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ARTICLE XII.

HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS-INSPECTIONS-REVIEWS ETC.

HONORS TO BE PAID BY THE TROOPS.

    730. Whenever a person entitled to compliments from the troops, visits any camp or military post, and the commanding officer has official notice of his presence, the troops are paraded to salute him.

    The President or Vice-President of the United States and the Governor of the State to which the troops belong, are to be saluted with the highest honors-all standards and colors drooping, officers and troops saluting, drums beating and trumpets sounding.

    A General commanding-in-chief is to be received by--cavalry, with sabres presented, trumpets sounding the march, and all the officers saluting, standards dropping  by infantry, with drums beating the march, colors dropping, officers saluting and arms presented.

    A Major- General is to be received -- by cavalry, with sabres presented, trumpets sounding twice the trumpet-flourish, and officers saluting  by infantry, with three ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms presented.

    A Brigadier- General is to be received --by cavalry, with sabres presented, trumpets sounding once the trumpet-flourish, and officers saluting; by infantry, with two ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms presented.

    An Adjutant- General or Inspector- General, if under the rank of a general officer, is to be received at a review or inspection of the troops under arms --by cavalry, with sabres presented, officers saluting; by infantry, officers saluting and arms presented. The

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS. ETC. 585

same honors to be paid to any field officer authorized to review and inspect the troops. When the inspecting officer is junior to the  officer commanding the parade, no compliments will be paid: he will be received only with swords drawn and arms shouldered.

    All guards are to turn out and present arms to general officers as often as they pass them, except the personal guards of general officers, which turn out only to the generals whose guards they are, and to officers of superior rank.

    To commanders of regiments, garrison, or camp, their own guard turn out, and present arms once a day; after which, they turn out with shouldered arms,

    To the members off the Cabinet ; to the Chief Justice, the President of the Senate, and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States; and to Governors within their respective States, and Territories, the same honors will be paid as to a general commanding-in-chief.

    Officers of a foreign service may be complimented with the honors due to their rank.

    American and Foreign Envoys or Ministers will be receivcd with the compliments due to a major-generaL

    731. The colors of a regiment passing a guard are to be saluted, the trumpets sounding, and the drums beating a march.

    When general officers, or persons entitled to a salute, pass in the rear of a guard, the officer is only to make his men stand shouldered and not to face his guard about, or beat his drum.

    When general officers, or persons entitled to a salute, pass guards while in the act of relieving, both guards are to salute, receiving the word of command from the senior officer of the whole.

    All guards are to be under arms when armed parties approach their posts; and to parties commanded by commissioned officers, they are to present their arms, drums beating a march, and officers saluting.

    No compliments by guards or sentinels will be paid between retreat and reveille, except as prescribed for grand rounds.

    All guards and sentinels are to pay the same compliments to the officers of the navy, marines, and militia, in the service of the

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586 -MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .

United States, as are directed to be paid to the officers of the army, according to their relative ranks.

    It is equally the duty of non-commissioned officers and soldiers, at all times and in all situations, to pay the proper compliments to officers of the navy and marines, and to officers of other regiments, when in uniform, as to officers of their own particular regiments and corps.

    Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline.

    Respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but will be extended to all occasions. It is always the duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first the customary salutation, and of the superior to return such complimentary notice.

    Sergeants, with swords drawn, will salute by bringing them to a present; with muskets, by bringing the left hand across the body, so as to strike the musket near the right shoulder. Corporals out of the ranks, and privates not sentries, will carry their muskets at a shoulder as sergeants, and salute in like manner.

    When a soldier without arms, or with side-arms only, meets an officer, he is to raise his hand to the right side of the visor of his cap, palm to the front, elbow raised as high as the shoulder, looking at the same time in a respectful and soldier-like manner at the officer, who will return the compliment thus offered.

    A non-commissioned officer or soldier being seated, and without particular occupation, will rise on the approach of an officer, and make the customary salutation. If standing, he will turn toward the officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the same place or on the same ground, such compliment need not be repeated.

Artillery Salutes.

    732. The President of the United States and the Governor of the State to which the troops belong, to receive a salute of twenty-one guns.

    The Vice-President is to receive a salute of seventeen guns.

    The Heads of the great Executive Departments of the National Government ; the General commanding the army; the Lieutenant-

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 587

Governor of the State to which the troops belong; the Governors of other States and Territories, fifteen guns.

    A Major- General, thirteen guns.

    A Brigadier- General, eleven guns.

    Foreign ships-of-war will be saluted in return for a similar compliment, gun for gun, on notice being officially received of such intention. If there be several posts in sight of, or within six miles of each other, the principal only shall reciprocate compliments with ships passing.

    Officers of the Navy will be saluted according to relative rank.

    Foreign Officers invited to visit a fort or post may be saluted according to their relative rank.

    Envoys and Ministers of the United States and foreign Powers are to be saluted with thirteen guns.

    A general officer will be saluted but once in a year at each post, and only when notice of his intention to visit the post has been given.

    Salutes to individuals are to be fired on their arrival only.

    A national salute will be fired at meridian on the anniversary of the Independence of the United States, at each military post and camp provided with artillery and ammunition.

Escorts of Honor.

    733. Escorts of honor may be composed of cavalry or infantry, or both, according to circumstances. They are guards of honor for the purpose of receiving and escorting personages of high rank, civil or military. The troops for this purpose, will be selected for their soldierly appearance and superior discipline.

    The escort will be drawn up in line, the centre opposite the place where the personage presents himself, with an interval between the wings to receive him and his retinue. On his appearance, he will be received with the honors due to his rank. When he has taken his place in the line, the whole will be wheeled into platoons or companies, as the case may be, and take up the march.  The same ceremony will be observed, and  the same honors paid, on his leaving the escort.

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588 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .

    When the position of the escort is at a considerable distance from the point where he is expected to be received, as, for instance, where a court-yard or wharf intervenes, a double line of sentinels will be posted from that point to the escort, facing inward, and the sentinels will successively salute as he passes.

    An officer will be appointed to attend him, to bear such communications as he may have to make to the commander of the escort.

Funeral Honors.

    734. The funeral escort of a General commanding-in-chief, shall consist of a regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and six pieces of artillery.

    That of a Major- General, a regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and four pieces of artillery.

    That of a Brigadier- General, a regiment of infantry, one company of cavalry, and two pieces of artillery.

    That of a Colonel, a regiment.

    That of a Lieutenant- Colonel, six companies.

    That of a Major, four companies.

    That of a Captain, one company.

    That of a Subaltern, half a company.

    The funeral escort shall always be commanded by an officer of the same rank with the deceased, or, if none such be present, by one of the next inferior grade.

    The funeral escort of a non-commissioned staff officer shall consist of sixteen rank and file, commanded by a sergeant.

    That of a sergeant, of fourteen rank and file, commanded by a sergeant.

    That of a corporal, of twelve rank and file, commanded by a corporal; and,

    That of a private, of eight rank and file, commanded by a corporal.

    The escort will be formed in two ranks, opposite to the quarters or tent of the deceased, with shouldered arms and bayonets unfixed, the artillery and cavalry on the right of the infantry.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOP S, ETC. 589

    On the appearance of the corpse, the officer commanding the escort will command:

Present -ARMS  

when the honors due to the deceased will be paid by the drums and trumpets. The music will then play an appropriate air, and the coffin will then be taken to the right, where it will be halted. The commander will next order:

1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2. By company (or platoon), left wheel. 3. MARCH. 4. Reverse-ARMS. 5. Column, forward. 6. Guide right. 7. MARCIL

    The arms will be reversed at the order by bringing the firelock under the left arm, butt to the front, barrel downward, left hand sustaining the lock, the right steadying the firelock behind the back; swords are reversed in a similar manner under the right arm.

    The column will be marched in slow time to solemn music, and, on reaching the grave, will take a direction so that the guides shall be next to the grave. When the centre of the column is opposite the grave, the commander will order:

1. Column. 2. HALT. 3. Right into line, wheel. 4. MARCH.

    The coffin is then brought along the front, to the opposite side of the grave, and the commander then orders:

1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2. Present - ARMS.

    And when the coffin reaches the grave, he adds:

1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2. Rest on - ARMS.

    The rest on arms is done by placing the muzzle on the left foot. both hands on the butt, the head on the hands or bowed, right knee bent.

    After the funeral service is performed, an d the coffin is 10'l>ercd into the grave, the commander will order:

1. Attention. 2. Shoulder-ARMS. 3. Load at will. 4. LOAD. 

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590 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .

    When three rounds of small arms will be fired by the escort) taking care to elevate the pieces.

    This being done, the commander will order:

1. By company (or platoon), right wheel. 2. MARCH. 3. Column forward. 4. Guide left. 5. Quick -MARCH.

    The music will not begin to play until the escort is clear of the inclosure.

    When the distance to the place of interment is considerable, the escort may march in common time and in column of route, after leaving the camp or garrison, and till it approaches the burial-ground.

    The pall-bearers, six in number, will be selected from the grade of the deceased, or from the grade or grades next above or below it.

    At the funeral of an officer, as many in commission of the army, division, brigade, or regiment, according to the rank of the deceased, as can conveniently be spared from other duties, will join in procession, in uniform, and with side-arms. The funeral of a non-commissioned officer or private will be attended, in like manner, by the non-commissioned officers or privates of the regiment or company, according to the rank of the deceased, with side-arms only.

    Persons joining in the procession follow the coffin in the inverse order of their rank.

    The usual badge of military mourning is a piece of black crape around the left. arm, above the elbow, and also upon the sword-hilt; and will be worn when in full or in undress.

    As family mourning, crape will be worn by officers (when in uniform) only around the left arm.

    The drums of a funeral escort will be covered with black crape, or thin black serge.

    Funeral honors will be paid to deceased officers without military rank according to their assimilated grades.

INSPECTIONS OF THE TROOPS.

