HONORS PAID BY THE
HONORS TO BE PAID BY THE TROOPS.
730. Whenever a person entitled to
the troops, visits any camp or military post, and the commanding
officer has official notice of his presence, the troops are paraded to
of the United States and the Governor of the State to which the troops
belong, are to be saluted with the highest honors-all standards and
colors drooping, officers and troops saluting, drums beating and
is to be received by--cavalry, with sabres presented, trumpets sounding
the march, and all the officers saluting, standards dropping
infantry, with drums beating the march, colors dropping, officers
saluting and arms presented.
is to be received -- by cavalry, with sabres presented, trumpets
sounding twice the trumpet-flourish, and officers saluting by
infantry, with three ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and
is to be received --by cavalry, with sabres presented, trumpets
sounding once the trumpet-flourish, and officers saluting; by infantry,
with two ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms
General or Inspector- General,
if under the rank of a general officer, is to be received at a review
or inspection of the troops under arms --by cavalry, with sabres
presented, officers saluting; by infantry, officers saluting and arms
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS. ETC. 585
same honors to be paid to any field officer authorized to review and
inspect the troops. When the inspecting officer is junior to
officer commanding the parade, no compliments will be paid: he will be
received only with swords drawn and arms shouldered.
All guards are to turn out and present
general officers as often as they pass them, except the personal guards
of general officers, which turn out only to the generals whose guards
they are, and to officers of superior rank.
To commanders of regiments, garrison, or
own guard turn out, and present arms once a day; after which, they turn
out with shouldered arms,
the Cabinet ; to the Chief Justice, the President of the Senate, and
Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States; and to
Governors within their respective States, and Territories, the same honors will be paid
as to a general commanding-in-chief.
a foreign service
may be complimented with the honors due to their rank.
American and Foreign Envoys or Ministers will be receivcd with the
compliments due to a major-generaL
731. The colors of a regiment passing a
guard are to
be saluted, the trumpets sounding, and the drums beating a march.
When general officers, or persons
entitled to a
salute, pass in the rear of a guard, the officer is only to make his
men stand shouldered and not to face his guard about, or beat his drum.
When general officers, or persons
entitled to a
salute, pass guards while in the act of relieving, both guards are to
salute, receiving the word of command from the senior officer of the
All guards are to be under arms when
approach their posts; and to parties commanded by commissioned
officers, they are to present their arms, drums beating a march, and
No compliments by guards or sentinels
will be paid between retreat and reveille, except as prescribed for
All guards and sentinels are to pay the
compliments to the officers of the navy, marines, and militia, in the
service of the
586 -MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA .
United States, as are directed to be paid to the officers of the army,
according to their relative ranks.
It is equally the duty of
non-commissioned officers and soldiers, at all
times and in all situations,
to pay the proper compliments to officers of the navy and marines, and
to officers of other regiments, when in uniform, as to officers of
their own particular regiments and corps.
Courtesy among military men is
indispensable to discipline.
Respect to superiors will not be
obedience on duty, but will be extended to all occasions. It is always
the duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first the customary
salutation, and of the superior to return such complimentary notice.
Sergeants, with swords drawn, will
bringing them to a present; with muskets, by bringing the left hand
across the body, so as to strike the musket near the right shoulder.
Corporals out of the ranks, and privates not sentries, will carry their
muskets at a shoulder as sergeants, and salute in like manner.
When a soldier without arms, or with
meets an officer, he is to raise his hand to the right side of the
visor of his cap, palm to the front, elbow raised as high as the
shoulder, looking at the same time in a respectful and soldier-like
manner at the officer, who will return the compliment thus offered.
A non-commissioned officer or soldier
and without particular occupation, will rise on the approach of an
officer, and make the customary salutation. If standing, he will turn
toward the officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the
same place or on the same ground, such compliment need not be repeated.
President of the United States and the Governor of the State to which the
troops belong, to receive a salute of twenty-one guns.
The Vice-President is to receive a salute of
The Heads of
the great Executive Departments of the National Government ; the General commanding the
army; the Lieutenant-
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 587
Governor of the State to which the troops belong; the Governors of
other States and Territories, fifteen guns.
will be saluted in return for a similar compliment, gun for gun, on
notice being officially received of such intention. If there be several
posts in sight of, or within six miles of each other, the principal
only shall reciprocate compliments with ships passing.
will be saluted according to relative rank.
invited to visit a fort or post may be saluted according to their
of the United States and foreign Powers are to be saluted with thirteen
A general officer will be saluted but
once in a year
at each post, and only when notice of his intention to visit the post
has been given.
Salutes to individuals are to be fired
on their arrival only.
A national salute will be fired at
meridian on the
anniversary of the Independence of the United States, at each military
post and camp provided with artillery and ammunition.
733. Escorts of honor may be composed of
infantry, or both, according to circumstances. They are guards of honor
for the purpose of receiving and escorting personages of high rank,
civil or military. The troops for this purpose, will be selected for
their soldierly appearance and superior discipline.
The escort will be drawn up in line, the
opposite the place where the personage presents himself, with an
interval between the wings to receive him and his retinue. On his
appearance, he will be received with the honors due to his rank. When
he has taken his place in the line, the whole will be wheeled into
platoons or companies, as the case may be, and take up the
The same ceremony will be observed, and the same honors paid,
his leaving the escort.
588 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
AND MILITIA .
When the position of the escort is at a
distance from the point where he is expected to be received, as, for
instance, where a court-yard or wharf intervenes, a double line of
sentinels will be posted from that point to the escort, facing inward,
and the sentinels will successively salute as he passes.
An officer will be appointed to attend
him, to bear
such communications as he may have to make to the commander of the
734. The funeral escort of a General
shall consist of a regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and six
pieces of artillery.
That of a Major-
regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and four pieces of
That of a Brigadier-
regiment of infantry, one company of cavalry, and two pieces of
That of a Colonel, a regiment.
That of a Lieutenant-
That of a Major, four companies.
That of a Captain, one company.
That of a Subaltern, half a company.
The funeral escort shall always be
commanded by an
officer of the same rank with the deceased, or, if none such be
present, by one of the next inferior grade.
The funeral escort of a non-commissioned
officer shall consist of sixteen rank and file, commanded by a
That of a sergeant, of fourteen rank and
file, commanded by a sergeant.
That of a corporal, of twelve rank and
file, commanded by a corporal; and,
That of a private, of eight rank and
file, commanded by a corporal.
The escort will be formed in two ranks,
the quarters or tent of the deceased, with shouldered arms and bayonets
unfixed, the artillery and cavalry on the right of the infantry.
HONORS PAID BY THE TROOP
S, ETC. 589
On the appearance of the corpse, the
officer commanding the escort will command:
when the honors due to the deceased will be paid by the drums and
trumpets. The music will then play an appropriate air, and the coffin
will then be taken to the right, where it will be halted. The commander
will next order:
1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2.
By company (or platoon),
left wheel. 3. MARCH. 4. Reverse-ARMS. 5. Column, forward. 6. Guide right.
The arms will be reversed at the order
the firelock under the left arm, butt to the front, barrel downward,
left hand sustaining the lock, the right steadying the firelock behind
the back; swords are reversed in a similar manner under the right arm.
The column will be marched in slow time
music, and, on reaching the grave, will take a direction so that the
guides shall be next to the grave. When the centre of the column is
opposite the grave, the commander will order:
1. Column. 2. HALT. 3.
Right into line, wheel.
The coffin is then brought along the
front, to the
opposite side of the grave, and the commander then orders:
1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2. Present - ARMS.
And when the coffin reaches the grave,
1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2.
Rest on -
The rest on arms is done by placing the
the left foot. both hands on the butt, the head on the hands or bowed,
right knee bent.
After the funeral service is performed,
an d the
coffin is 10'l>ercd into the grave, the commander will order:
1. Attention. 2. Shoulder-ARMS.
3. Load at will.
590 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
AND MILITIA .
When three rounds of small arms will be
fired by the escort) taking care to elevate the pieces.
This being done, the commander will
1. By company (or platoon), right
wheel. 2. MARCH. 3. Column
forward. 4. Guide left. 5. Quick -MARCH.
The music will not begin to play until
the escort is clear of the inclosure.
When the distance to the place of
considerable, the escort may march in common time and in column of
route, after leaving the camp or garrison, and till it approaches the
The pall-bearers, six in number, will be
from the grade of the deceased, or from the grade or grades next above
or below it.
At the funeral of an officer, as many in
of the army, division, brigade, or regiment, according to the rank of
the deceased, as can conveniently be spared from other duties, will
join in procession, in uniform, and with side-arms. The funeral of a
non-commissioned officer or private will be attended, in like manner,
by the non-commissioned officers or privates of the regiment or
company, according to the rank of the deceased, with side-arms only.
Persons joining in the procession follow
the coffin in the inverse order of their rank.
The usual badge of military mourning is
a piece of
black crape around the left. arm, above the elbow, and also upon the
sword-hilt; and will be worn when in full or in undress.
As family mourning, crape will be worn
by officers (when in uniform) only around the left arm.
The drums of a funeral escort will be
covered with black crape, or thin black serge.
Funeral honors will be paid to deceased
without military rank according to their assimilated grades.
INSPECTIONS OF THE TROOPS.
735. The inspection of troops, as a
regiment) or other body composing a garrison or command, not less than
a company, will generally be preceded by a review.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 591
inspection for infantry.
The present example embraces a battalion
infantry. The inspecting officer and the field and staff officers will
be on foot.
The battalion being in the order of
colonel will cause it to break into open column of companies, right in
front. He will next order the ranks to be opened, when the color-rank
and color. guard, under the direction of the adjutant, will take post
ten paces in front, and the band ten paces in rear of the column.
The colonel, seeing the ranks
aligned, will command,
1. Officers and sergeants, to the
front of your companies. 2. MARCH.
