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SOLDIER'S MANUAL OF INFORMATION.
THE OFFICIAL ARTICLES OF WAR; INSTRUCTIONS TO THE
VOLUNTEER; ARMY REGULATIONS FOR CAMP
AND SERVICE; RATION AND PAY LISTS; GENERAL
RULES AND ORDERS ON ALL OCCASIONS;
HINTS ON FOOD AND ITS PREPARA-
TION; HEALTH DEPARTMENT;
WITH VALUABLE REME-
DIES AND INSTRUC-
TOGETHER WITH A COMPLETE
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS.
BY LOUIS LE GRAND, M. D.
BEADLE AND COMPANY,
NEW YORK: 141 WILLIAM STREET.
LONDON: 44 PATERNOSTER ROW
The great need of a Hand-Book of popular and useful
Information for the Soldier, adapted to the exigencies of a soldier's
many wants, has impelled the publishers to have prepared, at great
trouble and expense, this Manual of Instruction and Information. It
will be found very complete
in all departments, and contains, beyond doubt, more truly desirable
matter for the soldier and officer than any two works yet presented to
The Articles of War are justly denominated "The
Soldier's Gospel;" yet this is the first instance we believe in which
they have been printed for general and popular circulation.
The unique and novel Dictionary of Military Terms
and Science is all that any military student or soldier could ask :-it
is very complete.
The publishers trust that the low price at which
this valuable HandBook is sold will make it acceptable to all, and
render it, what it was designed to be,
A SOLDIER'S COMPANION AND GUIDE.
NEW YORK, June 10th, 1861.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by BEADLE AND COMPANY,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.
WE have sought, in the preparation of this work, to
supply a want painfully felt by officers as well as soldiers, of a Hand
and Text Book for the Soldier; embracing, besides the usual instruction
upon the routine and duties of service-life, all the information in
regard to Food and its varied preparation-Health, and how to retain
it-Special Directions for Special Emergencies, etc., etc. Such a manual
has not been, singularly enough, yet produced; and, in essaying the
task of supplying the want, we have studied to leave nothing unsaid
which could prove useful and necessary to the instruction and comfort
of the soldier.
We find, in consulting authorities, considerable
discrepancy in the statements of different authors upon the same point.
Some of these are glaringly wrong,
and are designed to prove a source of disappointment to soldiers and of
annoyance to officers. Thus, some parties state that, previous to being
called into government service, the infantry volunteer and militia
privates get twenty-one dollars per month, pay. They only receive
eleven dollars. The Oath of Allegiance has been misprinted. The Pay
Department table has been incorrectly reproduced. The Rations list has
been materially misstated in two recent "cheap," and professedly official works. So the record runs.
The addition to this work of the Articles of War, is
to meet the demand of the hour. No work yet before the public, other
than the expensive "Army Regulations," has printed this document at
length-a document as valuable to every soldier as the Constitution and
Laws of our Country
are to every citizen. We have used the official copy, and suggested, in
notes, such modifications as have been made of the Original Articles.
The Dictionary of Military Terms and Science is, so
far as we are aware, entirely new, in this country. We have sought to
render it thorough and exhaustive, making use of the best English
authorities for its basis.
In the preparation of the Culinary Department, we
have used Soyer's celebrated "Army Recipes," so far as we deemed them
available, but have made important additions to his list of dishes.
This department will be found as explicit and adaptive as could be
The Health Department embraces what is best of
recent information on the subject of the condition, health and comfort
of the soldier. A reference to the index will show what valuable data
is now made available for the exigencies of military life.
The Reference Index will materially aid in quickly finding any information, on any required point.
Trusting our labor may prove acceptable to the
soldier, and serve him as a Guide and Companion, it is submitted, in
the earnest hope that it may, in some small degree, at least,
contribute to his well-being at this great crisis in the affairs of our
L. Le G.
NEW YORK, June 1st, 1861.