    735. The inspection of troops, as a division, regiment) or other body composing a garrison or command, not less than a company, will generally be preceded by a review.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 591

Form of inspection for infantry.

    The present example embraces a battalion of infantry. The inspecting officer and the field and staff officers will be on foot.

    The battalion being in the order of battle, the colonel will cause it to break into open column of companies, right in front. He will next order the ranks to be opened, when the color-rank and color. guard, under the direction of the adjutant, will take post ten paces in front, and the band ten paces in rear of the column.

    The  colonel, seeing the ranks aligned, will command,

1. Officers and sergeants, to the front of your companies. 2. MARCH.

    The officers will form themselves in one rank, eight paces, and the non-commissioned officers in one rank, six paces, in advance, along the whole fronts of their respective companies, from right to left, in the order of seniority j the pioneers and music of each company, in one rank, two paces behind the non-commissioned officers.

    The colonel will next command:

Field and staff, to the front - MARCH.

    The commissioned officers thus designated will form themselves in one rank, on a line equal to the front of the column, six paces in front of the colors, from right to left, in the order of seniority j and the non-commissioned staff, in a similar manner, two paces in rear of the preceding rank. The colonel, seeing the movement executed, will take post on the right of the lieutenant-colonel, and wait the approach of the inspecting officer. But such of the field officers as may be superior in rank to the inspector will not take post in front of the battalion.

    The inspector will commence in front. After inspecting the dress and general appearance of the field and commissioned staff under arms, the inspector, accompanied by these officers, will pass down the open column, looking at every rank in front and rear.

    The colonel will now command:

1. Order  ARMS. 2. REST ;

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592 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

when the inspector will proceed to make a minute inspection of the several ranks or divisions, in succession, commencing in front.

    As the inspector approaches the non-commissioned staff, color rank, the color-guard, and the band, the adjutant will give the necessary orders for the inspection of arms, boxes, and knapsacks. The colors will be planted firm in the ground, to enable the colorbearers to display the contents of their knapsacks. The non-commissioned staff may be dismissed as soon as inspected j but the color rank and color-guard will remain until the colors are to be escorted to the place from which they were taken.

    As the inspector successively approaches the companies, the captains will command:

l. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Inspection- ARMS.

    The inspecting officer will then go through the whole company, and minutely inspect the arms, accoutrements, and dress of each soldier. After this is done, the captain will command:

Open - BOXES  

when the ammunition and the boxes will be examined.

    The captain will then command:

1. Shoulder-ARMS. 2. Close order. 3. MARCH. 4. Order ARMS. 5. Stack - ARMS. 6. To the rear open order. 7. MARCH. 8. Front rank-ABOUT-FACE.  9. Unsling- Knapsacks. 10. Open - Knapsacks.

    The sergeants will face inward at the second command, and close upon the centre at the third, and stack their arms at the fifth command; at the sixth command they face outward, and resume their positions at the seventh. When the ranks are closed, preparatory to take arms, the sergeants will also close upon the centre, and at the word, take their arms and resume their places.

    The knapsacks will be placed at the feet of the men, the flaps from them, with the great-coats on the flaps, and the knapsacks leaning on the great-coats. In this position the inspector will examine their contents, or so many of them as he may think neces-

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 593

sary, commencing with the non-commissioned officers, the men standing at attention.

    When the inspector has passed through the company, the captain will command;

Repack - Knapsacks

when each soldier will repack and buckle up his knapsack, leaving it on the ground, the number upward, turned from him, and then stand at rest.

    The captain will then command;

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Sling-Knapsacks.

    At the word sling, each soldier will take his knapsack, holding it by the inner straps, and stand erect, at the last word he will replace it on his back. The captain will continue;

4. Front rank - ABOUT - FACE. 5. Close order 6. MARCH.7. Take-ARMS. 8. Shoulder-ARMS.   9. Officers and Sergeants to your posts. 10. MARCH.

    And will cause the company to file off to their tents or quarters, except the company that is to re-escort the colors, which will await the further orders of the colonel.

    In an extensive column, some of the rearmost companies may, after the inspection of dress and general appearance, be permitted to stack arms until just before the inspector approaches them, when they will be directed to take arms and resume their position.

    The inspection of the troops being ended, the field and staff will next accompany the inspector to the hospital, magazine, arsenal, quarters, sutler's shop, guard-house, and such other places as he may think proper to inspect. The captains and subalterns repair t(o their companies and sections to await the inspector.

    The hospital being at all times an object of particular interest; it will be critically and minutely inspected.

    The men will be formed in the company quarters in front of their respective bunks, and on the entrance of the inspector the word attention will be given by the senior non-commissioned officer present, when the whole will salute with the hand, without uncovering.

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594 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    The inspector, attended by the company officers, will examine the general arrangement of the interior of the quarters, the bunks, bedding, cooking, and table utensils, and such other objects as may present themselves; and afterwards the exterior.

    The adjutant will exhibit to the inspector the regimental books and papers, including those relating to the transactions of the Council of Administration. The company books and papers will also be exhibited, the whole together, generally at the adjutant's office, and in the presence of the officers not otherwise particularly engaged.

    The inspector will examine critically the books and accounts of the administrative and disbursing officers of the command; and the money and property in their keeping.

Inspection of Cavalry.

    736. The regiment being in line as prescribed for a review, the colonel causes the companies to wheel to the right. He then orders the ranks to be opened; at which the standard-bearer, under the direction of the adjutant, is posted about twenty paces ahead of the column.

    The colonel seeing the ranks aligned, commands: 1. Officers and non-commissioned officers. 2. To the front of your companies- MARCH; on which the officers form themselves in one rank, twelve paces, and the non-commissioned officers in one rank, six paces, in advance, along the whole front of their respective troops, in the order of rank, the highest on the right, and the lowest on the left; the trumpeters of each company, at the same time, take post on the alignment of the front rank, six paces from the right.

Seeing the last order in a train of execution, the colonel commands: 1. Field and staff. 2. To the front - MARCH The commissioned officers thus designated, form themselves in one rank, twelve paces in front of the standards, in the following order, beginning on the right; lieutenant-colonel, major, adjutant, quartermaster, etc. The non-commissioned staff in a similar manner, six: paces in rear of the preceding rank. The band is formed in one rank, ten paces in rear of the column, the chief musician four paces in front of it.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 595.

    The colonel, if a higher officer inspects the column his post on the right of the lieutenant-colonel.

    The inspection commences in front. After inspecting the dress and general appearance of the field and commissioned staff, th inspector, accompanied by these officers, passes down the column, looking at every rank, in front and in rear, with a view to the  same object. He afterwards, in a like manner, passes and inspects the arms. As he successively approaches each company for this purpose, its captain commands: 1. Attention. 2. Inspection of - ARMS.

    The inspector then dismounts with the field and commissioned staff, for the purpose of inspecting horse furniture, and valises, preparatory to which, the colonel causes the column to dismount. The men being then in the position of stand to horse, the colonel commands rest, for the whole column; when the inspector proceeds to make a minute inspection of the several ranks, in succession, commencing in front.

    On approaching the non-commissioned staff and the band, the adjutant gives the necessary orders for the inspection of boxes and valises; and in like manner as to the standard-bearer. The noncommissioned staff may be dismounted as soon as inspected.

    As the inspector successively approaches the companies, eaeh captain commands: 1. Attention. 2. Unstrap valises. 3. Open boxes; when the valises are placed at the feet of the men, with the flaps from them. In this position the inspector may examine the contents of the whole, boxes and valises, or of as many as he may think necessary.

    As the inspector passes each company, the captain orders the valises to be re-packed and re-strapped, and the men to file off to their their tents or quarters, except the company which is to escort the standard, which awaits the orders of the colonel.

FORMS OF PARADE.

737. On all parades of ceremony, such as Reviews, Guard mounting, at Troop or Retreat parades, instead of the word rest, which allows the men to move or change the position of their bodies, the  command will be parade - rest. At the last word of this com-

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096 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

mand, the soldier will carry the right foot six inches in rear of the left heel, the left knee slightly bent, the body upright upon the right leg; the musket resting against the hollow of the right shoulder, the hands crossed in front, the backs of them outward, and the left hand uppermost. At the word attention, the soldier will resume the correct position at ordered arms. In the positions here indicated, the soldier will remain silent and motionless; and it is particularly enjoined upon all officers to cause the commands above given, on the part of the soldier, to be executed with great briskness and spirit.

    Officers on all duties under arms are to have their swords drawn, without waiting for any words of command for that purpose.

Dress parade.
   
    738. There shall be daily one dress parade, at troop or retreat, as the commanding officer may direct,

    A signal will be beat or sounded half an hour before troop or retreat, for the music to assemble on the regimental parade, and each company to turn out under arms on its own parade, for roll-call and inspection by its own officers.

    Ten minutes after that signal, the Adjutant's call will be given, when the captains will march their companies (the band playing) to the regimental parade, where they take their positions in line as directed, No. 297. When the line is formed, the captain of the first company, on notice from the adjutant, steps one pace to the front, and gives to his company the command, order arms; parade  rest; which is repeated by each captain in succession to the left.  The adjutant takes post two paces on the right of the line; the sergeant-major two paces on the left. The music will be formed in two ranks on the right of the adjutant. The senior officer present will take the command of the parade, and will take post at a suitable distance in front, opposite the centre, facing the line.

    When the companies have ordered arms, the adjutant will order the music to beat off, when it will commence on the right, beat in front of the line to the left, and back to its place on the right.

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    When the music has ceased, the adjutant will step two paces to. the front, face to the left, and command:

1. Attention. 2. Battalion. 3. Shoulder-ARMS. 4. Prepare to open ranks. 5. To the rear open order. 6. MARCH.

    At the sixth command, the ranks will be opened according to the the system laid down in the Infantry Tactics, the commissioned officers marching to the front, the company officers four paces, field officers six paces, opposite to their positions in the order of battle where they will halt and dress. The adjutant, seeing the ranks aligned, will command:

FRONT,

and march along the front to the centre, face to the right, and pass the line of company officers eight or ten paces, when he will come to the right about, and command:

Present - ARMS ;

when arms will be presented, officers saluting.