The officers will form themselves in one
paces, and the non-commissioned officers in one rank, six paces, in
advance, along the whole fronts of their respective companies, from
right to left, in the order of seniority j the pioneers and music of
each company, in one rank, two paces behind the non-commissioned
The colonel will next command:
Field and staff, to the front
The commissioned officers thus
designated will form
themselves in one rank, on a line equal to the front of the column, six
paces in front of the colors, from right to left, in the order of
seniority j and the non-commissioned staff, in a similar manner, two
paces in rear of the preceding rank. The colonel, seeing the movement
executed, will take post on the right of the lieutenant-colonel, and
wait the approach of the inspecting officer. But such of the field
officers as may be superior in rank to the inspector will not take post
in front of the battalion.
The inspector will commence in front.
inspecting the dress and general appearance of the field and
commissioned staff under arms, the inspector, accompanied by these
officers, will pass down the open column, looking at every rank in
front and rear.
The colonel will now command:
ARMS. 2. REST ;
592 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
when the inspector will proceed to make a minute inspection of the
several ranks or divisions, in succession, commencing in front.
As the inspector approaches the
staff, color rank, the color-guard, and the band, the adjutant will
give the necessary orders for the inspection of arms, boxes, and
knapsacks. The colors will be planted firm in the ground, to enable the
colorbearers to display the contents of their knapsacks. The
non-commissioned staff may be dismissed as soon as inspected j but the
color rank and color-guard will remain until the colors are to be
escorted to the place from which they were taken.
As the inspector successively approaches
the companies, the captains will command:
l. Attention. 2.
Company. 3. Inspection-
The inspecting officer will then go
whole company, and minutely inspect the arms, accoutrements, and dress
of each soldier. After this is done, the captain will command:
Open - BOXES
when the ammunition and the boxes will be examined.
The captain will then command:
1. Shoulder-ARMS. 2. Close
order. 3. MARCH. 4. Order ARMS. 5. Stack - ARMS. 6. To the rear open
order. 7. MARCH. 8. Front
rank-ABOUT-FACE. 9. Unsling- Knapsacks.
10. Open -
The sergeants will face inward at the
command, and close upon the centre at the third, and stack their arms
at the fifth command; at the sixth command they face outward, and
resume their positions at the seventh. When the ranks are closed,
preparatory to take arms, the sergeants will also close upon the
centre, and at the word, take their arms and resume their places.
The knapsacks will be placed at the feet
of the men,
the flaps from them, with the great-coats on the flaps, and the
knapsacks leaning on the great-coats. In this position the inspector
will examine their contents, or so many of them as he may think neces-
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 593
sary, commencing with the non-commissioned officers, the men standing
When the inspector has passed through
the company, the captain will command;
Repack - Knapsacks
when each soldier will repack and buckle up his knapsack, leaving it on
the ground, the number upward, turned from him, and then stand at rest.
The captain will then command;
1. Attention. 2.
Company. 3. Sling-Knapsacks.
At the word sling, each soldier will
knapsack, holding it by the inner straps, and stand erect, at the last
word he will replace it on his back. The captain will continue;
4. Front rank - ABOUT
- FACE. 5. Close order
6. MARCH.7. Take-ARMS.
9. Officers and
Sergeants to your posts. 10. MARCH.
And will cause the company to file off
tents or quarters, except the company that is to re-escort the colors,
which will await the further orders of the colonel.
In an extensive column, some of the
companies may, after the inspection of dress and general appearance, be
permitted to stack arms until just before the inspector approaches
them, when they will be directed to take arms and resume their
The inspection of the troops being
ended, the field
and staff will next accompany the inspector to the hospital, magazine,
arsenal, quarters, sutler's shop, guard-house, and such other places as
he may think proper to inspect. The captains and subalterns repair t(o
their companies and sections to await the inspector.
The hospital being at all times an
particular interest; it will be critically and minutely inspected.
The men will be formed in the company
front of their respective bunks, and on the entrance of the inspector
the word attention will be given by the senior non-commissioned officer
present, when the whole will salute with the hand, without uncovering.
594 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
The inspector, attended by the company
will examine the general arrangement of the interior of the quarters,
the bunks, bedding, cooking, and table utensils, and such other objects
as may present themselves; and afterwards the exterior.
The adjutant will exhibit to the
regimental books and papers, including those relating to the
transactions of the Council of Administration. The company books and
papers will also be exhibited, the whole together, generally at the
adjutant's office, and in the presence of the officers not otherwise
The inspector will examine critically
the books and
accounts of the administrative and disbursing officers of the command;
and the money and property in their keeping.
736. The regiment being in line as
prescribed for a
review, the colonel causes the companies to wheel to the right. He then
orders the ranks to be opened; at which the standard-bearer, under the
direction of the adjutant, is posted about twenty paces ahead of the
The colonel seeing the ranks aligned,
commands: 1. Officers
and non-commissioned officers. 2. To the front of your companies-
MARCH; on which the officers form themselves in one rank, twelve paces,
and the non-commissioned officers in one rank, six paces, in advance,
along the whole front of their respective troops, in the order of rank,
the highest on the right, and the lowest on the left; the trumpeters of
each company, at the same time, take post on the alignment of the front
rank, six paces from the right.
Seeing the last order in a train of execution, the colonel commands: 1.
and staff. 2. To the front -
MARCH The commissioned officers thus designated, form themselves in one
rank, twelve paces in front of the standards, in the following order,
beginning on the right; lieutenant-colonel, major, adjutant,
quartermaster, etc. The non-commissioned staff in a similar manner,
six: paces in rear of the preceding rank. The band is formed in one
rank, ten paces in rear of the column, the chief musician four paces in
front of it.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 595.
The colonel, if a higher officer
inspects the column his post on the right of the lieutenant-colonel.
The inspection commences in front. After
the dress and general appearance of the field and commissioned staff,
th inspector, accompanied by these officers, passes down the column,
looking at every rank, in front and in rear, with a view to
same object. He afterwards, in a like manner, passes and inspects the
arms. As he successively approaches each company for this purpose, its
captain commands: 1. Attention. 2. Inspection
The inspector then dismounts with the
commissioned staff, for the purpose of inspecting horse furniture, and
valises, preparatory to which, the colonel causes the column to
dismount. The men being then in the position of stand to horse, the
colonel commands rest, for the whole column; when the inspector
proceeds to make a minute inspection of the several ranks, in
succession, commencing in front.
On approaching the non-commissioned
staff and the
band, the adjutant gives the necessary orders for the inspection of
boxes and valises; and in like manner as to the standard-bearer. The
noncommissioned staff may be dismounted as soon as inspected.
As the inspector successively approaches
the companies, eaeh captain commands: 1. Attention.
2. Unstrap valises. 3. Open boxes;
when the valises are placed at the feet of the men, with the flaps from
them. In this position the inspector may examine the contents of the
whole, boxes and valises, or of as many as he may think necessary.
As the inspector passes each company,
orders the valises to be re-packed and re-strapped, and the men to file
off to their their tents or quarters, except the company which is to
escort the standard, which awaits the orders of the colonel.
737. On all parades of ceremony, such as Reviews, Guard mounting, at Troop or
parades, instead of the word rest, which allows the men to move or
change the position of their bodies, the command will be parade - rest. At the last word of
096 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
mand, the soldier will carry the right foot six inches in rear of the
left heel, the left knee slightly bent, the body upright upon the right
leg; the musket resting against the hollow of the right shoulder, the
hands crossed in front, the backs of them outward, and the left hand
uppermost. At the word attention, the soldier will resume the correct
position at ordered arms. In the positions here indicated, the soldier
will remain silent and motionless; and it is particularly enjoined upon
all officers to cause the commands above given, on the part of the
soldier, to be executed with great briskness and spirit.
Officers on all duties under arms are to
swords drawn, without waiting for any words of command for that
738. There shall be daily one dress
parade, at troop or retreat, as the commanding officer may direct,
A signal will be beat or sounded half an
troop or retreat, for the music to assemble on the regimental parade,
and each company to turn out under arms on its own parade, for
roll-call and inspection by its own officers.
Ten minutes after that signal, the Adjutant's
will be given, when the captains will march their companies (the band
playing) to the regimental parade, where they take their positions in
line as directed, No. 297. When the line is formed, the captain of the
first company, on notice from the adjutant, steps one pace to the
front, and gives to his company the command, order arms;
which is repeated by each captain in succession to the left.
adjutant takes post two paces on the right of the line; the
sergeant-major two paces on the left. The music will be formed in two
ranks on the right of the adjutant. The senior officer present will
take the command of the parade, and will take post at a suitable
distance in front, opposite the centre, facing the line.
When the companies have ordered arms,
will order the music to beat off, when it will commence on the right,
beat in front of the line to the left, and back to its place on the
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 597
When the music has ceased, the adjutant
will step two paces to. the front, face to the left, and command:
1. Attention. 2. Battalion. 3.
Shoulder-ARMS. 4. Prepare
to open ranks. 5. To the rear open order. 6. MARCH.
At the sixth command, the ranks will be
according to the the system laid down in the Infantry Tactics, the
commissioned officers marching to the front, the company officers four
paces, field officers six paces, opposite to their positions in the
order of battle where they will halt and dress. The adjutant, seeing
the ranks aligned, will command:
and march along the front to the centre, face to the right, and pass
the line of company officers eight or ten paces, when he will come to
the right about, and command:
Present - ARMS ;
when arms will be presented, officers saluting.
Seeing this executed, he will face about
commanding officer, salute, and report, "Sir, the parade is formed."
The adjutant will then, on intimation to that effect, take his station
three paces on the left of the commanding officer, one pace retired,
passing round his rear.