ARTICLES OF WAR, (OFFICIAL) - - -
- - - - -
- - - -
- - - -
- - 7
PERSONAL HINTS TO -VOLUNTEERS, - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - 25
GENERAL ORDERS AND REGULATIONS, - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - -28
PAY DEPARTMENT, - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - - 58
ORDNANCE, - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - 64
RIFLES AND THEIR USE, - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - 67
CULINARY DEPARTMENT, - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - 71
HEALTH DEPARTMENT, - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - 81
THE LAW OF PRIZES, - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - - 99
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS AND SCIENCE, - -
- - - - -
- - - 101
Absence of chaplain,
Absence without leave,
Allegiance, Oath of
Amendments to Articles of War,
Articles of War,
Articles of War-when to be pub-
Battle, Order of,
Beans-how to cook them,
Bleeding at the nose,
Bleeding:-how to stop it,
Blistered feet, Cure for,
Blood-how to stanch its flow,
Boils, Cure for
Brevets-how they rank,
Bruises, Cure for
Bunions, Cure for
Choice of regiments,
Cocoa-how to prepare it,
Coffee-how to prepare it,
Commands, Order and succession
Commissions from States-how
Complaints of wrongs,
Courts-martial, Usages of
Courts of inquiry,
Death, In case of
36, 40, 41
8, 10, 11, 16, 20
Dictionary of military terms,
Discipline is every thing,
Dishes for the sick,
Disrespect to superiors,
Drinks, Soyer's recipes,
Eggs-how to cook them,
Enemies, Correspondence with
Enemies not to be relieved,
Eye, dirt in, Cure for
False alarms, Penalty for
Feet, The, and their care,
Food for the sick-Soyer's
Furloughs, Form of
Good things, Recipes for
Guards, not to be forced, Penalty
Guards, police, Duty of
Guards, Rules and duties of
Guns .. See Ordnance,
Hash-how to prepare It,
Health, Care of
Health department - Dr. Hall's
Health department-general ad-
8 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Health department-recipes for
Health department-special direc-
Health department-the feet,
Hiring others for duty, Penalty of
Hospital recipes, Soyer's
Injuries to property, Penalty for
Insects' stings, Cure of
Issues of rations,
Laundresses, Rations of
March, army, Order of
Misbehavior and failure to do duty,
Musquito bites, Protection against
Neglect of clothes, etc., Penalty of
Neglect of duty, Penalty of
Neuralgia, Cure for
Oath of allegiance,
Officers, Election of
Officers responsible to civil law,
Order of battle,
Ordnance, Kinds of
Pardons, Who can grant
Persons amenable to military law,
Preparation of food-general rules,
Prizes, The law of
Property seized-how to be held,
Quarters not to be left, etc.,
Rank, Order of
Rations, Issues of
Rations, List of
Recipes by Soyer, for soups,stews,
fries, coffee, tea, cocoa, etc.,
Recipes by other authorities,
Release from arrest,
Rendezvous, parades, etc.-penalty
Returns to department,
Rifles and their use,
Routine, daily, Rules of
Salutes, Detail of
Sentences of courts-martial,
Sentinels, Duties of
Sentinels, sleeping, Penalty for
Service, Hours of
Sleep-how to and when,
Soldiers, Advice to
Soldiers' mess-how regulated
Soups, stews, sauces, etc.
Soyer's hospital recipes,
Spirits-when to use it,
Sprains, Cure for
Sting, Cure for
Straw, Issues of
Surrender under compulsion, re-
Sutlers, Official regulations for
Tea-how to prepare it,
Trials forbidden after two years,
Uniforms, Choice of
Violence to persons, Penalty of
Warts-how to cure them,
Waste of stores, etc.,
Watchword, Betrayal of
Watchwords, countersigns, etc.,
Woolen garments the best,
Wounded persons-how to treat them,
Wounds-Dr. Hall's rules,
Wounds mortifying, To prevent
Zouave mania and dress,
THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
ARTICLES OF WAR
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES,
ARTICLE 1. Every officer now in the army of the
United States shall, in six months from the passing of this act, and
every officer who shall hereafter be appointed shall, before he enters
on the duties of his office, subscribe these rules and regulations.
ART. 2. It is earnestly recommended to all officers
and soldiers diligently to attend divine service; and all officers who
shall behave indecently or irreverently at any place of divine worship
shall, if commissioned officers, be brought before a general
court-martial, there to be publicly and severely reprimanded by the
president; if non-commissioned officers or soldiers, every person so
offending shall, for his first offense, forfeit one-sixth of a dollar,
to be deducted out of his next pay; for the second offense, he shall
not only forfeit a like sum, but be confined twenty-four hours; and for
every like offense, shall suffer and pay in like manner; Which money,
so forfeited, shall be applied, by the captain or senior officer of the
troop or company, to the use of the sick soldiers of the company or
troop to which the offender belongs.
ART. 3. Any non-commissioned officer or soldier who
shall use any profane oath or execration, shall incur the penalties
expressed in the foregoing article; and a commissioned officer shall
forfeit and pay, for each and every such offense, one dollar, to be
applied as in the preceding article.