    Seeing this executed, he will face about to the commanding officer, salute, and report, "Sir, the parade is formed." The adjutant will then, on intimation to that effect, take his station three paces on the left of the commanding officer, one pace retired, passing round his rear.

The commanding officer, having acknowledged the salute of the line by touching his hat, will, after the adjutant has taken his post, draw his sword, and command:

1. Battalion. 2. Shoulder - ARMS;

and add such exercises as he may think proper, concluding with:

Order - ARMS;

then return his sword, and direct the adjutant to receive the reports The adjutant will now pass round the right of the commanding officer, advance upon the line, halt midway between him illld the line of company officers, and command:

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598 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

1. First sergeants, to the front and centre. 2. MARCH.

    At the first command, they will shoulder arms as sergeants, march two paces to the front, and face inward. At the second command, they will march to the centre, and halt. The adjutant will then order:

1. Front-FACE. 2. Report.

    At the last word, each in succession, beginning on the right, will salute by bringing the left hand smartly across the breast to the right shoulder, and report the result of the roll-call previously made on the company parade.

    The adjutant again commands:

1. First sergeants, outward - FACE. 2. To your posts -MARCH,

when they will resume their places, and order arms. The adjutant will now face to the commanding officer, salute, report absent officers, and give the result of the first sergeant's reports. The commanding officer will next direct the orders to be read, when the adjutant will face about, and announce:

Attention to Orders.

    He will then read the orders.

    The orders having been read, the adjutant will face to the commanding officer, salute, and report; when, on an intimation from the commander, he will face again to the line, and announce:

Parade is dismissed.

    All the officers will now return their swords, face inward, and close on the adjutant, he having taken position in their line, the field officers on the flanks. The adjutant commands:

1. Front - FACE. 2. Forward -MARCH  

when they will march forward, dressing on the centre, the music playing, and when within six paces of the commander, the adjutant will give the word:

HALT.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 599

    The officers will then salute the commanding officer by raising the hand to the cap, and there remain until he shall have communicated to them such instructions as he may have to give, or intimates that  the ceremony is finished. As the officers disperse, the first sergeants will close the ranks of their respective companies, and march them to the company parades, where they will be dismissed, the band continuing to play until the companies clear the regimental parade.

    All field and company officers and men will be present at dress parades, unless especially excused, or on some duty incompatible with such attendance.

    A dress parade once a day will not be dispensed with, except on extraordinary and urgent occasions.

Review of a battalion of  Infantry.

    789; Preparatory to a review, the adjutant will cause a camp color to be placed 80 or 100 paces, or more, according to the length of the line, in front of, and opposite to, where the centre of the battalion will rest, where the reviewing officer is supposed to take his station; and, although he may choose to quit that position, still the color is to be considered as the point to which all the movements and formations are relative.

    The adjutant will also cause points to be marked at suitable distances, for the wheelings of the divisions; so that their right flanks, in marching past, shall only be about four paces from the camp-color, where it is supposed the reviewing officer places himself to receive the salute.

    The battalion being formed in the order of battle, at shouldered arms, the colonel will command:

1.Battalion, prepare for review. 2. To the rear open order . 3. MARCH

    At the word march, the field and staff officers dismount; the company officers and the color-rank advance four paces in front of the front rank, and place themselves opposite to their respective places in the order of battle. The color-guard replace the color-rank. 'The staff officers place themselves, according to rank, three paces on the

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MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

right of the rank of company officers, and one pace from each other; the music takes post as at a parade. The non-commissioned staff take post one pace from each other, and three paces on the right of the front rank of the battalion.

When the ranks are aligned, the colonel will command:

FRONT;

and place himself eisht paces, and the lieutenant-colonel and major will place themselves two paces, in front of the rank of company officers, and opposite to their respective places in the order of battle, all facing to the front.

    When the reviewing officer presents himself before the centre, and is fifty or sixty paces distant, the colonel will face about, and command:

Present - ARMS ;

and resume his front. The men present arms, and the officers salute, so as to drop their swords with the last motion of the firelock. The non-commissioned staff salute by bringing the sword to a poise, the hilt resting on the breast, the blade in front of the face, inclining' a little outward. The music will play, and all the drums beat, according to the rank of the reviewing officer. The colors only salute such persons as, from their rank, and by regulation (see No. 730), are entitled to that honor. If the reviewing officer be junior in rank to the commandant of the parade, no compliment will be paid to him, but he will be received with arms carried, and the officers will not salute as the column passes in review.

    The reviewing officer haying halted, and acknowledged the salute of the line by touching or raising his cap or hat, the colonel will face about and command:

Shoulder - ARMS ;

when the men shoulder their pieces; the officers and non-commissioned staff recover their swords with the last motion, and the colonel faces to the front.

    The reviewing officer will then go towards the right, the whole remaining perfectly steady, without. paying any further compliment,

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 601

while he passes along the front of the battalion, and proceeds round the left flank, and along the rear of the file-closers, to the right While the reviewing officer is going round the battalion, the baud will play, and will cease when he has returned to 1he right flank of the troops.

    When the reviewing officer turns off, to place himself by the camp-color in front, the co1onel will face to the line, and command;

1. Close order. 2. MARCH.

    At the first command, the field and company officers will face to the right about, and at the second command, all persons, except the colonel, will resume their places in the order of battle; the field and staff officers mount.
   
The reviewing officer having taken his position near the camp-color, the colonel will command;

1. By company, right wheel. 2. Quick- MARCH. B. Pass in review. 4. Column, forward. 5. Guide right. 6. MARCH

    The battalion, in column of companies, right in front, will then, in common time, and at shouldered arms, be put in motion;  the colonel four paces in front of the captain of the leading company; the lieutenant-colonel on a line with the leading company; the major on a line with the rear company; the adjutant on a line with the second company; the sergeant-major on a line with the company next preceding the rear-each six paces from the flank (left) opposite to the reviewing officer; the staff officers in one rank, according to the order of precedency, from the right, four paces, in rear of the column; the music, preceded by the principal musician. six paces before the colonel; the pioneers, preceded by a corporal. four paces before the principal musician; and the quartermaster sergeant two paces from the side opposite to the guides, and in line with the pioneers.

    All other officers and non-commissioned officers will march past in the places prescribed for them in the march of an open column.  The guides and soldiers will keep their heads steady to the front passing in review.

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602 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    The color-bearer will remain in the ranks while passing and saluting.

    The music will begin to play at the command to march, and after passing the reviewing officer, wheel to the left out of the column, and take a position opposite and facing him, and will continue to play until the rear of the column shall have passed him, when it will cease, and follow in the rear of the battalion, unless the battalion is to pass in quick time also, in which case it will keep its position.

    The officers will salute the reviewing officer when they arrive within six paces of him, and recover their swords when six paces past him. All officers, in saluting, will cast their eyes towards the reviewing officer.

    The colonel, when he has saluted at the head of the battalion, will place himself near the reviewing officer, and will remain there until the rear has passed, when he will rejoin the battalion.

    The colors will salute the reviewing officer, if entitled to it, when within six paces of him, and be raised when they have passed by him ail equal distance. The drums will beat a march, or ruffle, according to the rank of the reviewing officer, at the same time that the colors salute.

    When the column has passed the reviewing officer, the colonel will direct it to the ground it marched from, and command:

Guide left;

in time for the guides to cover. The column having arrived on its ground, the colonel will command:

1. Column. 2. HALT ;

form it in order of battle, and cause the ranks to be opened. The review will terminate by the whole saluting as at the beginning.

    If, however, instructions have been previously given to march the troops past in quick time also, the colonel will, instead of changing the guides, halting the column, and wheeling it into line, as above directed, give the command:

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 603

1. Quick time. 2. MARCH.

    In passing the reviewing officer again, no salute will be offered by either officers or men. The music will have kept its position opposite the reviewing officer, and at the last command will commence playing, and, as the column approaches, will place itself in front of, and march off with the column, and continue to play until the battalion is halted on its original ground of formation. The review will terminate in the same manner as prescribed above. 1

    The colonel will afterwards cause the troops to perform such exercises and manoeuvres as the reviewing officer may direct.

    When two or more battalions are to be reviewed, they will be formed in parade order, with the proper intervals, and will also perform the same movements that are laid down for a single battalion, observing the additional directions that are given for such movements when applied to the line. The brigadier-general and his staff, on foot, will place themselves opposite the centre of the brigade; the brigadier-general two paces in front of the rank of colonels; his aid two paces on his right, and one retired; and the other brigade staff officers, those having the rank of field officers, in the rank of lieutenant-colonels and majors; and those below that rank, in the rank of company officers.

    In passing in review, a major-general will be four paces in front of the colonel of the leading battalion of his division; and the brigadier-general will be on the right of the colonels of the leading battalions of their brigades; staff officers on the left of their generals.

    When the line exceeds two battalions, the reviewing officer may cause them to march past in quick time only. In such cases the mounted officers only will salute.

    A number of companies less than a battalion will be reviewed as a battalion, and a single company as if it were with the battalion. In the latter case, the company may pass in column of platoons.

    If several brigades are to be reviewed together, or in one line, this further difference will be observed: the reviewing personage,                                                                       
1 Or the battalion may pass a third time at the double quick, and then re-form.

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604.  MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

joined by the general of the division, on the right of his division, will proceed down the line, parallel to its front, and when near the brigadier-generals respectively, will be saluted by their brigades in succession. The music of each, after the prescribed salute, will play while the reviewing personage is in front, or in rear of it, and only then.

    In marching in review, with several battalions in common time, the music of each succeeding battalion will commence to play when the music of the preceding one has ceased, in order to follow its battalion. When marching in quick time, the music will begin to ploy when the rear company of the preceding battalion has passed the reviewing officer.