The commanding officer, having acknowledged the salute of the line by
touching his hat, will, after the adjutant has taken his post, draw his
sword, and command:
1. Battalion. 2. Shoulder
and add such exercises as he may think proper, concluding with:
Order - ARMS;
then return his sword, and direct the adjutant to receive the reports
The adjutant will now pass round the right of the commanding officer,
advance upon the line, halt midway between him illld the line of
company officers, and command:
598 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
1. First sergeants, to the front
and centre. 2. MARCH.
At the first command, they will shoulder
sergeants, march two paces to the front, and face inward. At the second
command, they will march to the centre, and halt. The adjutant will
1. Front-FACE. 2. Report.
At the last word, each in succession,
the right, will salute by bringing the left hand smartly across the
breast to the right shoulder, and report the result of the roll-call
previously made on the company parade.
The adjutant again commands:
1. First sergeants, outward
- FACE. 2. To your posts
when they will resume their places, and order arms. The adjutant will
now face to the commanding officer, salute, report absent officers, and
give the result of the first sergeant's reports. The commanding officer
will next direct the orders to be read, when the adjutant will face
about, and announce:
Attention to Orders.
He will then read the orders.
The orders having been read, the
adjutant will face
to the commanding officer, salute, and report; when, on an intimation
from the commander, he will face again to the line, and announce:
Parade is dismissed.
All the officers will now return their
inward, and close on the adjutant, he having taken position in their
line, the field officers on the flanks. The adjutant commands:
1. Front - FACE. 2. Forward -MARCH
when they will march forward, dressing on the centre, the music
playing, and when within six paces of the commander, the adjutant will
give the word:
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 599
The officers will then salute the
by raising the hand to the cap, and there remain until he shall have
communicated to them such instructions as he may have to give, or
intimates that the ceremony is finished. As the officers
disperse, the first sergeants will close the ranks of their respective
companies, and march them to the company parades, where they will be
dismissed, the band continuing to play until the companies clear the
All field and company officers and men
present at dress parades, unless especially excused, or on some duty
incompatible with such attendance.
A dress parade once a day will not be
dispensed with, except on extraordinary and urgent occasions.
Review of a
battalion of Infantry.
789; Preparatory to a review, the
cause a camp color to be placed 80 or 100 paces, or more, according to
the length of the line, in front of, and opposite to, where the centre
of the battalion will rest, where the reviewing officer is supposed to
take his station; and, although he may choose to quit that position,
still the color is to be considered as the point to which all the
movements and formations are relative.
The adjutant will also cause points to
be marked at
suitable distances, for the wheelings of the divisions; so that their
right flanks, in marching past, shall only be about four paces from the
camp-color, where it is supposed the reviewing officer places himself
to receive the salute.
The battalion being formed in the order
of battle, at shouldered arms, the colonel will command:
1.Battalion, prepare for review.
2. To the rear open order . 3. MARCH
At the word march,
the field and staff officers dismount; the company officers and the
color-rank advance four paces in front of the front rank, and place
themselves opposite to their respective places in the order of battle.
The color-guard replace the color-rank. 'The staff officers place
themselves, according to rank, three paces on the
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND
right of the rank of company officers, and one pace from each other;
the music takes post as at a parade. The non-commissioned staff take
post one pace from each other, and three paces on the right of the
front rank of the battalion.
When the ranks are aligned, the colonel will command:
and place himself eisht paces, and the lieutenant-colonel and major
will place themselves two paces, in front of the rank of company
officers, and opposite to their respective places in the order of
battle, all facing to the front.
When the reviewing officer presents
the centre, and is fifty or sixty paces distant, the colonel will face
about, and command:
Present - ARMS ;
and resume his front. The men present arms, and the officers salute, so
as to drop their swords with the last motion of the firelock. The
non-commissioned staff salute by bringing the sword to a poise, the
hilt resting on the breast, the blade in front of the face, inclining'
a little outward. The music will play, and all the drums beat,
according to the rank of the reviewing officer. The colors only salute
such persons as, from their rank, and by regulation (see No. 730), are
entitled to that honor. If the reviewing officer be junior in rank to
the commandant of the parade, no compliment will be paid to him, but he
will be received with arms carried, and the officers will not salute as
the column passes in review.
The reviewing officer haying halted, and
acknowledged the salute of the line by touching or raising his cap or
hat, the colonel will face about and command:
Shoulder - ARMS ;
when the men shoulder their pieces; the officers and non-commissioned
staff recover their swords with the last motion, and the colonel faces
to the front.
The reviewing officer will then go
right, the whole remaining perfectly steady, without. paying any
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 601
while he passes along the front of the battalion, and proceeds round
the left flank, and along the rear of the file-closers, to the right
While the reviewing officer is going round the battalion, the baud will
play, and will cease when he has returned to 1he right flank of the
When the reviewing officer turns off, to
himself by the camp-color in front, the co1onel will face to the line,
1. Close order. 2.
At the first command, the field and
will face to the right about, and at the second command, all persons,
except the colonel, will resume their places in the order of battle;
the field and staff officers mount.
The reviewing officer having taken his position near the camp-color,
the colonel will command;
1. By company, right wheel. 2. Quick-
MARCH. B. Pass in
review. 4. Column, forward. 5. Guide right. 6. MARCH
The battalion, in column of companies,
front, will then, in common time, and at shouldered arms, be put in
motion; the colonel four paces in front of the captain of the
leading company; the lieutenant-colonel on a line with the leading
company; the major on a line with the rear company; the adjutant on a
line with the second company; the sergeant-major on a line with the
company next preceding the rear-each six paces from the flank (left)
opposite to the reviewing officer; the staff officers in one rank,
according to the order of precedency, from the right, four paces, in
rear of the column; the music, preceded by the principal musician. six
paces before the colonel; the pioneers, preceded by a corporal. four
paces before the principal musician; and the quartermaster sergeant two
paces from the side opposite to the guides, and in line with the
All other officers and non-commissioned
will march past in the places prescribed for them in the march of an
open column. The guides and soldiers will keep their heads
to the front passing in review.
602 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
The color-bearer will remain in the
ranks while passing and saluting.
The music will begin to play at the
march, and after passing the reviewing officer, wheel to the left out
of the column, and take a position opposite and facing him, and will
continue to play until the rear of the column shall have passed him,
when it will cease, and follow in the rear of the battalion, unless the
battalion is to pass in quick time also, in which case it will keep its
The officers will salute the reviewing
they arrive within six paces of him, and recover their swords when six
paces past him. All officers, in saluting, will cast their eyes towards
the reviewing officer.
The colonel, when he has saluted at the
head of the
battalion, will place himself near the reviewing officer, and will
remain there until the rear has passed, when he will rejoin the
The colors will salute the reviewing
entitled to it, when within six paces of him, and be raised when they
have passed by him ail equal distance. The drums will beat a march, or
ruffle, according to the rank of the reviewing officer, at the same
time that the colors salute.
When the column has passed the reviewing
the colonel will direct it to the ground it marched from, and command:
in time for the guides to cover. The column having arrived on its
ground, the colonel will command:
1. Column. 2. HALT ;
form it in order of battle, and cause the ranks to be opened. The
review will terminate by the whole saluting as at the beginning.
If, however, instructions have been
to march the troops past in quick time also, the colonel will, instead
of changing the guides, halting the column, and wheeling it into line,
as above directed, give the command:
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 603
1. Quick time. 2.
In passing the reviewing officer again,
will be offered by either officers or men. The music will have kept its
position opposite the reviewing officer, and at the last command will
commence playing, and, as the column approaches, will place itself in
front of, and march off with the column, and continue to play until the
battalion is halted on its original ground of formation. The review
will terminate in the same manner as prescribed above. 1
The colonel will afterwards cause the
perform such exercises and manoeuvres as the reviewing officer may
When two or more battalions are to be
will be formed in parade order, with the proper intervals, and will
also perform the same movements that are laid down for a single
battalion, observing the additional directions that are given for such
movements when applied to the line. The brigadier-general and his
staff, on foot, will place themselves opposite the centre of the
brigade; the brigadier-general two paces in front of the rank of
colonels; his aid two paces on his right, and one retired; and the
other brigade staff officers, those having the rank of field officers,
in the rank of lieutenant-colonels and majors; and those below that
rank, in the rank of company officers.
In passing in review, a major-general
will be four
paces in front of the colonel of the leading battalion of his division;
and the brigadier-general will be on the right of the colonels of the
leading battalions of their brigades; staff officers on the left of
When the line exceeds two battalions,
officer may cause them to march past in quick time only. In such cases
the mounted officers only will salute.
A number of companies less than a
battalion will be
reviewed as a battalion, and a single company as if it were with the
battalion. In the latter case, the company may pass in column of
If several brigades are to be reviewed together, or in one line, this
further difference will be observed: the reviewing personage,
1 Or the battalion may
pass a third time at the double quick, and then re-form.
604. MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
joined by the general of the division, on the right of his division,
will proceed down the line, parallel to its front, and when near the
brigadier-generals respectively, will be saluted by their brigades in
succession. The music of each, after the prescribed salute, will play
while the reviewing personage is in front, or in rear of it, and only
In marching in review, with several
common time, the music of each succeeding battalion will commence to
play when the music of the preceding one has ceased, in order to follow
its battalion. When marching in quick time, the music will begin to
ploy when the rear company of the preceding battalion has passed the
The reviewing officer or personage will
the salute by raising, or taking off, his cap or hat, when the
commander of the troops salutes him; and also when the colors pass. The
remainder of the time occupied by the passage of the troops he will be
Review of a
Regiment of Cavalry.
740. The regiment being in line, the
pace in advance of the centre of their companies, the lieutenants
commanding platoons one pace in advance of the centre of their
platoons, the colonel commands:
1. Attention. 2. Prepare for
review. 3. Rear rank open order. 4. MARCH. 5. Right-DRESS. 6.