ART. 4. Every chaplain commissioned in the army or
armies of the United States, who shall absent himself from the duties
assigned him (excepting in cases of sickness or leave of absence),
shall, on conviction thereof before a court-martial, be fined not
exceeding one month's pay, besides the loss of his pay during his
absence; or be discharged, as the said court-martial shall judge
ART. 5. Any officer or soldier who shall use
contemptuous or disrespectful words against the President of the United
8 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
the Vice-President thereof, against the Congress of the United States,
or against the Chief Magistrate or Legislature of any of the United
States, in which he may be quartered, jf a commissioned officer, shall
be cashiered, or otherwise punished, as a court-martial shall direct;
if a non-commissioned officer or soldier, he shall suffer such
punishment as shall be inflicted on him by the sentence of a
ART. 6. Any officer or soldier who shall behave
himself with contempt or disrespect toward his commanding officer,
shall be punished, according to the nature of his offense, by the
judgment of a court-martial.
ART. 7. Any officer or soldier who shall begin,
excite, cause, or join in, any mutiny or sedition, in any troop or
company in the service of the United States, or in any party, post,
detachment, or guard, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as
by a court-martiall shall he inflicted.
ART. 8. Any officer, non-commissioned officer, or
soldier, who, being present at any mutiny or sedition, does not use his
utmost endeavor to suppress the same, or, coming to the knowledge of
any intended mutiny, does not, without delay, give information thereof
to his commanding officer, shall be punished by the sentence of a
court-martial with death, or otherwise, according to the nature of his
ART. 9. Any officer or soldier who shall strike his
superior officer, or draw or lift up any weapon, or offer any violence
against him, being in the execution of his office, on any pretense
whatsoever, or shall disobey any lawful command of his superior
officer, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall,
according to the nature of his offense, be inflicted upon him by the
sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 10. Every non-commissioned officer or soldier,
who shall enlist himself in the service of the United States, shall, at
the time of his so enlisting, or within six days afterward, have the
Articles for the government of the armies of the United States read to
him, and shall, by the officer who enlisted him, or by the commanding
officer of the troop or company into which he was enlisted, be taken
before the next justice of the peace, or chief magistrate of any city
or town corporate, not being an officer of the army, or where recourse
can not be had to the civil magistrate, before the judge advocate, and
in his presence shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I, A.
D., do solemnly swear or affirm (as the case may be), that I will bear
true allegiance to the United States of America, and that I will serve
them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers
whatsoever; and observe and obey the orders of the President of the
United States, and the orders of the officers appointed over me,
according to the Rules
ARTICLES OF WAR. 9
and Articles for the government of the armies of the United
States." Which justice, magistrate, or judge advocate is to give to the
officer a certificate, signifying that the man enlisted did take the
said oath or affirmation.
ART. 11. After a non-commissioned officer or soldier
shall have been duly enlisted and sworn, he shall not be dismissed the
service without a discharge in writing; and no discharge granted to him
shall be sufficient which is not signed by a field officer of the
regiment to which he belongs, or commanding officer, where no field
officer of the regiment is present; and no discharge shall be given to
a non-commissioned officer or soldier before his term of service has
expired, but by order of the President, the Secretary of War, the
commanding officer of a department, or the sentence of a general
court-martial; nor shall a commissioned officer be discharged the
service but by order of the President of the United States, or by
sentence of a general court-martial.
ART. 12. Every colonel, or other officer commanding
a regiment, troop, or company, and actually quartered with it, may give
furloughs to non-commissioned officers or soldiers, in such numbers,
and for so long a time, as he shall judge to be most consistent with
the good of the service; and a captain, or other inferior officer,
commanding a troop or company, or in any garrison, fort, or barrack of
the United States (his field officer being absent), may give furloughs
to noncommissioned officers or soldiers, for a time not exceeding
twenty days in six months, but not to more than two persons to be
absent at the same time, excepting some extraordinary occasion should
ART. 13. At every muster, the commanding officer of
each regiment, troop, or company, there present, shall give to the
commissary of musters, or other officer who musters the said regiment,
troop, or company, certificates signed by himself, signifying how long
such officers, as shall not appear at the said muster, have been
absent, and the reason of their absence. In like manner, the commanding
officer of every troop or company shall give certificates, signifying
the reasons of the absence of the non-commissioned officers and private
soldiers; which reasons and time of absence shall be inserted in the
muster-rolls, opposite the names of the respective absent officers and
soldiers. The certificates shall, together with the muster-rolls, be
remitted by the commissary of musters, or other officer mustering, to
the Department of War, as speedily as the distance of the place will
ART. 14. Every officer who shall be convicted before
a general court. martial of having signed a false certificate relating
to the absence of
10 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
either officer or private soldier, or relative to his or their pay, shall be cashiered.