    The reviewing officer or personage will acknowledge the salute by raising, or taking off, his cap or hat, when the commander of the troops salutes him; and also when the colors pass. The remainder of the time occupied by the passage of the troops he will be covered.

Review of a Regiment of Cavalry.

    740. The regiment being in line, the captains one pace in advance of the centre of their companies, the lieutenants commanding platoons one pace in advance of the centre of their platoons, the colonel commands:

1. Attention. 2. Prepare for review. 3. Rear rank open order. 4. MARCH. 5. Right-DRESS. 6. FRONT.

    At the fourth command the ranks are opened, all the officers in the rank of file-closers advancing to the front, and placing themselves on the line of officers, opposite to the positions they before occupied. The staff officers place themselves on the right of the rank of company officers, according to their relative rank, one pace from each other. The quartermaster-sergeant and the sergeant-major, are on the right of the front rank of the regiment.

    The colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, and adjutant are posted ail in order of battle.

    The music is formed at the same time in one rank on the right of the regiment, and ten paces from it.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 605

    After the ranks are opened, the colonel commands:

1. Attention. 2. Draw - SABRE.

    In this parade order, the regiment awaits the approach of the personage who is to review it; for whose guidance a camp-color will have been placed eighty or one hundred and fifty paces in front of the centre, according to the extent of the line and the plain in front of it.

    When the reviewing personage is midway between the camp-color and the colonel, the latter turns his horse to the right. about on his ground, and commands:

I. Attention. 2. Present - SABRE;

and resumes his proper front. The officers all salute.

    When the reviewing personage, who has halted until the proper compliments are paid, advances, the colonel brings his sabre to a carry, turns about as before to the line, and commands:

I. Attention. 2. Carry-SABRE.

    When the whole line remains perfectly steady, except the colonel, who resumes his proper front.

    The reviewing personage now turns off to the right of the regiment, passes thence, in front of all the officers, to the left, around the left, and, behind the rank of file-closers, to the right again. While he is passing around the regiment, no matter what his rank, the music will play; and when he turns off to take his station near the camp-color, the music will cease.

    When the music ceases, the colonel turns about, and commands:

1. Attention. 2. Rear rank, close order. 3. MARCH.

    At the command march, all the officers from the rank of file-closers return to their position in that rank.

    The reviewing personage having taken a position near the camp-color, previously placed at a proper distance, the colonel causes the regiment to break into column of companies, right in front, and commands:

Pass in Review.

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606 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.  

    At this command the band and trumpeters repair to the head of the regimental column, six paces in front of the colonel. The quartermaster-sergeant places himself ten paces in front of the colonel, two paces from the flank opposite to the guides.

    The quartermaster, surgeon, etc., in one rank, in the order in which they are named, four paces in rear of the last division.

    The colonel is six paces in front of the captain of the leading cumpany.

    The lieutenant-colonel on a line with the first company, six paces from the flank opposite to the guide.

    The major on a line with the last company, six paces from the side opposite to the guide.

    The adjutant on a line with the second company, six paces from the flank opposite to the guide.

    The sergeant-major on a line with the company next to the rear, six paces from the flank opposite to the guide.

    Captains, two paces in advance of the centre of their companies. Chiefs of platoons, two paces in advance of the centre of their platoons.

    Officers of the rank of file-closers, on the side opposite the guide, on a line with the chiefs of platoons.

    The column is then put in march, at a walk, with the guide on the side next to the reviewing personage.

    The column first passes at a walk, and afterwards, if required, at a trotĚ.

    When the head of the column arrives within fifty paces of the reviewing personage, the music commences to play.

    The band having passed, the chief musician causes it to wheel out of the column and take position opposite to the reviewing personage j the music continues to play until the last company has passed, when it ceases, and follows in the rear.

    Passing at a walk, all the officers salute with the sabre as they successively arrive within six paces of the reviewing personage, turning their heads towards him.

    If more than one regiment passes, the different regiments will march with intervals of about forty paces between them.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC.  607

Review of a battery of artillery.

    741. The battery being in line with the trumpeters on the right, the captain commands:

1. Attention. 2. Prepare for review. 3. To the rear open order, 4. MARCH. 5. Right-DRESS. 6. FRONT.

    At the third command, the chief of the line of caissons commands, caissons-left reverse, and places himself on the right flank sixteen yards in rear of the line of pieces, facing to the left, to mark the point where the right of the line of caissons is to rest. In horse artillery the distance is twenty yards.

    At the same command, the gunners face the detachments to the rear in foot artillery, by the command about -face; and in horse artillery, they command, backward.

    At the command march, repeated by the chief of the line of caissons, the caissons reverse to the left, move to the rear, reverse again to the left, and align themselves by appropriate commands from the chief of the line of caissons. As soon as the ground is unmasked, the gunners repeat the command march, at which the cannoneers in foot artillery march forward, and are formed six yards in rear of their pieces; the chiefs of caissons joining their detachments at the same time. In horse artillery the cannoneers rein back and are halted by the gunners at the same distance.

    At the fifth command the battery is aligned; the pieces and detachments by the captain, and the caissons by the chief of the line of caissons. At the sixth command, given by the captain when the alignment is completed, the chief of the line of caissons takes his post as in line. The captain then commands:

Draw - SWORDS.

    This is executed by the officers, non-commissioned officers, and detachments only, and the captain takes his post as in line.

    In this order the battery awaits the approach of the reviewing officer. When he is midway between the camp color and the captain, the latter turns his horse to the right about and commands:

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608 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

Present - SWORDS.

    He immediately resumes his front and salutes. The officers, noncommissioned officers, and detachments, all salute as in cavalry; and the music plays according to the rank of the reviewing officer.

    The reviewing officer having halted and acknowledged the salute. the captain brings his sword to a carry, turns about to the line as before, and commands:

Carry - SWORDS.

    He immediately resumes his front, the reviewing officer turns off to the right of the battery, passes along its front, and returns to the right by passing between the lines of carriages or in rear of the caissons. While the reviewing officer is passing around the battery, the music plays. It ceases when he turns off to take his post at the camp color.

    When the music ceases, the captain turns about and commands:

1. Detachments. 2. Return- SWORDS. 3. Battery. 4. Close order. 5. MARCH.

    In horse artillery the first and second commands are not given. At the fourth command, the gunners in foot artillery command, left -face, and in horse artillery, forward.

    At the command march, repeated by the gunners, the cannoneers in mounted artillery take their posts as prescribed in the school of the piece. The caissons, and in horse artillery the cannoneers, close to their proper distances in line.

    The reviewing officer having taken a position near the camp color, the captain causes the cannoneers to mount, if in foot artillery, and breaks the battery into column of sections to the right by the usual commands. He then commands:

Pass in review;

and puts the column in march, at a walk, with the guide to the right. The captain then places himself at the head of the column, four yards in advance of the chief of the leading section. The

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 609

trumpeters march four yards in advance of the captain; and the chief of the line of caissons outside the column, opposite the centre, and four yards from the left flank.

    When the head of the column has arrived within forty yards of the reviewing officer, the music begins to play; and as soon as the latter has passed, it wheels out of the column to a position in front of  the reviewlng officer, where it faces him, and continues to play until the column has passed. It then ceases, follows in rear of the battery, and resumes its place at the head of the column after the next change of direction.

    All the officers salute in succession as they arrive within six yards of the reviewing officer; casting their eyes towards him at the same time, and bringing their swords to a carry after having passed him six yards. As soon as the captain has saluted, he places himself near the reviewing officer, remains until the rear has passed, and then rejoins his battery.

    The column is so conducted as to march parallel to the line on which the battery is to form, and far enough in its rear to enable the column to wheel into line. It is then wheeled into line, the ranks opened, and the review terminated by a salute as at the beginning.

    When instructions have been previously given to pass a second time, either at a trot or gallop, it will be done before wheeling into line; the officers passing the second time without salute.

    When artillery has been passing in review with other troops, and is marching in prolongation of the line on which the different corps are to form, it may be wheeled by sections to the right, and, after gaining the necessary distance, countermarched and established on the line.

    When a battery is to march past in line, or in column of half batteries, it will be done according to the principles already described. In line the officers will be at their usual posts. In column of half batteries the captain will be two yards in advance of the chief of the leading half battery; each chief of half battery two yards in front of the centre of his command; the chief of the centre section on the left of the leading half battery, four yards from the

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610 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

leading driver; and the chief of the line of caissons in the same position with respect to the rear half battery.

    In all cases the trumpeters are four yards in front of the captain. When the battery is to be minutely inspected, the captain will cause the ranks of the detachments to be opened, if required, by the commands:

1. Detachments. 2. To the rear open order. 3. MARCH.

    Which will be executed as in infantry or cavalry, as the case may require.

GUARD-MOUNTING.

    742. At the first call for guard-mounting, the men warned for duty turn out on their company parades for inspection by the first sergeants j anti at the second call, repair to the regimental or garrison parade, conducted by the first sergeants. Each detachment, as it arrives, will, under the direction of the adjutant, take post on the left of the one that preceded it, in open order, arms shouldered, and bayonets fixed; the supernumeraries five paces in the rear of the men of their respective companies; the first sergeants in rear of them. The sergeant-major will dress the ranks, count the files, verify the details, and when the guard is formed, report to the adjutant, and take post two paces on the left of the front rank.

    The adjutant then command front, when the officer of the guard takes post twelve paces in front of the centre, the sergeants in one rank, four paces in the rear of the officers; and the corporals in one rank, four paces in the rear of the sergeants-all facing to the front. The adjutant then assigns their places in the guard.

    The adjutant will then command:

1. Officer and non-commissioned officers. 2. ABOUT --FACE.

3. Inspect your guards - MARCH.

    The non-commissioned officers then take their posts. The commander of the guard then commands:

1. Order - ARMS. 2. Inspection – ARMS;

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOI'S, ETC. 611

and inspects his guard. When there is no commissioned officer on the guard, the adjutant will inspect it. During inspection the band will play.