At the fourth command the ranks are
opened, all the
officers in the rank of file-closers advancing to the front, and
placing themselves on the line of officers, opposite to the positions
they before occupied. The staff officers place themselves on the right
of the rank of company officers, according to their relative rank, one
pace from each other. The quartermaster-sergeant and the
sergeant-major, are on the right of the front rank of the regiment.
The colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major,
and adjutant are posted ail in order of battle.
The music is formed at the same time in
one rank on the right of the regiment, and ten paces from it.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 605
After the ranks are opened, the colonel
1. Attention. 2. Draw
In this parade order, the regiment
approach of the personage who is to review it; for whose guidance a
camp-color will have been placed eighty or one hundred and fifty paces
in front of the centre, according to the extent of the line and the
plain in front of it.
When the reviewing personage is midway
camp-color and the colonel, the latter turns his horse to the right.
about on his ground, and commands:
I. Attention. 2. Present
and resumes his proper front. The officers all salute.
When the reviewing personage, who has
the proper compliments are paid, advances, the colonel brings his sabre
to a carry, turns about as before to the line, and commands:
I. Attention. 2. Carry-SABRE.
When the whole line remains perfectly
steady, except the colonel, who resumes his proper front.
The reviewing personage now turns off to
of the regiment, passes thence, in front of all the officers, to the
left, around the left, and, behind the rank of file-closers, to the
right again. While he is passing around the regiment, no matter what
his rank, the music will play; and when he turns off to take his
station near the camp-color, the music will cease.
When the music ceases, the colonel turns
about, and commands:
1. Attention. 2. Rear rank, close
order. 3. MARCH.
At the command march, all the officers
from the rank of file-closers return to their position in that rank.
The reviewing personage having taken a
the camp-color, previously placed at a proper distance, the colonel
causes the regiment to break into column of companies, right in front,
Pass in Review.
606 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND
At this command the band and trumpeters
the head of the regimental column, six paces in front of the colonel.
The quartermaster-sergeant places himself ten paces in front of the
colonel, two paces from the flank opposite to the guides.
The quartermaster, surgeon, etc., in one
the order in which they are named, four paces in rear of the last
The colonel is six paces in front of the
captain of the leading cumpany.
The lieutenant-colonel on a line with
the first company, six paces from the flank opposite to the guide.
The major on a line with the last
company, six paces from the side opposite to the guide.
The adjutant on a line with the second
company, six paces from the flank opposite to the guide.
The sergeant-major on a line with the
to the rear, six paces from the flank opposite to the guide.
Captains, two paces in advance of the
their companies. Chiefs of platoons, two paces in advance of the centre
of their platoons.
Officers of the rank of file-closers, on
the side opposite the guide, on a line with the chiefs of platoons.
The column is then put in march, at a
walk, with the guide on the side next to the reviewing personage.
The column first passes at a walk, and
afterwards, if required, at a trotĚ.
When the head of the column arrives
paces of the reviewing personage, the music commences to play.
The band having passed, the chief
musician causes it
to wheel out of the column and take position opposite to the reviewing
personage j the music continues to play until the last company has
passed, when it ceases, and follows in the rear.
Passing at a walk, all the officers
salute with the
sabre as they successively arrive within six paces of the reviewing
personage, turning their heads towards him.
If more than one regiment passes, the
regiments will march with intervals of about forty paces between them.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 607
Review of a
battery of artillery.
741. The battery being in line with the
trumpeters on the right, the captain commands:
1. Attention. 2. Prepare for
review. 3. To the rear open order, 4. MARCH. 5. Right-DRESS. 6.
At the third command, the chief of the
caissons commands, caissons-left reverse, and places himself on the
right flank sixteen yards in rear of the line of pieces, facing to the
left, to mark the point where the right of the line of caissons is to
rest. In horse artillery the distance is twenty yards.
At the same command, the gunners face
detachments to the rear in foot artillery, by the command about -face;
and in horse artillery, they command, backward.
At the command march, repeated by the
chief of the
line of caissons, the caissons reverse to the left, move to the rear,
reverse again to the left, and align themselves by appropriate commands
from the chief of the line of caissons. As soon as the ground is
unmasked, the gunners repeat the command march, at which the cannoneers
in foot artillery march forward, and are formed six yards in rear of
their pieces; the chiefs of caissons joining their detachments at the
same time. In horse artillery the cannoneers rein back and are halted
by the gunners at the same distance.
At the fifth command the battery is
pieces and detachments by the captain, and the caissons by the chief of
the line of caissons. At the sixth command, given by the captain when
the alignment is completed, the chief of the line of caissons takes his
post as in line. The captain then commands:
Draw - SWORDS.
This is executed by the officers,
officers, and detachments only, and the captain takes his post as in
In this order the battery awaits the
approach of the
reviewing officer. When he is midway between the camp color and the
captain, the latter turns his horse to the right about and commands:
608 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
Present - SWORDS.
He immediately resumes his front and
officers, noncommissioned officers, and detachments, all salute as in
cavalry; and the music plays according to the rank of the reviewing
The reviewing officer having halted and
the salute. the captain brings his sword to a carry, turns about to the
line as before, and commands:
Carry - SWORDS.
He immediately resumes his front, the
officer turns off to the right of the battery, passes along its front,
and returns to the right by passing between the lines of carriages or
in rear of the caissons. While the reviewing officer is passing around
the battery, the music plays. It ceases when he turns off to take his
post at the camp color.
When the music ceases, the captain turns
about and commands:
In horse artillery the first and second
not given. At the fourth command, the gunners in foot artillery
command, left -face, and in horse artillery, forward.
At the command march, repeated by the
cannoneers in mounted artillery take their posts as prescribed in the
school of the piece. The caissons, and in horse artillery the
cannoneers, close to their proper distances in line.
The reviewing officer having taken a
the camp color, the captain causes the cannoneers to mount, if in foot
artillery, and breaks the battery into column of sections to the right
by the usual commands. He then commands:
Pass in review;
and puts the column in march, at a walk, with the guide to the right.
The captain then places himself at the head of the column, four yards
in advance of the chief of the leading section. The
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 609
trumpeters march four yards in advance of the captain; and the chief of
the line of caissons outside the column, opposite the centre, and four
yards from the left flank.
When the head of the column has arrived
yards of the reviewing officer, the music begins to play; and as soon
as the latter has passed, it wheels out of the column to a position in
front of the reviewlng officer, where it faces him, and
to play until the column has passed. It then ceases, follows in rear of
the battery, and resumes its place at the head of the column after the
next change of direction.
All the officers salute in succession as
within six yards of the reviewing officer; casting their eyes towards
him at the same time, and bringing their swords to a carry after having
passed him six yards. As soon as the captain has saluted, he places
himself near the reviewing officer, remains until the rear has passed,
and then rejoins his battery.
The column is so conducted as to march
the line on which the battery is to form, and far enough in its rear to
enable the column to wheel into line. It is then wheeled into line, the
ranks opened, and the review terminated by a salute as at the
When instructions have been previously
given to pass
a second time, either at a trot or gallop, it will be done before
wheeling into line; the officers passing the second time without
When artillery has been passing in
review with other
troops, and is marching in prolongation of the line on which the
different corps are to form, it may be wheeled by sections to the
right, and, after gaining the necessary distance, countermarched and
established on the line.
When a battery is to march past in line,
column of half batteries, it will be done according to the principles
already described. In line the officers will be at their usual posts.
In column of half batteries the captain will be two yards in advance of
the chief of the leading half battery; each chief of half battery two
yards in front of the centre of his command; the chief of the centre
section on the left of the leading half battery, four yards from the
610 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
leading driver; and the chief of the line of caissons in the same
position with respect to the rear half battery.
In all cases the trumpeters are four
yards in front
of the captain. When the battery is to be minutely inspected, the
captain will cause the ranks of the detachments to be opened, if
required, by the commands:
1. Detachments. 2. To the rear open
order. 3. MARCH.
Which will be executed as in infantry or
cavalry, as the case may require.
742. At the first call for
guard-mounting, the men
warned for duty turn out on their company parades for inspection by the
first sergeants j anti at the second call, repair to the regimental or
garrison parade, conducted by the first sergeants. Each detachment, as
it arrives, will, under the direction of the adjutant, take post on the
left of the one that preceded it, in open order, arms shouldered, and
bayonets fixed; the supernumeraries five paces in the rear of the men
of their respective companies; the first sergeants in rear of them. The
sergeant-major will dress the ranks, count the files, verify the
details, and when the guard is formed, report to the adjutant, and take
post two paces on the left of the front rank.
The adjutant then command front, when
the officer of
the guard takes post twelve paces in front of the centre, the sergeants
in one rank, four paces in the rear of the officers; and the corporals
in one rank, four paces in the rear of the sergeants-all facing to the
front. The adjutant then assigns their places in the guard.
The adjutant will then command:
1. Officer and non-commissioned
officers. 2. ABOUT --FACE.
3. Inspect your guards
The non-commissioned officers then take
their posts. The commander of the guard then commands:
1. Order - ARMS. 2. Inspection
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOI'S, ETC. 611
and inspects his guard. When there is no commissioned officer on the
guard, the adjutant will inspect it. During inspection the band will
The inspection ended, the officer of the
post as though the guard were a company of a battalion, in open order
under review; at the same time, also, the officers of the day will take
post in front of the centre of the guard; the old officer of the day
three paces on the right of the new officer of the day, one pace
The adjutant will now command:
1. Parade - REST. 2. Troop - Beat off;
when the music, beginning on the right, will beat down the line on
front of' the officer of the guard to the left, and back to its place
in the right, where it will cease to play.
The adjutant then commands:
1. Attention. 2. Shoulder
- ARMS. 3. Close order
At the word close order, tIle officer
about; at march, resume his post in line. The adjutant then commands:
Present - ARMS.