ART. 15. Every officer who shall knowingly make a
false muster of man or horse, and every officer or commissary of
musters who shall willingly sign, direct, or allow the signing of
muster-rolls, wherein such false muster is contained, shall, upon proof
made thereof, by two witnesses, before a general court-martial, be
cashiered, and shall be thereby utterly disabled to have or hold any
office or employment in the service of the United States.
ART. 16. Any commissary of musters, or other
officer, who shall be convicted of having taken money, or other thing,
by way of gratification, on mustering any regiment, troop, or company,
or on signing muster rolls, shall be displaced from his office, and
shall be thereby utterly disabled to have or hold any office or
employment in the service of the United States.
ART. 17. Any officer who shall presume to muster a person as a soldier
who is not a soldier, shall be deemed guilty of having made a false
muster, and shall suffer accordingly.
ART. 18. Every officer who shall knowingly make a
false return to the Department of War, or to any of his superior
officers, authorized to call for such returns, of the state of the
regiment, troop, or company, or garrison, under his command; or of the
arms, ammunition, clothing, or other stores thereunto belonging, shall,
on conviction thereof before a court-martial, be cashiered.
ART. 19. The commanding officer of every regiment,
troop, or independent company, or garrison, of the United States,
shall, in the beginning of every month, remit, through the proper
channels, to the Department of War, an exact return of the regiment,
troop, independent company, or garrison, under his command, specifying
the names of the officers then ahsen t from their posts, with the
reasons for and the time of their absence. And any officer who shall be
convicted of having, through neglect or design, omitted sending such
returns, shall be punished, according to the nature of his crime, by
the judgment of a general court-martial.
ART. 20. All officers and soldiers who have received
pay, or have been duly enlisted in the service of the United States,
and shall be convicted of having deserted the same, shall suffer death,
or such other punishment as, by sentence of a court-martial, shall be
ART. 21. Any non-commissioned officer or soldier who
shall, without leave from his commanding officer, absent himself from
* Modified (by act of 29th May, 1830) to the effect that no officer or
soldier in the army shall be subject to the punishment of death for
desertion in time of peace. •
ARTICLES OF WAR. 11
company, or detachment, shall, upon being convicted thereof, be
punished according to the nature of his offense, at the discretion of a
ART. 22. No non-commissioned officer or soldier
shall enlist himself in any other regiment, troop or company, without a
regular discharge from the regiment, troop, or company in which he last
served, on the penalty of being reputed a deserter, and suffering
accordingly. And in case any officer shall knowingly receive and
entertain such non-commissioned officer or soldier, or shall not, after
his being discovered to be a deserter, immediately confine him, and
give notice thereof to the corps in which he last served, the said
officer shall, by a court-martial, be cashiered.
ART. 23. Any officer or soldier who shall be
convicted of having advised or persuaded any other officer or soldier
to desert the service of the United States, shall suffer death, or such
other punishment as shall be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a
ART. 24. No officer or soldier shall use any
reproachful or provoking speeches or gestures to another, upon pain, if
an officer, of being put in arrest; if a soldier, confined, and of
asking pardon of the party offended, in the presence of his commanding
ART. 25. No officer or soldier shall send a
challenge to another officer or soldier, to fight a duel, or accept a
challenge if sent, upon pain, if a commissioned officer, of being
cashiered; if a non-commissioned officer or soldier, of suffering
corporeal punishment, at the discretion of a court-martial.