    The inspection ended, the officer of the guard takes post as though the guard were a company of a battalion, in open order under review; at the same time, also, the officers of the day will take post in front of the centre of the guard; the old officer of the day three paces on the right of the new officer of the day, one pace retired.

    The adjutant will now command:

1. Parade - REST. 2. Troop - Beat off;

when the music, beginning on the right, will beat down the line on front of' the officer of the guard to the left, and back to its place in the right, where it will cease to play.

    The adjutant then commands:

1. Attention. 2. Shoulder - ARMS. 3. Close order - MARCIL

    At the word close order, tIle officer will face about; at march, resume his post in line. The adjutant then commands:

Present - ARMS.

    At which he will face to the new officer of the day, salute, and report, "Sir, the guard is formed." The new officer of the day, after acknowledging the salute, will direct the adjutant to march the guard in review, or by flank to its post. But if' the adjutant' be senior to the officer of the day, he will report without saluting with the sword then, or when marching the guard in review.

    In review, the guard march past the officer of the day, according to the order of review, conducted by the adjutant, marching on the left of the first division; the sergeant-major on the left of the last division.

    When the column has passed the officer of the day, the officer of the guard marches it to its post, the adjutant and sergeant-major retiring. The music, which has wheeled out of the column, and taken post opposite the officer of the day, will cease, and the old officer of the day salute, and give the old or standing orders to the

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612 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

new officer of the day. The supernumeraries, at the same time, will be marched by the first sergeants to their respective company parades, and dismissed.

    In bad weather, or at night, or after fatiguing marches, the ceremony of turning off may be dispensed with, but not the inspection.

    Grand guards, and other brigade guards, are organized and mounted on the brigade parade by the staff officer of the parade, under the direction of the field officer of the day of the brigade, according to the principles here prescribed for a police guard of a regiment. The detail of each regiment is assembled on the regimental parade, verified by the adjutant, and marched to the brigade parade by the senior officer of the detail. After inspection and review, the officer of the day directs the several guards to their respective posts.

    The officer of the old guard, having his guard paraded, on the approach of the new guard, commands:

Present-ARMS.

    The new guard will march, in quick time, past the old guard, at shouldered arms, officers saluting, and take post four paces on its right, where, being aligned with it, its commander will order:

Present - ARMS.

    The two officers will then approach each other, and salute. They will then return to their respective guards, and command:

1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2. Order - ARMS.

    The officer of the new guard will now direct the detail for the advanced guard to be formed and marched to its post, the list of the guard made and divided into three reliefs, experienced soldiers placed over the arms of the guard and at the remote and responsible posts, and the young soldiers in posts near the guard for instruction in their duties, and will himself proceed to take possession of the guard-house, or guard-tent, and the articles and prisoners in charge of the guard.

    During the time of relieving the sentinels, and of calling in the

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOP S, ETC. 613

small posts, the old commander will give to the new all the information and instructions relating to his post.

        The first relief haying been designated and ordered two paces to the front, the corporal of the new guard will take charge of it, and go to relieve the sentinels, accompanied by the corporal of the old guard, who will take command of the old sentinels, when the whole are relieved.

If the sentinels are numerous, the sergeants are to be employed, as well as the corporals, in relieving them.

    The relief, with arms at a support, in two ranks, will march by a flank, conducted by the corporal on the side of the leading front rank man; and the men will be numbered alternately in the front and rear rank, the man on the right of the front rank being No. 1. Should an officer approach, the corporal will command carry arms, and resume the support arms when the officer is passed.

    The sentinels at the guard-house or guard-tent will be the first relieved and left behind; the others are relieved in succession. When a sentinel sees the relief approaching, he will halt and face to it with his arms at a shoulder. At six paces, the corporal will command:

1. Relief. 2. HALT.

When the relief will halt and carry arms. The corporal will then add, "No.1," or" No.2," or "No.3," according to the number of the post:

Arms-PORT.

    The two sentinels will, with arms at port, then approach each other, when the old sentinel, under the correction of the corporal, will whisper the instructions to the new sentinel. This done, the two sentinels will shoulder arms, and the old sentinel will pass, in quick time, to his place in rear of the relief. The corporal will then command:

1. Support - ARMS. 2. Forward. 3. MARCIL

    And the relief proceeds in the same manner until the whole are relieved.

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614 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    The detachments and sentinels from the old guard having come in, it will be marched, at shouldered arms, along the front of the new guard, in quick time, the new guard standing at presented arms; officers saluting, and the music of both guards beating, except at the outposts.

    On arriving at the regimental or garrison parade, the commander of the old guard will send the detachments composing it, under charge of the non-commissioned officers, to their respective regiments. Before the men are dismissed, their pieces will be drawn or discharged at a target. On rejoining their companions, the chiefs of squads will examine the arms, etc., of their men, and cause the whole to be put away in good order.

    When the old guard has marched off fifty paces, the officer of the new guard will order his men to stack their arms, or place them in the arm-racks.

    The commander of the guard will then make himself acquainted with all the instructions for his post, visit the sentinels, and question them and the non-commissioned officers relative to the instructions they may have received from other persons of the old guard.

Method of escorting, and receiving the color of an infantry regiment.

    743. When the regiment turns out under arms, and the color is wanted, one of the flank companies in its tour, or, if both be absent, a battalion company, other than that of the color, will be put in march to receive and escort the color.

    The march will be in the following order, in quick time and without music: the drum-major and field music, followed by the band j the escort in column by platoon, right in front, with arms shifted to the right shoulder (see No. 768), and the color-bearer between the platoons.

    Arrived in front of the tent or quarters of the colonel, the escort will form line, the field music and band on the right, and arms will be carried.

    The moment the escort is in line, the color-bearer, preceded by the first lieutenant, and followed by a sergeant of the escort, will go to receive the color.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 615

    When the color-bearer shall come out, followed by the lieutenant and sergeant, he will halt before the entrance; the escort will present arms, and the drums will beat to the color.

    After some twenty seconds, the captain will cause the beat to cease, arms to be shouldered, and then break by platoon into column; the color-bearer will place himself between the platoons, and the lieutenant and sergeant will resume their posts.

    The escort will march back to the battalion to the sound of music in quick time, and in the same order as above.

Honors paid to the color.

    Arrived at the distance of twenty paces from the battalion, the escort will halt, and the music cease; the colonel will place himself six paces before the centre of the battalion, the color-bearer will approach the colonel, by the front, in quick time; when at the distance of ten paces, he will halt: the colonel will cause arms to be presented, and to the color to be played, which being executed, the color-bearer will take his place in the front rank of the color-guard, and the battalion, by command, shoulder arms.

    The escort, field music, and band, will return in quick time to their several places in line of battle, marching by the rear of the battalion.

    The color will be escorted back to the colonel's tent or quarters in the above order.

Method of escorting and receiving the standard of a cavalry regiment

    744. The squadrons of a regiment, commencing with the first, furnish in turn the escort of the standard.

    The captains commanding and the second captain, alternate in command of the escort.
   
The escort is composed of two platoons (a troop).

    The first platoon of the escort furnishes the advanced guard, composed of two men in front, with the carbine or rifle, advanced, or pistol raised; a corporal and four men with drawn sabres march ten paces from them.

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616 . MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.  

    The trumpeters, formed by fours, and conducted by the adjutant, march ten paces from the four men who precede.

    The rest of the platoon with drawn sabres, having the lieutenant at its head, marches by fours, ten paces from the trumpeters.

    The standard-bearer follows immediately after, between two sergeants.

    The second platoon with drawn sabres, having the second lieutenant at the head, follows the standard-bearer, marches by fours, and furnishes the rear guard, composed of a corporal and two men, who march with drawn sabres, ten paces in rear of the second platoon.

    Two other men, with the carbine or rifle advanced, or pistol raised,  march ten paces in rear.

    The captain marches four paces from the left flank opposite to the standard-bearer.

    The detachment having arrived where the standard is kept, without sounding the trumpets, is there formed into line.

    The adjutant dismounts, takes the standard, and gives it to the standard-bearer.

Reception of the Standard.

    As soon as the standard appears, the captain orders sabres to be presented; the trumpets sound to the standard.

    After this signal has been twice repeated, the captain orders the sabres to be carried, and breaks in the same order in which he came; the trumpets sound the march.

    When the standard arrives in front of the right or left wing of the regiment, the colonel orders the sabres to be drawn; the trumpets cease to sound, and, with the escort, take their place in line, passing behind the regiment.
   
    The standard-bearer, accompanied by the two sergeants, moves towards the centre of the regiment, parallel to the front, and halts before the colonel, fronting the regiment; the colonel then orders the sabres to be presented, and the trumpets to sound to the standand;  he salutes with the sabre. The standard-bearer then takes his place in line, and the colonel orders the sabres to be carried.

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 617

    The field officers salute with the sabre when the standard passes before them.

    The standard receives the same honors on its departure as on its arrival, and is escorted to the colonel's quarters in the order prescribed above.

Reception of one body of troops by another.

    745. The commanding officer of the receiving corps, having notified the commander of the other body of his intention, brings his command into line, so that it shall be on the right of the route which it is intended the other shall take. The commander of the body receiving the compliment, should have his command in column right in front; and when he sees the other body in line, or receives an intimation from its commanding officer, that he is ready to receive him, he puts his column in motion; when its head is within six paces of the left of the line on its right, the latter will be brought to a present, and will continue in that position until the rear of the column has passed the right of the line. The column passes at shouldered arms, each officer saluting as soon as he comes within six paces of the left of the line. When the rear of the column has passed some twenty-five or thirty paces beyond the right of the line, the column is brought into line, on the same side with the first line. As soon as this is done, the first line breaks into column right in front, and marches pa8t the second, receiving the same compliments that it extended when the other body passed. After marching past, it may be formed into line again as it was at first, when both commands may be brought to an order, the officers advancing and being presented; or the column may halt long enough to allow the other command, now in line, to re-form column, when both take up the march, the leading column serving as an escort for the other.