At which he will face to the new officer
of the day,
salute, and report, "Sir, the guard is formed." The new officer of the
day, after acknowledging the salute, will direct the adjutant to march
the guard in review, or by flank to its post. But if' the adjutant' be
senior to the officer of the day, he will report without saluting with
the sword then, or when marching the guard in review.
In review, the guard march past the
officer of the
day, according to the order of review, conducted by the adjutant,
marching on the left of the first division; the sergeant-major on the
left of the last division.
When the column has passed the officer
of the day,
the officer of the guard marches it to its post, the adjutant and
sergeant-major retiring. The music, which has wheeled out of the
column, and taken post opposite the officer of the day, will cease, and
the old officer of the day salute, and give the old or standing orders
612 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
new officer of the day. The supernumeraries, at the same time, will be
marched by the first sergeants to their respective company parades, and
In bad weather, or at night, or after
marches, the ceremony of turning off may be dispensed with, but not the
Grand guards, and other brigade guards,
organized and mounted on the brigade parade by the staff officer of the
parade, under the direction of the field officer of the day of the
brigade, according to the principles here prescribed for a police guard
of a regiment. The detail of each regiment is assembled on the
regimental parade, verified by the adjutant, and marched to the brigade
parade by the senior officer of the detail. After inspection and
review, the officer of the day directs the several guards to their
The officer of the old guard, having his
guard paraded, on the approach of the new guard, commands:
The new guard will march, in quick time,
old guard, at shouldered arms, officers saluting, and take post four
paces on its right, where, being aligned with it, its commander will
Present - ARMS.
The two officers will then approach each
salute. They will then return to their respective guards, and command:
1. Shoulder - ARMS. 2.
The officer of the new guard will now
detail for the advanced guard to be formed and marched to its post, the
list of the guard made and divided into three reliefs, experienced
soldiers placed over the arms of the guard and at the remote and
responsible posts, and the young soldiers in posts near the guard for
instruction in their duties, and will himself proceed to take
possession of the guard-house, or guard-tent, and the articles and
prisoners in charge of the guard.
During the time of relieving the
sentinels, and of calling in the
HONORS PAID BY THE TROOP
S, ETC. 613
small posts, the old commander will give to the new all the information
and instructions relating to his post.
relief haying been
designated and ordered two paces to the front, the corporal of the new
guard will take charge of it, and go to relieve the sentinels,
accompanied by the corporal of the old guard, who will take command of
the old sentinels, when the whole are relieved.
If the sentinels are numerous, the sergeants are to be employed, as
well as the corporals, in relieving them.
The relief, with arms at a support, in
will march by a flank, conducted by the corporal on the side of the
leading front rank man; and the men will be numbered alternately in the
front and rear rank, the man on the right of the front rank being No.
1. Should an officer approach, the corporal will command carry arms,
and resume the support arms when the officer is passed.
The sentinels at the guard-house or
be the first relieved and left behind; the others are relieved in
succession. When a sentinel sees the relief approaching, he will halt
and face to it with his arms at a shoulder. At six paces, the corporal
1. Relief. 2. HALT.
When the relief will halt and carry arms. The corporal will then add,
"No.1," or" No.2," or "No.3," according to the number of the post:
The two sentinels will, with arms at
approach each other, when the old sentinel, under the correction of the
corporal, will whisper the instructions to the new sentinel. This done,
the two sentinels will shoulder arms, and the old sentinel will pass,
in quick time, to his place in rear of the relief. The corporal will
1. Support - ARMS. 2. Forward. 3. MARCIL
And the relief proceeds in the same
manner until the whole are relieved.
614 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
The detachments and sentinels from the
having come in, it will be marched, at shouldered arms, along the front
of the new guard, in quick time, the new guard standing at presented
arms; officers saluting, and the music of both guards beating, except
at the outposts.
On arriving at the regimental or
the commander of the old guard will send the detachments composing it,
under charge of the non-commissioned officers, to their respective
regiments. Before the men are dismissed, their pieces will be drawn or
discharged at a target. On rejoining their companions, the chiefs of
squads will examine the arms, etc., of their men, and cause the whole
to be put away in good order.
When the old guard has marched off fifty
officer of the new guard will order his men to stack their arms, or
place them in the arm-racks.
The commander of the guard will then
acquainted with all the instructions for his post, visit the sentinels,
and question them and the non-commissioned officers relative to the
instructions they may have received from other persons of the old
escorting, and receiving the color of an infantry regiment.
743. When the regiment turns out under
arms, and the
color is wanted, one of the flank companies in its tour, or, if both be
absent, a battalion company, other than that of the color, will be put
in march to receive and escort the color.
The march will be in the following
order, in quick
time and without music: the drum-major and field music, followed by the
band j the escort in column by platoon, right in front, with arms
shifted to the right shoulder (see No. 768), and the color-bearer
between the platoons.
Arrived in front of the tent or quarters
colonel, the escort will form line, the field music and band on the
right, and arms will be carried.
The moment the escort is in line, the
preceded by the first lieutenant, and followed by a sergeant of the
escort, will go to receive the color.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 615
When the color-bearer shall come out,
the lieutenant and sergeant, he will halt before the entrance; the
escort will present arms, and the drums will beat to the color.
After some twenty seconds, the captain
the beat to cease, arms to be shouldered, and then break by platoon
into column; the color-bearer will place himself between the platoons,
and the lieutenant and sergeant will resume their posts.
The escort will march back to the
battalion to the
sound of music in quick time, and in the same order as above.
to the color.
Arrived at the distance of twenty paces
battalion, the escort will halt, and the music cease; the colonel will
place himself six paces before the centre of the battalion, the
color-bearer will approach the colonel, by the front, in quick time;
when at the distance of ten paces, he will halt: the colonel will cause
arms to be presented, and to the color to be played, which being
executed, the color-bearer will take his place in the front rank of the
color-guard, and the battalion, by command, shoulder arms.
The escort, field music, and band, will
quick time to their several places in line of battle, marching by the
rear of the battalion.
The color will be escorted back to the
colonel's tent or quarters in the above order.
escorting and receiving the standard of a cavalry regiment
744. The squadrons of a regiment,
commencing with the first, furnish in turn the escort of the standard.
The captains commanding and the second
captain, alternate in command of the escort.
The escort is composed of two platoons (a troop).
The first platoon of the escort
advanced guard, composed of two men in front, with the carbine or
rifle, advanced, or pistol raised; a corporal and four men with drawn
sabres march ten paces from them.
616 . MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
The trumpeters, formed by fours, and
the adjutant, march ten paces from the four men who precede.
The rest of the platoon with drawn
the lieutenant at its head, marches by fours, ten paces from the
The standard-bearer follows immediately
after, between two sergeants.
The second platoon with drawn sabres,
second lieutenant at the head, follows the standard-bearer, marches by
fours, and furnishes the rear guard, composed of a corporal and two
men, who march with drawn sabres, ten paces in rear of the second
Two other men, with the carbine or rifle
advanced, or pistol raised, march ten paces in rear.
The captain marches four paces from the
left flank opposite to the standard-bearer.
The detachment having arrived where the
kept, without sounding the trumpets, is there formed into line.
The adjutant dismounts, takes the
standard, and gives it to the standard-bearer.
As soon as the standard appears, the
sabres to be presented; the trumpets sound to the standard.
After this signal has been twice
captain orders the sabres to be carried, and breaks in the same order
in which he came; the trumpets sound the march.
When the standard arrives in front of
the right or
left wing of the regiment, the colonel orders the sabres to be drawn;
the trumpets cease to sound, and, with the escort, take their place in
line, passing behind the regiment.
The standard-bearer, accompanied by the
sergeants, moves towards the centre of the regiment, parallel to the
front, and halts before the colonel, fronting the regiment; the colonel
then orders the sabres to be presented, and the trumpets to sound to
the standand; he salutes with the sabre. The standard-bearer
takes his place in line, and the colonel orders the sabres to be
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 617
The field officers salute with the sabre
when the standard passes before them.
The standard receives the same honors on
departure as on its arrival, and is escorted to the colonel's quarters
in the order prescribed above.
one body of troops by another.
745. The commanding officer of the
having notified the commander of the other body of his intention,
brings his command into line, so that it shall be on the right of the
route which it is intended the other shall take. The commander of the
body receiving the compliment, should have his command in column right
in front; and when he sees the other body in line, or receives an
intimation from its commanding officer, that he is ready to receive
him, he puts his column in motion; when its head is within six paces of
the left of the line on its right, the latter will be brought to a
present, and will continue in that position until the rear of the
column has passed the right of the line. The column passes at
shouldered arms, each officer saluting as soon as he comes within six
paces of the left of the line. When the rear of the column has passed
some twenty-five or thirty paces beyond the right of the line, the
column is brought into line, on the same side with the first line. As
soon as this is done, the first line breaks into column right in front,
and marches pa8t the second, receiving the same compliments that it
extended when the other body passed. After marching past, it may be
formed into line again as it was at first, when both commands may be
brought to an order, the officers advancing and being presented; or the
column may halt long enough to allow the other command, now in line, to
re-form column, when both take up the march, the leading column serving
as an escort for the other.
746. The orders of commanders of armies,
brigadiers and regiments, are denominated orders of such an army,
division, etc. And all orders are either general or special. Orders are
MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND
bered, general and special; in separate series, each beginning with the
General orders provide for the
discipline, instruction, and movement of the troops ; announce the
hours for roll-calls and duties; then number and kind of guards, and
the time when they shall be relieved; police regulations, and the
prohibitions required by circumstances and localities; returns to be
made, and their forms; laws and regulations for the forces; promotions
and appointments; eulogies or censures to corps or individuals, and
generally, what ever it may be important to make known to the whole
Special orders are such as do not
concern the troops
generally, and need not be published to the whole command; such as
relate to the march of some particular corps, the establishment of some
post, the detaching of individuals; the granting requests, etc., etc.