ART. 26. If any commissioned or non-commissioned
officer commanding a guard shall knowingly or willingly suffer any
person whatsoever to go forth to fight a duel, he shall be punished as
a challenger; and all seconds, promoters, and carriers of challenges,
in order to duels, shall be deemed principals, and be punished
accordingly. And it shall be the duty of every officer commanding an
army, regiment, company, post, or detachment, who is knowing to a
challenge being given or accepted by any officer, non-commissioned
officer, or soldier, under his command, or has reason to believe the
same to be the case, immediately to arrest and bring to trial such
ART. 27. All officers, of what condition soever,
have power to part and quell all quarrels, frays, and disorders, though
the persons concerned should belong to another regiment, troop, or
company; and either to order officers into arrest, or non-commissioned
officers or soldiers into confinement, until their proper superior
officers shall be acquainted therewith; and whosoever shall refuse to
obey such officer (though of an inferior rank), or shall draw his sword
upon him, shall be punished at the discretion of a general
12 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
ART. 28. Any officer or soldier who shall upbraid
another for refusing a challenge, shall himself be punished as a
challenger; and all officers and soldiers are hereby discharged from
any disgrace or opinion of disadvantage which might arise from their
having refused to accept of challenges, as they will only have acted in
obedience to the laws, and done their duty as good soldiers who subject
themselves to discipline.
ART. 29. No sutler shall be permitted to sell any
kind of liquors or victuals, or to keep their houses or shops open for
the entertainment of soldiers, after nine at night, or before the
beating of the reveille, or upon Sundays, during divine service or
sermon, on the penalty of being dismissed from all future sutling.
ART. 30. All officers commanding in the field,
forts, barracks, or garrisons of the United States, are hereby required
to see that the persons permitted to suttle shall supply the soldiers
with good and wholesome provisions, or other articles, at a reasonable
price, as they shall he answerable for their neglect.
ART. 31. No officer commanding in any of the
garrisons, forts, or barracks of the United States, shall exact
exorbitant prices for houses or stalls, let out to sutlers, or connive
at the like exactions in others; nor by his own authority, and for his
private advantage, lay any duty or imposition upon, or be interested in
the sale of any victuals, liquors, or other necessaries of life brought
into the garrison, fort, or barracks, for the usc of the soldiers, on
the penalty of being discharged from the service.
ART. 32. Every officer commanding in quarters,
garrisons, or on the march, shall keep good order, and, to the utmost
of his power, redress all abuses or disorders which may be committed by
any officer or soldier under his command; if, upon complaint made to
him of officers or soldiers beating or otherwise ill-treating any
person, or disturbing fairs or markets, or of committing any kind of
riots, to the disquieting of the citizens of the United States, he, the
said commander, who shall refuse or omit to see justice done to the
offender or offenders, and reparation made to the party or parties
injured, as far as part of the offender's pay shall enable him or them,
shall, upon proof thereof, be cashiered, or otherwise punished, as a
general court-martial shall direct.
ART. 33. When any commissioned officer or soldier
shall be accused of a capital crime, or of having used violence, or
committed any offense against the person or property of any citizen of
any of the United States, such as is punishable by the known laws of
the land, the commanding officer and officers of every regiment, troop
or company, to which the person or persons so accused shall belong, are
ARTICLES OF WAR. 13
requited, upon application duly made by, or in behalf of the pady or
parties injured, to use their utmost endeavors to deliver over such
accused person or persons to the civil magistrate, and likewise to be
aiding and assisting to the officers of justice in apprehending and
securing the person or persons so accused, in order to bring him or
them to trial. If any commanding officer or officers shall willfully
neglect, or shall refuse, upon the application aforesaid, to deliver
over such accused person or persons to the civil magistrates, or to be
aiding and assisting to the officers of justice in apprehending such
person or persons, the officer or officers so offending shall be
ART. 34. If any officer shall think himself wronged
by his colonel, or the commanding officer of the regiment, and shall,
upon due application being made to him, be refused redress, he may
complain to the general commanding in the State or Territory where such
regiment shall be stationed, in order to obtain justice: who is hereby
required to examine into said complaint, and take proper measures for
redressing the wrong complained of, and transmit, as soon as possible,
to the Department of War, a true state of such complaint, with the
proceedings had thereon.
ART. 35. If any inferior officer or soldier shall
think himself wronged by his captain or other officer, he is to
complain thereof to the commanding officer of the regiment, who is
hereby required to summon a regimental court-martial, for the doing
justice to the complainant; from which regimental court-martial either
party may, if he thinks himself still aggrieved, appeal to a general
court martial. But if, upon a second hearing, the appeal shall appear
vexatious and groundless, the person so appealing shall be punished at
the discretion of the said court-martial
ART. 36. Any commissioned officer, store-keeper, or
commissary, who shall be convicted at a general court-martial of having
sold, without a proper order for that purpose, embezzled, misapplied,
or willfully, or through neglect, suffered any of the provisions,
forage, arms, clothing, ammunition, or other military stores belonging
to the United States to be spoiled or damaged, shall, at his own
expense, make good the loss or damage, and shall, moreover, forfeit all
his pay, and be dismissed from the service.