ORDERS.

    746. The orders of commanders of armies, divisions, brigadiers and regiments, are denominated orders of such an army, division, etc. And all orders are either general or special. Orders are num-

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MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

bered, general and special; in separate series, each beginning with the year.

    General orders provide for the organization, discipline, instruction, and movement of the troops ; announce the hours for roll-calls and duties; then number and kind of guards, and the time when they shall be relieved; police regulations, and the prohibitions required by circumstances and localities; returns to be made, and their forms; laws and regulations for the forces; promotions and appointments; eulogies or censures to corps or individuals, and generally, what ever it may be important to make known to the whole command.

    Special orders are such as do not concern the troops generally, and need not be published to the whole command; such as relate to the march of some particular corps, the establishment of some post, the detaching of individuals; the granting requests, etc., etc.

    An order will state, at the head, the source, place, and date, and at the foot, the name of the commander who gives it, followed by the signature and title of the staff officer by whom it is written, for example:

For an army--

Head Quarters, Army of Occupation,
 CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS.
Sept., l8-.

General (or special) Orders,  No. l. }

By order of General Z. T.,
W. S. B. Adj't General.

For a division-

Head Quarters, 3d D., Va. M.
WINCHESTER, Va., Dec., I8-.

General (or Special) Orders, No.-.  }

By order of Major-General A. B.,
C. D., Assistant Adj't General,
or Division Inspector.

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For a brigade-

Head Quarters, 9th Brigade, Va. M.,
CAMP NEAR --, Jan., 18-.

General (or Special) Orders,} No. -.

By order of Brigadier General F. G.
H. I., Assistant Adj't-General, or Brigade Inspector

For a regiment-

Head Quarters, 20th Regiment, Va. M.
C- N., August, 18-.

Orders (or Special Orders), } No.-.

By order of Colonel O. P. Q.,
R. S., Adjutant.

    Orders are ordinarily transmitted through all the intermediate commanders in the order of rank. 'When an intermediate commander is omitted, the officer who gives the order shall inform him, and he who receives it shall report it to his immediate superior.
   
The orderly hours being fixed at each head-quarters, the staff officers and chiefs of the special services, either attend in person, or send their assistants to obtain the orders of the day; and the first sergeants of companies repair for that purpose to the regimental or garrison head-quarters.

    During marches and active operations, and when the regular orderly hours cannot be observed, all orders will be either sent direct to the troops, or the respective commanders or corps will be informed when to send to head-quarters for them.

MUSTERS.

    747. Musters of the volunteers and militia are made at least once a year, by the brigade inspectors. Where troops are in actual service musters are made every two months; usually on the last day of every second month. In this case they are made by an inspector general, if present, otherwise by an officer specially designated by

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620 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .

the commander of the army, division, or brigade; and in the absence of the inspector-general or officer specially designated, the muster is made by the commander of the post.

    When the inspecting officer cannot inspect all the troops himself on the day specified, the commanding officer will designate such other competent officers as may be necessary, to assist him. All stated musters of the troops should be preceded by a minute and careful inspection in the prescribed mode ; and if the command be more than a company, by a review, before inspection.

    The mustering officer having inspected the companies in succession, beginning on the right, returns to the first company to muster it. The company being at ordered arms, with open ranks, as when inspected, the captains will, as the mustering officer approaches, command:

1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Shoulder - ARMS. 4. Support ARMS.

    The mustering officer will then call over the names on the roll, and each man, as his name is called, will distinctly answer here, and bring his piece to a carry, and to an order.

    After each company is mustered, the captain will order it to be marched to the company parade, and there dismissed to quarters, to await the inspector's visit. After mustering the companies, the mustering officer, attended by the company commanders, will visit the guard and hospital, to verify the presence of the men reported there. The muster and pay rolls are made on printed forms in accordance with the directions on them. On the muster rolls companies are designated by the name of the captain, whether present or absent. The pay roll is left blank to fill up by the paymaster.

THE ROSTER, OR DETAILS FOR SERVICE.

    748. The duties performed by detail are of three classes. The .first class comprises, first, grand guards and outposts; second; interior guards, as of magazine, hospital, etc.; third, orderlies; fourth, police guards.

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    The second class comprises, first, detachments to protect labor on military works, as field works, communications, etc.; second, working parties on such works; third, detachments to protect fatigues.

    The third class are all fatigues, without arms, in or out of camp.

I    n the cavalry, stable-guards form a separate roster, and count before fatigue.

    The rosters are distinct for each class. Officers are nallled on them in the order of rank. The details are taken in succession in the order of the roster, beginning at the head. Lieutenants form one roster, the first and second lieutenants are entered on it alternately. The senior first lieutenant is the first on the roster; the senior second lieutenant is the second, etc. The captains form one roster, and are exempt from fatigue, except to superintend issues. A captain commanding a battalion temporarily, is exempt from detail, and duty falling to him passes. Lieutenant-colonels and majors are on one roster. They may be detailed for duties of the first and second classes, when the importance of the guards and detachments requires it. Their roster is kept at division and brigade head-quarters. The rosters of the captains and lieutenants are kept at regimental head-quarters, and those of the companies by the first sergeants. In the company, sergeants, corporals, and privates form distinct rosters.

    Officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers, take duties of the first class in the order stated, viz., the first for the detail, takes the grand guards; the next, the interior guards; the last, the police guard ; and the same rule in regard to the details and duties of the second class. In the details for the third class, the senior officer takes the largest party. The party first for detail takes the service out of camp.

    When the officer whose tour it is, is not able to take it, or is not present at the hour of marching, the next after him takes it. When a guard has passed the chain of sentinels, or an interior guard has reached its post, the officer whose tour it was cannot then takE- it. He takes the tour of the officer who has taken his. When an officer is prevented by sickness from taking his tour, it passes. These rules apply equally to non-commissioned officers and soldiers.

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622 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .

    Duties of the first and second class are credited on the roster when the guards or detachments have passed the chain of sentinels, or an interior guard has reached its post; fatigue duties when the parties have passed the chain or begun the duties in camp.

    Every officer, non-commissioned officer, or soldier, on duty of the first class, or who is of the next detail for such duty, takes, when relieved, the duty of the second or third class that has fallen to him during that time, unless he has marched for detachment of more than twenty-four hours.

    Soldiers march with knapsacks for all duties of the first class; and with arms and equipments complete on all working parties out of camp, unless otherwise ordered. In the cavalry, horses are packed for all mounted service; and dismounted men, and those whose horses are not in order, are preferred for the detail for dismounted service. Those who are mounted are never employed on those services, if the number of the other class are sufficient.

    Every non-commissioned officer and soldier in the cavalry detaileq for dismounted service must, before he marches, take to the first sergeant of his troop, or sergeant of his squad, his horse eqnipments and valise ready packed. In case of alarm, the first sergeant sees that the horses of these men are equipped and led to the rendezvous.

    In the field, artillery-men are not called upon for any duty outside their own batteries or camps.

    These rules in regard to the roster apply also to service in garrison.

DUTIES OF GUARDS.

    749. Sentinels will be relieved every two hours, unless the state of the weather, or other causes, should make it necessary or proper that it be done at shorter or longer intervals.

    Each relief, before mounting, is inspected by the commander of the guard or of its post. The corporal reports to him, and presents the old relief on its return.

    The countersign, or watchword, is given to such persons as arc entitled to pass during the night, and to officers, non-commissioned'

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    Officers, and sentinels of the guard. Interior guards receive the countersign only when ordered by the commander of the troops.

    The parole is imparted to such officers only as have a right to visit the guards, and to make the grand rounds; and to officers commanding guards.

    As soon as the new guard has been marched off, the officer of the day will repair to the office of the commanding officer and report for orders.

    The officer of the day must see that the officer of the guard is furnished with the parole and countersign before retreat.

    The officer of the day visits the guards during the day at such times as he may deem necessary, and makes his rounds at night at least once after 12 o'clock.

    Upon being relieved, the officer of the day will make such remarks in the report of the officer of the guard as circumstances require, and present the same at head-quarters.

    Commanders of guards leaving their posts to visit their sentinels, or on other duty, are to mention their intention, and the probable time of their absence, to the next in command.

    The officers are to remain constantly at their guards, except while visiting their sentinels, or necessarily engaged elsewhere on their proper duty.

    Neither officers nor soldiers are to take off their clothing or accoutrements while they are on guard.

    The officer of the guard must see that the countersign is duly communicated to the sentinels a little before twilight.

    When a fire breaks out, or any alarm is raised in a garrison, all guards are to be immediately under arms.

    Inexperienced officers are put on guard as supernumeraries, for the purpose of instruction.

    Sentinels will not take orders or allow themselves to be relieved, except by an officer or non-commissioned officer of their guard or party, the officer of the day, or the commanding officer; in which case the orders will be immediately notified to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them.

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624 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA

    Sentinels will report every breach of orders or regulations they are instructed to enforce.

    Sentinels must keep themselves on the alert, observing everything that takes place within sight and hearing of their post. They will carry their arms habitually at support, or on either shoulder, but will never quit them. In wet weather, if there be no sentry-box, they will secure arms.

    No sentinel shall quit his post or hold conversation not necessary to the proper discharge of his duty.

    All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required to observe respect towards sentinels.

    In case of disorder, a sentinel must call out the guard; and if a fire take place, he must cry-" Fire!" adding the number of his post. If in either case the danger be great, he must discharge his fire lock before calling out.

    It is the duty of a sentinel to repeat all calls made from posts more distant from the main body of the guard than his own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant as not to be heard by the guard, either directly or through other sentinels.

    Sentinels will halt, come to attention, and present arms to general and field officers, to the officer of the day, and to the commanding officer of the post. To all other officers they will carry arms.

    When a sentinel in his sentry-box sees an officer approaching, he will stand at attention, and as the officer passes will salute him, by bringing the left hand briskly to the musket, as high as the right shoulder.