An order will state, at the head, the
and date, and at the foot, the name of the commander who gives it,
followed by the signature and title of the staff officer by whom it is
written, for example:
For an army--
Quarters, Army of Occupation,
CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS.
General (or special) Orders, No. l. }
order of General Z. T.,
W. S. B. Adj't General.
For a division-
Quarters, 3d D., Va. M.
WINCHESTER, Va., Dec., I8-.
General (or Special) Orders, No.-. }
order of Major-General A. B.,
C. D., Assistant Adj't General,
or Division Inspector.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 619
For a brigade-
Quarters, 9th Brigade, Va. M.,
CAMP NEAR --, Jan., 18-.
General (or Special) Orders,} No. -.
order of Brigadier General F. G.
H. I., Assistant Adj't-General, or Brigade Inspector
For a regiment-
Quarters, 20th Regiment, Va. M.
C- N., August, 18-.
Orders (or Special Orders), } No.-.
order of Colonel O. P. Q.,
R. S., Adjutant.
Orders are ordinarily transmitted
through all the
intermediate commanders in the order of rank. 'When an intermediate
commander is omitted, the officer who gives the order shall inform him,
and he who receives it shall report it to his immediate superior.
The orderly hours being fixed at each head-quarters, the staff officers
and chiefs of the special services, either attend in person, or send
their assistants to obtain the orders of the day; and the first
sergeants of companies repair for that purpose to the regimental or
During marches and active operations,
and when the
regular orderly hours cannot be observed, all orders will be either
sent direct to the troops, or the respective commanders or corps will
be informed when to send to head-quarters for them.
747. Musters of the volunteers and
militia are made
at least once a year, by the brigade inspectors. Where troops are in
actual service musters are made every two months; usually on the last
day of every second month. In this case they are made by an inspector
general, if present, otherwise by an officer specially designated by
620 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
AND MILITIA .
the commander of the army, division, or brigade; and in the absence of
the inspector-general or officer specially designated, the muster is
made by the commander of the post.
When the inspecting officer cannot
inspect all the
troops himself on the day specified, the commanding officer will
designate such other competent officers as may be necessary, to assist
him. All stated musters of the troops should be preceded by a minute
and careful inspection in the prescribed mode ; and if the command be
more than a company, by a review, before inspection.
The mustering officer having inspected
in succession, beginning on the right, returns to the first company to
muster it. The company being at ordered arms, with open ranks, as when
inspected, the captains will, as the mustering officer approaches,
The mustering officer will then call
over the names
on the roll, and each man, as his name is called, will distinctly
answer here, and bring his piece to a carry, and to an order.
After each company is mustered, the
order it to be marched to the company parade, and there dismissed to
quarters, to await the inspector's visit. After mustering the
companies, the mustering officer, attended by the company commanders,
will visit the guard and hospital, to verify the presence of the men
reported there. The muster and pay rolls are made on printed forms in
accordance with the directions on them. On the muster rolls companies
are designated by the name of the captain, whether present or absent.
The pay roll is left blank to fill up by the paymaster.
THE ROSTER, OR DETAILS FOR
748. The duties performed by detail are
classes. The .first class comprises, first, grand guards and outposts;
second; interior guards, as of magazine, hospital, etc.; third,
orderlies; fourth, police guards.
HONORS PAID BY TIlE
TROOPS, ETC. 621
The second class comprises, first,
protect labor on military works, as field works, communications, etc.;
second, working parties on such works; third, detachments to protect
The third class are all fatigues,
without arms, in or out of camp.
I n the cavalry, stable-guards form a
separate roster, and count before fatigue.
The rosters are distinct for each class.
are nallled on them in the order of rank. The details are taken in
succession in the order of the roster, beginning at the head.
Lieutenants form one roster, the first and second lieutenants are
entered on it alternately. The senior first lieutenant is the first on
the roster; the senior second lieutenant is the second, etc. The
captains form one roster, and are exempt from fatigue, except to
superintend issues. A captain commanding a battalion temporarily, is
exempt from detail, and duty falling to him passes. Lieutenant-colonels
and majors are on one roster. They may be detailed for duties of the
first and second classes, when the importance of the guards and
detachments requires it. Their roster is kept at division and brigade
head-quarters. The rosters of the captains and lieutenants are kept at
regimental head-quarters, and those of the companies by the first
sergeants. In the company, sergeants, corporals, and privates form
Officers, non-commissioned officers, and
take duties of the first class in the order stated, viz., the first for
the detail, takes the grand guards; the next, the interior guards; the
last, the police guard ; and the same rule in regard to the details and
duties of the second class. In the details for the third class, the
senior officer takes the largest party. The party first for detail
takes the service out of camp.
When the officer whose tour it is, is
not able to
take it, or is not present at the hour of marching, the next after him
takes it. When a guard has passed the chain of sentinels, or an
interior guard has reached its post, the officer whose tour it was
cannot then takE- it. He takes the tour of the officer who has taken
his. When an officer is prevented by sickness from taking his tour, it
passes. These rules apply equally to non-commissioned officers and
622 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
AND MILITIA .
Duties of the first and second class are
the roster when the guards or detachments have passed the chain of
sentinels, or an interior guard has reached its post; fatigue duties
when the parties have passed the chain or begun the duties in camp.
Every officer, non-commissioned officer,
on duty of the first class, or who is of the next detail for such duty,
takes, when relieved, the duty of the second or third class that has
fallen to him during that time, unless he has marched for detachment of
more than twenty-four hours.
Soldiers march with knapsacks for all
duties of the
first class; and with arms and equipments complete on all working
parties out of camp, unless otherwise ordered. In the cavalry, horses
are packed for all mounted service; and dismounted men, and those whose
horses are not in order, are preferred for the detail for dismounted
service. Those who are mounted are never employed on those services, if
the number of the other class are sufficient.
Every non-commissioned officer and
soldier in the
cavalry detaileq for dismounted service must, before he marches, take
to the first sergeant of his troop, or sergeant of his squad, his horse
eqnipments and valise ready packed. In case of alarm, the first
sergeant sees that the horses of these men are equipped and led to the
In the field, artillery-men are not
called upon for any duty outside their own batteries or camps.
These rules in regard to the roster
apply also to service in garrison.
DUTIES OF GUARDS.
749. Sentinels will be relieved every
unless the state of the weather, or other causes, should make it
necessary or proper that it be done at shorter or longer intervals.
Each relief, before mounting, is
inspected by the
commander of the guard or of its post. The corporal reports to him, and
presents the old relief on its return.
The countersign, or watchword, is given
persons as arc entitled to pass during the night, and to officers,
HONORS PAID BY TIlE
TROOPS, ETC 623
Officers, and sentinels of the guard.
guards receive the countersign only when ordered by the commander of
The parole is imparted to such officers
only as have
a right to visit the guards, and to make the grand rounds; and to
officers commanding guards.
As soon as the new guard has been
marched off, the
officer of the day will repair to the office of the commanding officer
and report for orders.
The officer of the day must see that the
the guard is furnished with the parole and countersign before retreat.
The officer of the day visits the guards
day at such times as he may deem necessary, and makes his rounds at
night at least once after 12 o'clock.
Upon being relieved, the officer of the
make such remarks in the report of the officer of the guard as
circumstances require, and present the same at head-quarters.
Commanders of guards leaving their posts
their sentinels, or on other duty, are to mention their intention, and
the probable time of their absence, to the next in command.
The officers are to remain constantly at
guards, except while visiting their sentinels, or necessarily engaged
elsewhere on their proper duty.
Neither officers nor soldiers are to
take off their clothing or accoutrements while they are on guard.
The officer of the guard must see that
countersign is duly communicated to the sentinels a little before
When a fire breaks out, or any alarm is
raised in a garrison, all guards are to be immediately under arms.
Inexperienced officers are put on guard
as supernumeraries, for the purpose of instruction.
Sentinels will not take orders or allow
to be relieved, except by an officer or non-commissioned officer of
their guard or party, the officer of the day, or the commanding
officer; in which case the orders will be immediately notified to the
commander of the guard by the officer giving them.
624 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
Sentinels will report every breach of
orders or regulations they are instructed to enforce.
Sentinels must keep themselves on the
observing everything that takes place within sight and hearing of their
post. They will carry their arms habitually at support, or on either
shoulder, but will never quit them. In wet weather, if there be no
sentry-box, they will secure arms.
No sentinel shall quit his post or hold
conversation not necessary to the proper discharge of his duty.
All persons, of whatever rank in the
service, are required to observe respect towards sentinels.
In case of disorder, a sentinel must
call out the guard; and if a fire take place, he
must cry-" Fire!" adding the number of his
post. If in either case the danger be great, he must discharge his fire
lock before calling out.
It is the duty of a sentinel to repeat
made from posts more distant from the main body of the guard than his
own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant as not to be heard by
the guard, either directly or through other sentinels.
Sentinels will halt, come to attention,
and present arms to general and field officers, to the officer of the
day, and to the commanding officer of the post. To all other officers
they will carry arms.
When a sentinel in his sentry-box sees
an officer approaching, he will stand at attention, and as the officer passes
will salute him, by bringing the left hand briskly to the musket, as
high as the right shoulder.
The sentinel at any post of the guard,
when he sees
any body of troops, or an officer entitled to compliment, approach,
must call: "Turn out
the guard ,'"
and announce who approaches.
Guards do not turn out as a matter of
after sunset; but sentinels will, when officers in uniform approach,
pay them proper attention, by facing to the proper front, and standing
steady at shouldered arms. This will be observed until the evening is
so far advanced that the sentinels begin challenging.