ART. 37. Any non-commissioned officer or soldier who
shall be convicted at a regimental court-martial of having sold, or
designedly or through neglect, wasted the ammunition delivered out to
him, to be employed by the service of the United States, shall be
punished at the discretion of such court.
ART. 38. Every non-commissioned officer or soldier
who shall be convicted before a court-martial of having sold, lost or
14 THE MILITARY HANDBOOK.
through neglect, his horse, arms, clothes, or accouterments, shall
undergo with weekly stoppages (not exceeding the half of his pay) as
such court-martial shall jndge sufficient, for repairing the loss or
damage; and shall suffer confinement, or such other corporeal
punishment as his crime shall deserve.
ART. 39. Every officer who shall be convicted before
a court-martial of having embezzled or misapplied any money with which
he may have been intrusted, for the payment of the men under his
command, or for enlisting men into the service, or for other purposes,
if a commissioned officer, shall be cashiered, and compelled to refund
the money; if a non-commissioned officer, shall be reduced to the
ranks, be put under stoppages until the money be made good, and suffer
such corporeal punishment as such court-martial shall direct.
ART. 40. Every captain of a troop or company is
charged with the arms, accouterments, ammunition, clothing, or other
warlike stores belonging to the troop or company under his command,
which he is to be accountable for to his colonel in case of their being
lost, spoiled, or damaged, not by unavoidable accidents, or on actual
ART. 41. All non-commissioned officers and soldiers
who shall be found one mile from the camp without leave, in writing,
from their commanding officer, shall suffer such punishment as shall be
inflicted upon them by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 42. No officer or soldier shall lie out of his
quarters, garrison, or camp without leave from his superior officer,
upon penalty of being punished according to the nature of his offense,
by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 43. Every non-commissioned officer and soldier
shall retire to his quarters or tent at the beating of the retreat; in
default of which he shall be punished according to the nature of his
ART. 44. No officer, non-commissioned officer, or
soldier shall fail in repairing, at the time fixed, to the place of
parade, of exercise, or other rendezvous appointed by his commanding
officer, if not prevented by sickness or some other evident necessity,
or shall go from the said place of rendezvous without leave from his
commanding officer, before he shall be regularly dismissed or relieved;
on the penalty of being punished, according to the nature of his
offense, by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 45. Any commissioned officer who shall be found
drunk on his guard, party, or other duty, shall be cashiered. Any
non-commissioned officer or soldier so offending shall suffer such
corporeal punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a
ART. 46. Any sentinel who shall be found sleeping
upon his post, or shall leave it before he shall be regularly relieved,
shall suffer death,
ARTICLES OF WAR. 15
or such other punishment as shall be inflicted by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 47. No soldier belonging to any regiment, troop
or company shall hire another to do his duty for him, or be excused
from duty but in cases of sickness, disability, or leave of absence;
and every such soldier found guilty of hiring his duty, as also the
party so hired to do another's duty, shall be punished at the
discretion of a regimental court-martial.
ART. 48. And every non-commissioned officer
conniving at such hiring of duty aforesaid, shall be reduced; and every
commissioned officer knowing and allowing such ill-practices in the
service, shall be punished by the judgment of a general court-martial.
ART. 49. Any officer belonging to the service of the
United States, who, by discharging of firearms, drawing of swords,
beating of drums, or by any other means whatsoever, shall occasion
false alarms in camp, garrison, or quarters, shall suffer death, or
such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a general
ART. 50. Any officer or soldier who shall, without
urgent necessity, or without the leave of his superior officer, quit
his guard, platoon, or division, shall be punished, according to the
nature of his offense, by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 51. No officer or soldier shall do violence to
any person who brings provisions or other necessaries to the camp,
garrison, or quarters of the forces of the United States, employed in
any parts out of the said States, upon pain of death, or such other
punishment as a court-martial shall direct.
ART. 52. Any officer or soldier who shall misbehave
himself before the enemy, run away, or shamefully abandon any fort,
post, or guard which he or they may be commanded to defend, or speak
words inducing others to do the like, or shall cast away his arms and
ammunition, or who shall quit his post or colors to plunder and
pillage, every such offender, being duly convicted thereof, shall
suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the
sentence of a general court-martial.