    The sentinel at any post of the guard, when he sees any body of troops, or an officer entitled to compliment, approach, must call: "Turn out the guard ,'" and announce who approaches.

    Guards do not turn out as a matter of compliment after sunset; but sentinels will, when officers in uniform approach, pay them proper attention, by facing to the proper front, and standing steady at shouldered arms. This will be observed until the evening is so far advanced that the sentinels begin challenging.

After retreat (or the hour appointed by the commanding officer), until broad daylight, a sentinel challenges every person who

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approaches him, taking, at the same time, the position of arms port. He will suffer no person to come nearer than within reach of his bayonet, until the person has given the countersign.

    A sentinel, in challenging, will call out - " Who comes there?" If answered-" Friend, with the countersign," and he be instructed to pass persons with the countersign, he will reply -" Advance, friend, with the countersign." If answered -" Friends," he will reply -" Halt, friends. Advance one with the countersign." If answered -" Relief" "Patrol," or " Grand rounds," he will reply- " Halt. Advance, sergeant (or corporal) with the countersign," and satisfy himself that the party is what it represents itself to be. If he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, if the wrong countersign be given, or if the persons have not the countersign, he will cause them to stand, and call- "Corporal of the guard,"

    In the daytime, when the sentinel before the guard sees the officer of the day approach, he will call- "Turn out the guard, officer of the day." The guard will be paraded, and salute with presented arms.

    When any person approaches a post of the guard at night, the sentinel before the post, after challenging, causes him to halt until examined by a non-commissioned officer of the guard. If it be the officer of the day, or any other officer entitled to inspect the guard and to make the rounds, the non-commissioned officer will call- "Turn out the guard," when the guard will be paraded at shouldered arms, and the officer of the guard, if he thinks necessary, may demand the countersign and parole.

    The officer of the day, wishing to make the rounds, will take an escort of a non-commissioned officer and two men. When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel, the sergeant will answer -" Grand rounds," and the sentinel will reply-" Halt, grand rounds. Advance, sergeant, with the countersign." Upon which the sergeant advances and gives the countersign. The sentinel will then cry- "Advance, rounds," and stand at a shoulder till they have passed.

When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and is answered-"Grand rounds," he will reply-" Halt, grand rounds. Turn out

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626 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA

the guard; grand rounds." Upon which the guard will be drawn up at shouldered arms. The officer commanding the guard will then order a sergeant and two men to advance; when within ten paces, the sergeant challenges. The sergeant of the grand rounds answers-" Grand rounds." The sergeant of the guard replies- "Advance, sergeant, with the countersign." The sergeant of the rounds advances alone, gives the countersign, and returns to his round. The sergeant of the guard calls to his officer- " The countersign is right," on which the officer of the guard calls-"Advance, rounds." The officer of the rounds then advances alone, the guard standing at shouldered arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the front of the guard to the officer, who keeps his post on the right, and gives him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders back his escort, and, taking a new one, proceeds in the same manner to other guards.

    All material instructions given to a sentinel on post by persons entitled to make grand rounds, ought to be promptly notified to the commander of the guard.

    Any general officer, or the commander of a post or garrison, may visit the guards of his command, and go the grand rounds, and be received in the same manner as prescribed for the officer of' the day.

FORM OF GUARD REPORT.

Guard Report
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LIST OF THE GUARD.

List of the guard


    750. Guards, in time of war, are bodies of men whose duties are to secure an army or place from being surprised by an enemy.

    By a proper disposition of the guards, and by a faithful discharge of the duties imposed upon them, a whole army can at all times, and under all circumstances, be kept in readiness for action; the larger part of the army, even in the pursuit of an enemy, and momentarily expecting to meet him, may with safety seek that

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628 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

repose which is so necessary to keep up the physical energies of the forces; and as the guards generally comprise but a comparatively small portion of the command, and are frequently relieved, no soldier is likely to be called upon to endure an amount of fatigue greater than a man in his vigor ought to bear.

    In order that the guards of an army may protect it properly, they must be so posted as to cover both the front and flanks of the position, and at the same time have possession of all the avenues of approach to it. The ordinary arrangement of guards is such, that no mutter how far the outer line may lie from the main body, it may rally from point to point, if driven in by an advancing enemy, gaining strength each time, until it finally reaches the main body. Thus even the most advanced posts need never be cut off, while it would be impossible for an enemy to surprise the main body.

    The usual arrangement consists of two or three lines of posts, within relief of each other, and extending around the main body as a centre, the exterior line throwing out a chain of sentinels in its front, and 50 distributed as to prevent the approach of anyone without being seen.

    751. The inner line consists of what are denominated police guards; there is a police guard for each regiment, which is posted within the regimental camp (see camp of an infantry regiment). These guards are of sufficient strength to supply a chain of sentinels along the front and rear of the regiment, connecting it with the regiments on the right and left, thus forming a chain of sentinels close to and all around the camp.

    The next line consists of a number of strong detachments, termed pickets ; they are posted upon the main avenues of approach to the position, and serve as supports to the exterior lines, upon which they rally when driven in by the enemy.

    Next beyond the pickets is the line of grand guards, and of course occupying a wider circumference j they are posted in the most favorable position for observing the enemy, and throw out the extreme line, called the line of outposts. The line of grand

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guards, while supported by the pickets, in turn furnishes support to the outposts when necessary.

    Besides these various lines, patrols are kept up between the various posts, to keep the one informed of the condition of the other; and, also between the outposts and the extreme line of sentinels, to see that the duties of the latter are properly performed.

    This arrangement secures positions favorable for observation, and mutual support.

    "The duties of the outposts, and of the grand guards which form their supports, are strictly those of observation. If attacked, they offer no resistance further than to enable them to feel the enemy perfectly, and never lose sight of him. The task of holding the enemy in cheek by a vigorous resistance, so as to procure sufficient time for the main body to make its disposition for battle, is consigned to the pickets." (MAHAN).

Police Guards.

    752. The police guard is detailed every day from each regiment, and consists of two sergeants, three corporals, two musicians, and men enough to furnish the necessary sentinels and patrols. The men are taken from all the companies, from each in proportion to its strength.

    The guard is commanded by a lieutenant, under the supervision of a captain as regimental officer of the day. It furnishes ten sentinels at the camp; one over the arms of the guard; one at the colonel's tent; three on the color front; one of them over the colors; three, fifty paces in rear of the field officer's tents; and one on each flank, between it and the next regiment. If it is a flank regiment, one more sentinel is posted on the outer flank.

    An advanced post. is detached from the police guard, composed of a sergeant, a corporal, a drummer, and nine men to furnish sentinels and the guard over the prisoners. The men are the first of the guard roster from each company. The men of the advanced post must not leave it under any pretext. Their meals are sent to the post. The advanced post furnishes three sentinels; two a few paces in front of the post, opposite the right and left wing. of the

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630 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.  

regiment, posted so as to see as far as possible to the front, and one over the arms.

    In the cavalry, dismounted men are employed in preference on thc police guard. The mounted men on guard are sent in succession, a part at a time, to groom their horses. The advanced post is always formed of mounted men.

    In each company, a corporal has charge of the stable guard. His tour begins at retreat, and ends at morning stable-call. The stable guard is large enough to relieve the men on post every two hours They sleep in their tents, and are called by the corporal when wanted. At retreat he closes the streets of the camp with cords, or uses other precautions to prevent the escape of loose horses.

    The officer of the day is charged with the order and cleanliness of the camp: a fatigue is furnished to him when the number of prisoners is insufficient to clean the camp. He has the calls beaten by the drummer of the guard.

    The police guard and the advanced post pay the same honors as other guards. They take arms when an armed body approaches.

    The sentinel over the colors has orders not to permit them to be moved except in the presence of an escort; to let no one touch them but the color-bearer, or the sergeant of the police guard when he is accompanied by two armed men.

    The sentinels on the color front permit no soldier to take arms from the stacks, except by order of some officer, or a non-commissioned officer of the guard. The sentinel at the colonel's tent has orders to warn him, day or night, of any unusual movement in or about the camp.

    The sentinels on the front, flanks, and rear, see that no soldier leaves camp with horse or arms unless conducted by a non-commissioned officer. They prevent non_commissioned officers and soldiers from passing out at night, except to go to the sinks, and mark if they return. They arrest., at any time, suspicions persons prowling about the camp, and at night, every one who attempts to enter, even the soldiers of other corps. Arrested persons are sent to the officer of the guard, who sends them, if necessary, to the officer of the day.

    The sentinels on the front of the advanced post have orders to

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permit neither non-commissioned officers or soldiers to pass the line, without reporting at the advanced post; to warn the advanced post of the approach of any armed body, and to arrest all suspicious persons. The sergeant sends persons so arrested to the officer of the guard, and warns him of the approach of any armed body.

    The sentinel over the arms at the advanced post guards the prisoners, and keeps sight of them, and suffers no one to converse with them without permission. They are only permitted to go to the sinks one at a time, and under a sentinel.

    If anyone is to be passed out of camp at night, the officer of the guard sends him under escort to the advanced post, and the sergeant of the post has him passed over the chain.

    At retreat, the officer of the guard has the roll of his guard called, and inspects arms, to see that they are loaded and in order; and visits the advanced post for the same purpose. The sergeant of the police guard, accompanied by two armed soldiers, folds the colors and lays them on the trestle in rear of the arms. He sees that the sutler's stores are then closed, and the men leave them, and that the kitchen fires are put out at the appointed hour.

    The officer of the day satisfies himself frequently during the night of the vigilance of the police guard and advanced post. He prescribes patrols and rounds to be made by the officer and noncommissioned officers of the guard. The officer of the guard orders them when he thinks necessary, He visits the sentinels frequently.

    At reveille, the police guard takes arms; the officer of the guard inspects it and the advanced post. The sergeant replants the colors in place. At retreat and reveille the advanced post takes arms; the sergeant makes his report to the officer of the guard when he visits the post.