After retreat (or the hour appointed by the commanding officer), until
broad daylight, a sentinel challenges every person who
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 625
approaches him, taking, at the same time, the position of arms port. He will suffer no person to
come nearer than within reach of his bayonet, until the person has
given the countersign.
A sentinel, in challenging, will call
out - " Who comes
with the countersign,"
and he be instructed to pass persons with the countersign, he will
reply -" Advance,
friend, with the countersign." If answered -" Friends," he will reply -" Halt,
friends. Advance one with the countersign." If answered -" Relief"
"Patrol," or " Grand rounds," he will reply- " Halt.
Advance, sergeant (or corporal) with the countersign,"
and satisfy himself that the party is what it represents itself to be.
If he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, if the
wrong countersign be given, or if the persons have not the countersign,
he will cause them to stand, and call- "Corporal of
In the daytime, when the sentinel before
the guard sees the officer of the day approach, he will call- "Turn out
the guard, officer of the day." The guard will be paraded,
and salute with presented arms.
When any person approaches a post of the
night, the sentinel before the post, after challenging, causes him to
halt until examined by a non-commissioned officer of the guard. If it
be the officer of the day, or any other officer entitled to inspect the
guard and to make the rounds, the non-commissioned officer will call-
"Turn out the guard," when the guard will be paraded at shouldered
arms, and the officer of the guard, if he thinks necessary, may demand
the countersign and parole.
The officer of the day, wishing to make
will take an escort of a non-commissioned officer and two men. When the
rounds are challenged by a sentinel, the sergeant will answer -" Grand rounds," and the sentinel will
reply-" Halt, grand
rounds. Advance, sergeant, with the countersign." Upon which the sergeant
advances and gives the countersign. The sentinel will then cry- "Advance,
and stand at a shoulder till they have passed.
When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and is answered-"Grand
he will reply-" Halt, grand
rounds. Turn out
626 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
guard; grand rounds."
which the guard will be drawn up at shouldered arms. The officer
commanding the guard will then order a sergeant and two men to advance;
when within ten paces, the sergeant challenges. The sergeant of the
grand rounds answers-" Grand rounds." The sergeant of the guard
sergeant, with the countersign."
The sergeant of the rounds advances alone, gives the countersign, and
returns to his round. The sergeant of the guard calls to his officer- "
countersign is right,"
on which the officer of the guard calls-"Advance,
The officer of the rounds then advances alone, the guard standing at
shouldered arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the front of
the guard to the officer, who keeps his post on the right, and gives
him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders back his escort,
and, taking a new one, proceeds in the same manner to other guards.
All material instructions given to a
post by persons entitled to make grand rounds, ought to be promptly
notified to the commander of the guard.
Any general officer, or the commander of
a post or
garrison, may visit the guards of his command, and go the grand rounds,
and be received in the same manner as prescribed for the officer of'
FORM OF GUARD REPORT.
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 627
LIST OF THE GUARD.
750. Guards, in time of war, are bodies
of men whose
duties are to secure an army or place from being surprised by an enemy.
By a proper disposition of the guards,
and by a
faithful discharge of the duties imposed upon them, a whole army can at
all times, and under all circumstances, be kept in readiness for
action; the larger part of the army, even in the pursuit of an enemy,
and momentarily expecting to meet him, may with safety seek that
628 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
repose which is so necessary to keep up the physical energies of the
forces; and as the guards generally comprise but a comparatively small
portion of the command, and are frequently relieved, no soldier is
likely to be called upon to endure an amount of fatigue greater than a
man in his vigor ought to bear.
In order that the guards of an army may
properly, they must be so posted as to cover both the front and flanks
of the position, and at the same time have possession of all the
avenues of approach to it. The ordinary arrangement of guards is such,
that no mutter how far the outer line may lie from the main body, it
may rally from point to point, if driven in by an advancing enemy,
gaining strength each time, until it finally reaches the main body.
Thus even the most advanced posts need never be cut off, while it would
be impossible for an enemy to surprise the main body.
The usual arrangement consists of two or
of posts, within relief of each other, and extending around the main
body as a centre, the exterior line throwing out a chain of sentinels
in its front, and 50 distributed as to prevent the approach of anyone
without being seen.
751. The inner line consists of what are
police guards; there is a police guard for each regiment, which is
posted within the regimental camp (see camp of an infantry regiment).
These guards are of sufficient strength to supply a chain of sentinels
along the front and rear of the regiment, connecting it with the
regiments on the right and left, thus forming a chain of sentinels
close to and all around the camp.
The next line consists of a number of
detachments, termed pickets ; they are posted upon the main avenues of
approach to the position, and serve as supports to the exterior lines,
upon which they rally when driven in by the enemy.
Next beyond the pickets is the line of grand
and of course occupying a wider circumference j they are posted in the
most favorable position for observing the enemy, and throw out the
extreme line, called the line of outposts. The line of grand
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 629
guards, while supported by the pickets, in turn furnishes support to
the outposts when necessary.
Besides these various lines, patrols are
between the various posts, to keep the one informed of the condition of
the other; and, also between the outposts and the extreme line of
sentinels, to see that the duties of the latter are properly performed.
This arrangement secures positions
favorable for observation, and mutual support.
"The duties of the outposts, and of the
which form their supports, are strictly those of observation. If
attacked, they offer no resistance further than to enable them to feel
the enemy perfectly, and never lose sight of him. The task of holding
the enemy in cheek by a vigorous resistance, so as to procure
sufficient time for the main body to make its disposition for battle,
is consigned to the pickets." (MAHAN).
752. The police guard is detailed every
each regiment, and consists of two sergeants, three corporals, two
musicians, and men enough to furnish the necessary sentinels and
patrols. The men are taken from all the companies, from each in
proportion to its strength.
The guard is commanded by a lieutenant,
supervision of a captain as regimental officer of the day. It furnishes
ten sentinels at the camp; one over the arms of the guard; one at the
colonel's tent; three on the color front; one of them over the colors;
three, fifty paces in rear of the field officer's tents; and one on
each flank, between it and the next regiment. If it is a flank
regiment, one more sentinel is posted on the outer flank.
An advanced post. is detached from the
composed of a sergeant, a corporal, a drummer, and nine men to furnish
sentinels and the guard over the prisoners. The men are the first of
the guard roster from each company. The men of the advanced post must
not leave it under any pretext. Their meals are sent to the post. The
advanced post furnishes three sentinels; two a few paces in front of
the post, opposite the right and left wing. of the
630 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
regiment, posted so as to see as far as possible to the front, and one
over the arms.
In the cavalry, dismounted men are
preference on thc police guard. The mounted men on guard are sent in
succession, a part at a time, to groom their horses. The advanced post
is always formed of mounted men.
In each company, a corporal has charge
of the stable
guard. His tour begins at retreat, and ends at morning stable-call. The
stable guard is large enough to relieve the men on post every two hours
They sleep in their tents, and are called by the corporal when wanted.
At retreat he closes the streets of the camp with cords, or uses other
precautions to prevent the escape of loose horses.
The officer of the day is charged with
the order and
cleanliness of the camp: a fatigue is furnished to him when the number
of prisoners is insufficient to clean the camp. He has the calls beaten
by the drummer of the guard.
The police guard and the advanced post
pay the same
honors as other guards. They take arms when an armed body approaches.
The sentinel over the colors has orders
permit them to be moved except in the presence of an escort; to let no
one touch them but the color-bearer, or the sergeant of the police
guard when he is accompanied by two armed men.
The sentinels on the color front permit
to take arms from the stacks, except by order of some officer, or a
non-commissioned officer of the guard. The sentinel at the colonel's
tent has orders to warn him, day or night, of any unusual movement in
or about the camp.
The sentinels on the front, flanks, and
that no soldier leaves camp with horse or arms unless conducted by a
non-commissioned officer. They prevent non_commissioned officers and
soldiers from passing out at night, except to go to the sinks, and mark
if they return. They arrest., at any time, suspicions persons prowling
about the camp, and at night, every one who attempts to enter, even the
soldiers of other corps. Arrested persons are sent to the officer of
the guard, who sends them, if necessary, to the officer of the day.
The sentinels on the front of the
advanced post have orders to
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 631
permit neither non-commissioned officers or soldiers to pass the line,
without reporting at the advanced post; to warn the advanced post of
the approach of any armed body, and to arrest all suspicious persons.
The sergeant sends persons so arrested to the officer of the guard, and
warns him of the approach of any armed body.
The sentinel over the arms at the
guards the prisoners, and keeps sight of them, and suffers no one to
converse with them without permission. They are only permitted to go to
the sinks one at a time, and under a sentinel.
If anyone is to be passed out of camp at
officer of the guard sends him under escort to the advanced post, and
the sergeant of the post has him passed over the chain.
At retreat, the officer of the guard has
the roll of
his guard called, and inspects arms, to see that they are loaded and in
order; and visits the advanced post for the same purpose. The sergeant
of the police guard, accompanied by two armed soldiers, folds the
colors and lays them on the trestle in rear of the arms. He sees that
the sutler's stores are then closed, and the men leave them, and that
the kitchen fires are put out at the appointed hour.
The officer of the day satisfies himself
during the night of the vigilance of the police guard and advanced
post. He prescribes patrols and rounds to be made by the officer and
noncommissioned officers of the guard. The officer of the guard orders
them when he thinks necessary, He visits the sentinels frequently.
At reveille, the police guard takes
officer of the guard inspects it and the advanced post. The sergeant
replants the colors in place. At retreat and reveille the advanced post
takes arms; the sergeant makes his report to the officer of the guard
when he visits the post.
When necessary, the camp is covered at
small out-posts, forming a double chain of sentinels: These posts are
under the orders of the commander of the police guard, and are visited
by his patrols and rounds.
The officer of the guard makes his
report of his
tour of service, including the advanced post, and sends it, after the
guard is marched off, to the officer of the day.