ART. 53. Any person belonging to the armies of the
United States who shall make known the watchword to any person who is
not entitled to receive it according to the rules and discipline of
war, or shall presume to give a parole or watchword different from what
he received, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be
ordered by the sentence of a general court-martial.
ART. 54. All officers and soldiers are to behave
themselves orderly in quarters and on their march; and whoever shall
commit any waste or spoil, either in walks of trees, parks, warrens,
fish-ponds, houses, or
16 THE MILITARY HANDBOOK.
gardens, corn-fields, inclosures of meadows, or shall maliciously
destroy any property whatsoever belonging to the inhabitants of the
United States, unless by order of the then commander-in-chief of the
armies of the said States, shall (besides such penalties as they are
liable to by law) be punished according to the nature and degree of the
offense. by the judgment of a regimental or general court-martial.
ART. 55. Whosoever, belonging to the armies of the
United States in foreign parts, shall force a safeguard, shall suffer
ART. 56. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with
money, victuals, or ammunition, or shall knowingly harbor or protect au
enemy, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered
by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 57. Whosoever shall be convicted of holding
correspondence with, or giving intelligence to, the enemy, either
directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as
shall be ordered b;- the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 58. All public stores taken in the enemy's
camp, towns, forts, or magazines, whether of artillery, ammunition,
clothing, forage or provisions, shall be secured for the service of the
United States; for the neglect of which the commanding officer is to be
ART. 59. If any commander of any garrison, fortress
or post shall be compelled, by the officers and soldiers under his
command, to give up to the enemy, or to abandon it, the commissioned
officers, non-commissioned officers, or soldiers who shall be convicted
of having so offended, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as
shall be inflicted upon them by the sentence of a court-martial.
ART. 60. All sutlers and retainers to the camp, and
all persons whatsoever, serving with the armies of the United States in
the field, though not enlisted soldiers, are to he subject to orders,
according to the rules and discipline of war.
ART. 61. Officers having brevets or commissions of a
prior date to those of the regiment in which they serve, may take place
in courts-martial and on detachments, when composed of different corps,
according to the ranks given them in their brevets or dates of tbeir
former commissions; but in the regiment, troop, or company to which
such officers belong, they shall do duty and take rank both in
courts-martial and on detachments, which shall be composed of their own
corps, according to the commissions by which they are mustered in the
ART. 62. If, upon marches, guards, or in quarters,
different corps of the army shall happen to join, or do duty together,
the officer highest in rank of the line of the army, marine corps, or
militia, by commission, there on duty or in quarters, shall command
t.he whole, and give order~
17 ARTICLES OF WAR.
for what is needful to the service, unless otherwise specially directed
by the President of the United States, according to the nature of the
ART. 63. The functions of the engineers being
generally confined to the most elevated branch of military science,
they are not to assume, nor are they subject to be ordered on any duty
beyond the line of their immediate profession, except by the special
order of the President of the United States; but they are to receive
every mark of respect to which their rank in the army may entitle them
respectively, and are liable to be transferred, at the discretion of
the President, from one corps to another, regard being paid to rank.
ART. 64. General courts-martial may consist of any
number of commissioned officers, from five to thirteen, inclusively;
but they shall not consist of less than thirteen where that number can
be convened without manifest injury to the service.
ART. 65.* Any general officer commanding an army, or
colonel commanding a separate department, may appoint general
courts-martial whenever necessary. But no sentence of a court-martial
shall be carried into execution until after the whole proceedings shall
have been laid before the officer ordering the same, or the officer
commanding the troops for the time being; neither shall any sentence of
a general court-martial, in the time of peace, extending to the loss of
life. or the dismission of a commissioned officer, or which shall,
either in time of peace or war, respect a general officer, be carried
into execution, until after the whole proceedings shall have been
transmitted to the Secretary of War, to be laid before the President of
the United States for his confirmation or disapproval, and orders in
the case. All other sentences may be confirmed and executed by the
officer ordering the court to assemble, or the commanding officer for
the time being, as the case may be.
ART. 66. Every officer commanding a regiment or
corps may appoint for his own regiment or corps, courts-martial, to
consist of three commissioned officers, for the trial and punishment of
offenses not capital, and decide upon their sentences. For the same
purpose, all officers commanding any of the garrisons, forts,
barracks, or other places where the troops consist of different corps,
may assemble courts-martial, to consist of three commissioned officers,
and decide upon their sentences.