    When necessary, the camp is covered at night with small out-posts, forming a double chain of sentinels: These posts are under the orders of the commander of the police guard, and are visited by his patrols and rounds.

    The officer of the guard makes his report of his tour of service, including the advanced post, and sends it, after the guard is marched off, to the officer of the day.

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632 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    When the regiment marches, the men of the police guard return to their companies, except those of the advanced post. In the cavalry, at the sound "boot and saddle," the officer of the guard sends one half the men to saddle and pack; when the regiment assembles, all the men join it.

    When the camping party precedes the regiment, and the new police guard marches with the camping party, the guard, on reaching the camp, forms in line thirty paces in front of the centre of the ground marked for the regiment. The officer of the guard furnishes the sentinels required by the commander of the camping party. The advanced post takes its station.

    The advanced post of the old police guard takes charge of the prisoners on the march, and marches, bayonets fixed, at the centre of the regiment. On reaching camp, it turns over the prisoners to the new advanced post.

PICKETS.

    758. The detail for the picket is made daily, and is composed of a lieutenant, two sergeants, four corporals, a drummer, and about forty privates for each regiment. For a smaller force, the picket is in proportion to the strength of the detachment. The duty of the pickets is to hold the enemy in check, and the points which they take up should, if possible, be susceptible of good defence; such as villages, defiles, etc. : when these advantages do not present themselves, temporary obstacles, such abatis, etc., should be resorted to. The points occupied by the pickets should be about midway between the line of outposts and the position of the main body.

    Small posts should be thrown forward by the pickets, between them and the line of grand guards. These give greater security to the pickets, and furnish support to the grand guard.

GRAND GUARDS AND OUTPOSTS.

    754. The numbers, strength, and position of grand guards are regulated by the commanders of brigades; in detached corps, by

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the commanding officer. When it can be done, the grand guards of infantry and cavalry are combined, the cavalry furnishing the advanced sentinels. When the cavalry is weak, the grand guards are infantry, but furnished with a few cavalry soldiers, to get and carry intelligence of the enemy.

    The strength of the grand guard of a brigade will depend on the strength of the regiments, the nature of the country, the position of the enemy; and the disposition of the inhabitants. It is usually commanded by a captain.

    Under the supervision of the generals of division and brigade, the grand guards are especially under the direction of a field officer of the day in each brigade. In case of necessity, captains may be added to the roster of lieutenant-colonels and majors for this detail.

    Grand guards usually mount at the same time as the other guards, but may mount before daybreak if the general of brigade thinks it necessary to double the outposts at this time. In this case they assemble and march without noise, and during the march throw out scouts; this precaution should always be taken in the first posting of a grand gUard. The doubling of guards weakens the corps and fatigues the men, and should seldom be resorted to, and never when preparing to march or fight.

    755. A grand guard is conducted to its post in the first instance by the field officer of the day. guided by one of the staff officers who accompanied the general in his reconnaissance. After the post has been established, the commander sends to the field officer of the day, when necessary, a soldier of the guard to guide the relieving guard to the post. He also sends to him in the evening a corporal or trusty man of the guard, for the note containing the parole and countersign, and sends them before dark to the outposts. He will not suffer his guard to be relieved except by a guard of the brigade, or by special orders from competent authority.

    If there is no pass to be observed or defended, the grand guards are placed near the centre of the ground they are to observe, on sheltered, and, if possible, high ground, the better to conceal their strength and observe the enemy; they ought not to be placed near the edge of a wood. When, during the day, they are placed very.

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634 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

near, or in sight of the enemy, they fall back at night on parts selected farther to the rear .

    After a grand guard is posted, the first care of the commander and of the field officer of the day is to get news of the enemy; then to reconnoitre his position, and the roads, bridges, fords, and defiles. This reconnoissance determines the force and position of the outposts and their sentinels day and night. These posts, when of infantry, should be about 200 paces in front of the line of grand guards, and of cavalry from 600 to 800; and are commanded by officers or non-commissioned officers, according to their importance. Cavalry posts may be relieved every four or eight hours.

    The commander of a grand guard receives detailed instructions from the general and field officers of the day of the brigade, and instructs the commanders of the outposts as to their duties, and the arrangements for the defence or retreat. The commanders of grand guards may, in urgent cases, change the positions of the outposts. If the outposts are to change their position at night, they wait until the grand guard has gotten its position, and darkness hides their movements from the enemy; then march silently and rapidly under charge of an officer.

    In detached corps, small posts of picked men are at night sent forward on the roads by which the enemy may attack or turn the position. They watch the forks of the roads, keep silence, conceal themselves, light no fires, and often change place. They announce the approach of an enemy by signals agreed upon, and retreat, by routes examined during the day, to places selected, and rejoin the guard at daybreak.

    Grand guards have special orders in each case, and the following in all cases: to inform the nearest posts and the field officer of the day, or the general of brigade, of the march and movements of the enemy, and of the attacks they receive or fear; to examine every person passing near the post, particularly those coming from without; to arrest suspicious persons, and all soldiers and camp-followers who try to pass out without permission, and to send to the general, unless otherwise directed, all country people who come in.

    755. All out-guards stand to arms at night on the approach of

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patrols, rounds, or other parties; the sentinel over the arms will call them out..

    The sentinels and videttes are placed on points from which they can see farthest, taking care not to break their connection with each other or with their posts. They are concealed from the enemy as much as possible by walls, or trees, or elevated ground. It is generally even of more advantage not to be seen than to see far. They should not be placed near covers, where the enemy may capture them. A sentinel should always be ready to fire; videttes carry their carbines or pistols in their hands. A sentinel must be sure of the presence of an enemy before he fires; once satisfied of that, he must fire, though all defence on his part be useless, as the safety of the post may depend on it. Sentinels fire on all persons deserting to the enemy.

    If a sentinel's post must be where he cannot communicate with the guard, a corporal and three men are detached for it, or the sentinels are doubled, that one may communicate with the guard. During the day communication may- be made by signals, such as raising a. cap or handkerchief. At night sentinels are placed on low ground, the better to see objects against the sky.

    To lessen the duty of rounds, and keep more men on the alert at night, sentinels on outposts are relieved every hour. To prevent sentinels from being surprised, it is sometimes well to precede the countersign by signals, such as striking the musket with the hand, striking the hands together, etc.

    On the approach of anyone at night, the outpost sentinel orders" Halt " If the order is not obeyed after being repeated once, he fires. If obeyed, he calls - "Who goes there?" If answered-"Rounds," or "Patrol," he says-"Advance with the countersign." If more than one advance at the same time, or the person who advances fails to give the countersign or signal agreed on, the sentinel fires, and falls back on his guard. The sentinel over the arms, as soon as his hail is answered, turns out the guard, and the corporal goes to reconnoitre. When it is desirable to hide the position of the sentinel from the enemy, the hail is replaced by signals; the sentinels give the signal, and those approaching the counter signal.

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636  MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    With raw troops, or when the light troops of the enemy are numerous and active, and when the country is broken or wooded, the night stormy or dark, sentinels should be doubled. In this case, while one watches, the other, called a flying sentinel, moves about, examining the paths and hollows.

    The commanders of grand guards visit the sentinels often; change their position when necessary; make them repeat their orders; teach them under what circumstances and at what signals to retire, and particularly not to fall back directly on their guard if pursued, but to lead the enemy in a circuit.

    757. At night, half the men of the grand guard off post watch under arms, while the rest lie down, arms by their side. The horses are always bridled; the horsemen hold the reins and must not sleep. An hour before break of day, infantry grand guards stand to arms, and cavalry mount. At the outposts some of the infantry are all night under arms, some of the cavalry on horseback.

    The commander of a grand guard regulates the numbers. the hours, and the march of patrols and rounds, according to the strength of his command, and the necessity for precaution; and, accompanied by those who are to command the patrols and rounds during the night, he will reconnoitre all the routes they are to follow. Patrols and rounds march slowly, in silence, and with great precaution; halt frequently to listen and examine the ground. The rounds consist of. an officer or non-commissioned officer, and two or three men. Towards the break of day the patrols ought to be more frequent, and sent to greater distances. They examine the hollow ways and ground likely to conceal an enemy, but with great caution, to avoid being cut off, or engaged in an unequal combat; if they meet the enemy, they fire and attempt to stop his march. While the patrols are out, the outposts are under arms.

    Cavalry patrols should examine the country to a greater distance than infantry, and report to the infantry guard every thing they observe. The morning patrols and scouts do not return until broad daylight; and when they return, the night sentinels are withdrawn, and the posts for the day resumed.

    On their return, commanders of patrols report in regard to the

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HONORS PAID BY THE TROOPS, ETC. 637

ground and everything they have observed of the movements of the enemy, or of his posts, and the commander of the grand guard reports to the field officers of the day. The fires of grand guards should be hidden by a wall, ditch, or other screen. To deceive the  enemy, fires are sometimes made on unoccupied ground. Fires are not permitted at small posts liable to surprise.

    If a body of troops attempt to enter the camp at night, their arrival has been announced, or the commander is known to or is the bearer of a written order to the commander of the grand guard, he stops them, and sends the command under escort to the field officer of the day, and at the same time warns the posts near him.

    Bearers of flags are not permitted to pass the outer chain of sentinels; their faces are turned from the post or army; if necessary their eyes are bandaged; a non-commissioned officer stays with them to prevent indiscretion on the part of sentinels.

    The commander of the guard receipts for dispatches, and sends them to the field officer of the day or general of brigade, and dismisses the bearer; but if he has discovered what ought to be concealed from the enemy, he is detained as long as necessary.

    Deserters are disarmed at the outposts, and sent to the commander of the grand guard, who gets from them all the information he can concerning the enemy. If many come at night, they are received cautiously, a few at a time. They are sent in the morning to the field officer of the day, or to the nearest post or camp, to be conducted to the general of the brigade. All suspected persons are secreted by the commanders of the outposts.

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