632 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
When the regiment marches, the men of
guard return to their companies, except those of the advanced post. In
the cavalry, at the sound "boot and saddle," the officer of the guard
sends one half the men to saddle and pack; when the regiment assembles,
all the men join it.
When the camping party precedes the
the new police guard marches with the camping party, the guard, on
reaching the camp, forms in line thirty paces in front of the centre of
the ground marked for the regiment. The officer of the guard furnishes
the sentinels required by the commander of the camping party. The
advanced post takes its station.
The advanced post of the old police
charge of the prisoners on the march, and marches, bayonets fixed, at
the centre of the regiment. On reaching camp, it turns over the
prisoners to the new advanced post.
758. The detail for the picket is made
daily, and is
composed of a lieutenant, two sergeants, four corporals, a drummer, and
about forty privates for each regiment. For a smaller force, the picket
is in proportion to the strength of the detachment. The duty of the
pickets is to hold the enemy in check, and the points which they take
up should, if possible, be susceptible of good defence; such as
villages, defiles, etc. : when these advantages do not present
themselves, temporary obstacles, such abatis, etc., should be resorted
to. The points occupied by the pickets should be about midway between
the line of outposts and the position of the main body.
Small posts should be thrown forward by
between them and the line of grand guards. These give greater security
to the pickets, and furnish support to the grand guard.
GRAND GUARDS AND OUTPOSTS.
754. The numbers, strength, and position
guards are regulated by the commanders of brigades; in detached corps,
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 633
the commanding officer. When it can be done, the grand guards of
infantry and cavalry are combined, the cavalry furnishing the advanced
sentinels. When the cavalry is weak, the grand guards are infantry, but
furnished with a few cavalry soldiers, to get and carry intelligence of
The strength of the grand guard of a
depend on the strength of the regiments, the nature of the country, the
position of the enemy; and the disposition of the inhabitants. It is
usually commanded by a captain.
Under the supervision of the generals of
and brigade, the grand guards are especially under the direction of a
field officer of the day in each brigade. In case of necessity,
captains may be added to the roster of lieutenant-colonels and majors
for this detail.
Grand guards usually mount at the same
time as the
other guards, but may mount before daybreak if the general of brigade
thinks it necessary to double the outposts at this time. In this case
they assemble and march without noise, and during the march throw out
scouts; this precaution should always be taken in the first posting of
a grand gUard. The doubling of guards weakens the corps and fatigues
the men, and should seldom be resorted to, and never when preparing to
march or fight.
755. A grand guard is conducted to its
post in the
first instance by the field officer of the day. guided by one of the
staff officers who accompanied the general in his reconnaissance. After
the post has been established, the commander sends to the field officer
of the day, when necessary, a soldier of the guard to guide the
relieving guard to the post. He also sends to him in the evening a
corporal or trusty man of the guard, for the note containing the parole
and countersign, and sends them before dark to the outposts. He will
not suffer his guard to be relieved except by a guard of the brigade,
or by special orders from competent authority.
If there is no pass to be observed or
grand guards are placed near the centre of the ground they are to
observe, on sheltered, and, if possible, high ground, the better to
conceal their strength and observe the enemy; they ought not to be
placed near the edge of a wood. When, during the day, they are placed
634 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS
near, or in sight of the enemy, they fall back at night on parts
selected farther to the rear .
After a grand guard is posted, the first
care of the
commander and of the field officer of the day is to get news of the
enemy; then to reconnoitre his position, and the roads, bridges, fords,
and defiles. This reconnoissance determines the force and position of
the outposts and their sentinels day and night. These posts, when of
infantry, should be about 200 paces in front of the line of grand
guards, and of cavalry from 600 to 800; and are commanded by officers
or non-commissioned officers, according to their importance. Cavalry
posts may be relieved every four or eight hours.
The commander of a grand guard receives
instructions from the general and field officers of the day of the
brigade, and instructs the commanders of the outposts as to their
duties, and the arrangements for the defence or retreat. The commanders
of grand guards may, in urgent cases, change the positions of the
outposts. If the outposts are to change their position at night, they
wait until the grand guard has gotten its position, and darkness hides
their movements from the enemy; then march silently and rapidly under
charge of an officer.
In detached corps, small posts of picked
men are at
night sent forward on the roads by which the enemy may attack or turn
the position. They watch the forks of the roads, keep silence, conceal
themselves, light no fires, and often change place. They announce the
approach of an enemy by signals agreed upon, and retreat, by routes
examined during the day, to places selected, and rejoin the guard at
Grand guards have special orders in each
the following in all cases: to inform the nearest posts and the field
officer of the day, or the general of brigade, of the march and
movements of the enemy, and of the attacks they receive or fear; to
examine every person passing near the post, particularly those coming
from without; to arrest suspicious persons, and all soldiers and
camp-followers who try to pass out without permission, and to send to
the general, unless otherwise directed, all country people who come in.
755. All out-guards stand to arms at
night on the approach of
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 635
patrols, rounds, or other parties; the sentinel over the arms will call
The sentinels and videttes are placed on
which they can see farthest, taking care not to break their connection
with each other or with their posts. They are concealed from the enemy
as much as possible by walls, or trees, or elevated ground. It is
generally even of more advantage not to be seen than to see far. They
should not be placed near covers, where the enemy may capture them. A
sentinel should always be ready to fire; videttes carry their carbines
or pistols in their hands. A sentinel must be sure of the presence of
an enemy before he fires; once satisfied of that, he must fire, though
all defence on his part be useless, as the safety of the post may
depend on it. Sentinels fire on all persons deserting to the enemy.
If a sentinel's post must be where he
communicate with the guard, a corporal and three men are detached for
it, or the sentinels are doubled, that one may communicate with the
guard. During the day communication may- be made by signals, such as
raising a. cap or handkerchief. At night sentinels are placed on low
ground, the better to see objects against the sky.
To lessen the duty of rounds, and keep
more men on
the alert at night, sentinels on outposts are relieved every hour. To
prevent sentinels from being surprised, it is sometimes well to precede
the countersign by signals, such as striking the musket with the hand,
striking the hands together, etc.
On the approach of anyone at night, the
outpost sentinel orders" Halt " If the order is not obeyed
after being repeated once, he fires. If obeyed, he calls - "Who goes
answered-"Rounds," or "Patrol," he says-"Advance
with the countersign."
If more than one advance at the same time, or the person who advances
fails to give the countersign or signal agreed on, the sentinel fires,
and falls back on his guard. The sentinel over the arms, as soon as his
hail is answered, turns out the guard, and the corporal goes to
reconnoitre. When it is desirable to hide the position of the sentinel
from the enemy, the hail is replaced by signals; the sentinels give the
signal, and those approaching the counter signal.
636 MANUAL FOR
VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.
With raw troops, or when the light
troops of the
enemy are numerous and active, and when the country is broken or
wooded, the night stormy or dark, sentinels should be doubled. In this
case, while one watches, the other, called a flying
moves about, examining the paths and hollows.
The commanders of grand guards visit the
often; change their position when necessary; make them repeat their
orders; teach them under what circumstances and at what signals to
retire, and particularly not to fall back directly on their guard if
pursued, but to lead the enemy in a circuit.
757. At night, half the men of the grand
post watch under arms, while the rest lie down, arms by their side. The
horses are always bridled; the horsemen hold the reins and must not
sleep. An hour before break of day, infantry grand guards stand to
arms, and cavalry mount. At the outposts some of the infantry are all
night under arms, some of the cavalry on horseback.
The commander of a grand guard regulates
numbers. the hours, and the march of patrols and rounds, according to
the strength of his command, and the necessity for precaution; and,
accompanied by those who are to command the patrols and rounds during
the night, he will reconnoitre all the routes they are to follow.
Patrols and rounds march slowly, in silence, and with great precaution;
halt frequently to listen and examine the ground. The rounds consist
of. an officer or non-commissioned officer, and two or three men.
Towards the break of day the patrols ought to be more frequent, and
sent to greater distances. They examine the hollow ways and ground
likely to conceal an enemy, but with great caution, to avoid being cut
off, or engaged in an unequal combat; if they meet the enemy, they fire
and attempt to stop his march. While the patrols are out, the outposts
are under arms.
Cavalry patrols should examine the
country to a
greater distance than infantry, and report to the infantry guard every
thing they observe. The morning patrols and scouts do not return until
broad daylight; and when they return, the night sentinels are
withdrawn, and the posts for the day resumed.
On their return, commanders of patrols
report in regard to the
HONORS PAID BY THE
TROOPS, ETC. 637
ground and everything they have observed of the movements of the enemy,
or of his posts, and the commander of the grand guard reports to the
field officers of the day. The fires of grand guards should be hidden
by a wall, ditch, or other screen. To deceive the enemy,
are sometimes made on unoccupied ground. Fires are not permitted at
small posts liable to surprise.
If a body of troops attempt to enter the
night, their arrival has been announced, or the commander is known to
or is the bearer of a written order to the commander of the grand
guard, he stops them, and sends the command under escort to the field
officer of the day, and at the same time warns the posts near him.
Bearers of flags are not permitted to
pass the outer
chain of sentinels; their faces are turned from the post or army; if
necessary their eyes are bandaged; a non-commissioned officer stays
with them to prevent indiscretion on the part of sentinels.
The commander of the guard receipts for
and sends them to the field officer of the day or general of brigade,
and dismisses the bearer; but if he has discovered what ought to be
concealed from the enemy, he is detained as long as necessary.
Deserters are disarmed at the outposts,
and sent to
the commander of the grand guard, who gets from them all the
information he can concerning the enemy. If many come at night, they
are received cautiously,
a few at a time.
They are sent in the morning to the field officer of the day, or to the
nearest post or camp, to be conducted to the general of the brigade.
All suspected persons are secreted by the commanders of the outposts.
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