paces; and if it be desirable to reduce the
front still more, the tents of companies may be pitched in single file;
those of a division facing on the same street.
767. In the cavalry, each company has
one file of
tents - the tents opening on the street facing the left of the camp.
The horses of each company are placed in
file, facing the opening of the tents, and are fastened to pickets
planted firmly in the ground, from three to six paces from the tents of
The interval between the file of tents
such that, the regiment being broken into column of companies [as
indicated in plate], each company should be on the extension of the
line on which the horses are to be picketed.
The streets separating the squadrons are
those between the companies by the interval separating squadrons in
line; these intervals are kept free from any obstruction throughout the
CAPTAINS-COMPANIES, ETC. 651
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
DUTIES OF CAPTAINS-COMPANIES,
The horses of the rear rank are placed
on the left of those of their file-leaders.
The horses of the lieutenants are placed
right of their platoons; those of the captains on the right of the
Each horse occupies a space of about two
number of horses in the company fixes the depth of the camp, and the
distance between the files of tents; the forage is placed between the
The kitchens are twenty paces in front
of each file of tents.
The non-commissioned officers are in the
the front rank Camp-followers, teamsters, etc., are in the rear rank.
The police guard in the rear rank, near the centre of the regiment.
The tents of the lieutenants are thirty
rear of the file of their company; the tents of the captains thirty
paces in rear of the lieutenants.
The colonel's tent thirty paces in rear
captains, near the centre of the regiment; the lieutenant-colonel on
his right; the adjutant on his left; the majors on the same line,
opposite the second company on the right and left; the surgeon on the
left of the adjutant.
The field and staff have their horses on
the left of
their tents, on the same line with the company horses; sick horses are
placed in one line on the right or left of the camp. The men who attend
them have a separate file of tents; the forges and wagons in rear of
this file. The horses of the train and of camp-followers are in one or
more files extending to the rear, behind the right or left squadron.
The advanced post of the police guard is 200 paces in front, opposite
the centre of the regiment; the horses in one or more files.
The sinks for the men are 150 paces in
front - those for officers 100 paces in rear of the camp.
768. The artillery is encamped near the
which it is attached, so as to be protected from attack, and to
contribute to the defence of the camp. Sentinels for the park are
furnished by the artillery, and, when necessary, by the other troops.
For a battery of six pieces the tents
are in three files - one for
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
each section; distance between the ranks of tents fifteen paces; tents
opening to the front. The horses of each section are picketed in the
file, ten paces to the left of the file of tents. In the horse
artillery, or if the number of horses makes it necessary, the horses
are in two files on the right and left of the file of tents. The
kitchens are twenty-five paces in front of the front rank of tents. The
tents of the officers are in the outside files of company tents, twenty
paces in rear of the rear rank-the captain on the right, the
lieutenants on the left.
The park is opposite the centre of the
paces in rear of the officers' tents. The carriages in files four paces
apart; distance between ranks of carriages sufficient for the horses
when harnessed to them; the park guard is twenty-five paces in rear of
the parK. The sinks for the men 150 paces in front; for the officers
100 paces in rear. The harness is in the tents of the men.
769. A regiment of cavalry being in
order of battle,
in rear of the ground to be occupied, the colonel breaks it by platoons
to the right. The horses of' each platoon are placed in a single row,
and fastened as prescribed for camps; near the enemy, they remain
saddled all night, with slackened girths. The arms are at first stacked
in rear of each row of horses; the sabres, with the bridles hung on
them, are placed against the stacks.
The forage is placed on the right of
each row of
horses. Two stable-guards for each platoon watch the horses.
A fire for each platoon is made near the
twenty paces to the left of the row of horses. A shelter is made for
the men around the fire, if possible, and each man then stands his arms
and bridle against the shelter.
The fires and shelter for the officers
are placed in rear of the line of those for the men.
The interval between the squadrons must
be without obstruction throughout the whole depth of the bivouac.
The interval between the shelters should
that the p1atoons can take up a line of battle freely to the front or
CAPTAINS-COMPANIES, ETC. 655
The distance from the enemy decides the
which the horses are to be fed and led to water. When it is permitted
to unsaddle, the sadd1es are placed in the rear of the horses.
In infantry, the fires are made in rear
of the color
linc, on the ground that would be occupied by the tents in camp. The
companies are placed around them, and, if possible, construct shelters.
When liable to surprise, the infantry should stand to arms at daybreak,
and the cavalry mount until the return of the reconnoitering parties.
If the arms are to be taken apart to clean, it must be done by
770. The cavalry should be placed under
whenever the distance from the enemy, and from the ground where the
troops are to form for battle, permit it. Taverns and farm-houses, with
large stables and free access, are selected for quartering them.
The colonel indicates the place of
assembling in case of alarm.
It should generally be outside the
egress from it should be free; the retreat upon the other positions
secure, and roads leading to it on the side of the enemy obstructed.
The necessary orders being given, as in
a camp, the picket and grand guards are posted. A sentinel may be
placed on a steeple or high house, and then the troops are marched to
the quarters. The men sleep in the stables, if it is thought necessary.
The above applies in the main to
infantry. Near the
enemy, companies or platoons should be collected, as much as possible,
in the same houses. If companies must be separated, they should be
divided by platoons or squads. All take arms at daybreak.
When cavalry and infantry canton
together, the latter furnish the guards by night, and the former by
Troops cantoned in presence of the enemy
covered by advanced guards and natural or artificial obstacles.
Cantonments taken during a cessation of hostilities should be
established in rear of a line of defence, and in front of the point on
which the troops would concentrate to receive an attack. The general
commanding-in-chief assigns the limits of their cantonments to the
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
commanders of divisions to brigades, and the commanders of brigades
post their regiments. The position for each corps in case of attack is
carefully pointed out by the generals.
771. For marching, the force, if a large
divided into as many columns as circumstances permit, without weakening
anyone too much. The object of the movement and the nature of the
ground determine the order of march, the kind of troops in each column,
and the number of columns. They ought to preserve their communications,
and be within supporting distance of each other. The commander of each
column ought to know the strength and direction of the others.
The advance and rear-guards are usually
troops; their strength and composition depend on the nature of the
ground and the position of the enemy. They serve to cover the movements
of the army, and to hold the enemy in check until the general has time
to make his arrangements.
The "general" sounded one hour before
the time of
marching, is the signal to strike tents, to load the wagons, pack
horses, etc., and send them to the place of assembling. The fires are
then put out, and care taken to avoid burning straw, etc., or giving
the enemy any other indication of the movements.
The "march" beats in the infantry, and
is sounded in the cavalry, in succession, as each is to take its place
in the column. The infantry forms in column of companies or platoons;
the cavalry in column of twos, fours, or of platoons; and the artillery
When the army should form suddenly to
enemy, the "long-roll" is beat, and "to horse" sounded. The troops form
rapidly in front of their camp.
Batteries of artillery and their
caissons move with
the corps to which they are attached; the field train and ambulances
march at the rear of the column; and the baggage with the rear-guard.
Cavalry and infantry do not march
together, unless the proximity of the enemy makes it necessary.
CAPTAINS-COMPANIES, ETC. . 657
In cavalry marches, when distant from
each regiment, and, if possible, each squadron, forms a separate
column, in order to keep up the same gait from front to rear, and to
trot, when desirable, on good ground. In such cases, the cavalry may
leave camp later, and can give more rest to the horses, and more
attention to the shoeing and harness .
After the march has commenced, the
take the route step. The men should not be allowed to straggle, or
leave the ranks for any but a necessary purpose, and then but for a few
moments at a time.
The general and field officers
frequently stop, or
send officers to the rear, to see that the troops march in the
prescribed order, and keep their distances.
In approaching a defile, the colonels
they close their regiments as they come up; each regiment~passes
separately, at an accelerated pace, and in as close order as possible.
The leading regiment having passed, and left room enough for the whole
column in close order, halts, and moves again as soon as the last
regiment is through. In the cavalry, each squadron, before quickening
the pace to rejoin the column, takes its original order of march.
When a march is to be continued from day
to day, the
daily march should commence at a very early hour; the rate of going
i3hould be as regular as possible, not more than two and a half miles
an hour; and the guides should be careful to preserve their distance,
so as to prevent oscillations in the rear of the column, which are very
fatiguing to the men. At the expiration of every hour, or a little
more, the halt is sounded, when the men are allowed to take their ease
for about ten minutes, when the march is resumed. In this way a day's
march of twenty miles or more may be made by mid-day, or a little
later: the men get their dinners after getting into camp, have the
afternoon to rest, wash their clothing, clean their arms, etc., and are
fresh for an early start on the following day.
In forced marches, or where the march is
a long one,
the halt at noon may be from an hour to an hour and a half, when the
men may loosen their belts, take a lunch, smoke, and take their ease in
658 MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
they choose, until the hour for resuming the march; the march may be
continued until the middle of the afternoon, and still the men will
have time to get their cup of hot coffee for supper, and make
themselves comfortable for the night. The march of the first two days
shonld be short, after that it may be increased to the required number
of miles; the march from day to day should be as nearly of equal length
as the convenience of fuel and water, etc., for camping purposes will
772. A camping party, headed by the
the command, precedes the column for the purpose of selecting and
marklng off the camp before the arrival of the troops. The camp is
marked by placing camp-colors on the line intended for the color line
of the command.
When the column reaches the camp-ground,
infantry comes into line on the color line; the cavalry in rear of its
The number of men to be furnished for
pickets, and orderlies; the fatigue parties to be sent for wood and
water for the cooks, etc.; the hour of marching, etc., are thcn
announced by the brigadier-generals to the colonels, and by them to the
field officer,the adjutant and captains formed in front of the
regiment, the first sergeants taking post behind their captains. The
adjutant then makes the details, and the first sergeants warn the men.
The regimental officer of the day forms the picket, and sends the
guards to their posts. The colors are then planted at the centre of the
color line, and the arms are stacked on the line. The fatigue parties
proceed to their duties, and the men of the company not on detail pitch
In the cavalry, each troop moves a
little in rear of
the point at which its horses are to be secured, and forms in one rank;
the men then dismount; a detail is made to hold the horses; the rest
stack their arms and fix the picket rope; after the horses are attended
to, the tents are pitched, and each horseman places his arms at the
side from the weather.
Artillery is brought into line, and the
fixed; the drivers unhitch, take off harness, secure their horses to
the picket ropes, etc., while the cannoneers proceed to pitch the
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