ART. 67. No garrison or regimental court-martial
shall have the power to try capital cases or commissioned officers;
neither shall they inflict a fine exceeding one month's pay, nor
imprison, nor put to hard
* Modified by act of 29th May. 1830. to the effect that the proceedings and sentence shall be sent direct to the Secretary, etc.
18 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
labor, any non-commissioned officer or soldier for a longer time than one month.
ART. 68. Whenever it may be found convenient and
necessary to the public service, the officers of the marines shall be
associated with the officers of the land forces, for the purpose of
holding courts-martial, and trying offenders belonging to either; and,
in such cases, the orders of the senior officer of either corps who may
be present and duly authorized, shall be received and obeyed.
ART. 69. The judge advocate, or some person deputed
by him, or by the general, or officer commanding the army, detachment,
or garrison, shall prosecute in the name of the United States, but
shall so far consider himself as counsel for the' prisoner, after the
said prisoner shall have made his plea, as to object to any leading
question to any of the witnesses, or any question to the prisoner, tile
answer to which might tend to criminate himself; and administer to each
member of the court, before they proceeu upon any trial, the following
oath, which shall also be taken by all members of the regimental and
garrison courts-martial: "You, A. B., do swear that you will well and
truly try and determine, according to evidence, the matter now before
you, between the United States of America and the prisoner to be tried,
and that you will duly administer justice, according to the provisions
of an act establishing Rules and Articles for the government of the
armies of the United States, without partiality, favor, or affection;
and if any doubt should arise, not explained by said Articles,
according to your conscience, the best of your understanding, and the
custom of war in like cases; and you do further swear that you will not
divulge the sentence of the court until it shall be published by the
proper authority; neither will you disclose or discover the vote or
opinion of any particular member of the court-martial, unless required
to give evidence thereof, as a witness by a court of justice, in a due
course of law. So help you God." And as soon as the said oath shall
have been administered to the respective members, the president of the
court shall administer to the judge advocate, or person officiating as
such, an oath in the following words: "You, A. B., do swear, that you
will not disclose or discover the vote or opinion of any particular
member of the court· martial, unless required to give evidence
thereof, as a witness, by a court of justice, in due course of law; nor
divulge the sentence of the court to any but the proper authority,
until it shall be duly disclosed by the same. So help you God."
ART. 70. When a prisoner, arraigned before a general
court-martial, shall, from obstinacy and deliberate design, stand mute,
or answer foreign to the purpose, the court may proceed to trial and
judgment as if the prisoner had regularly pleaded not guilty.
ARTICLES OF WAR. 19
ART. 71. When a member shall be challenged by a
prisoner, he must state his cause of challenge, of which the court
shall, after due deliberation, determine the relevancy or validity, and
decide accordingly; and no challenge to more than one member at a time
shall be received by the court.
ART. 72. All the members of a court-martial are to
behave with decency and calmness; and in giving their votes are to
begin with the youngest in commission.
ART. 73. All persons who give evidence before a
court-martial are to be examined on oath or affirmation, in the folio
wing form: " You swear, or affirm (as the case may be), the evidence
you shall give in the cause now in hearing shall be the the truth, the
whole truth, and nothing but the truth. So help you God."
ART. 74. On the trials of cases not capital, before
courts-martial, the deposition of witnesses, not in the line or staff
of the army, may be taken before some justice of the peace, and read in
evidence; provided the prosecutor and person accused, are present at
the taking the same, or are duly notified thereof.
ART. 75. No officer shall be tried but by a general
court-martial, nor by officers of an inferior rank, if it can be
avoided. Nor shall any proceedings of trials be carried on, excepting
between the hours of eight in the morning and three in the afternoon,
excepting in cases which, in the opinion of the officer appointing the
court-martial, require immediate example.
ART. 76. No person whatsover shall use any menacing
words, signs, or gestures, in presence of a court-martial, or shall
cause any disorder or riot, or disturb their proceedings, on the
penalty of being punished at the discretion of the said court-martial.
ART. 77. Whenever any officer shall be charged with
a crime, he shall be arrested and confined in his barracks, quarters,
or tent, and deprived of his sword by the commanding officer. And any
officer who shall leave his confinement before he shall be set at
liberty by his commanding officer, or by a superior officer, shall be
ART. 78. Non-commissioned officers and soldiers,
charged with crimes, shall be con'ined until tried by a court-martial,
or released by proper authority.
ART. 79. No officer or soldier who shall be put in
arrest shall continue in confinement more than eight days, or until
such time as a court-martial can be assembled.
ART. 80. No officer commanding a guard, or provost
marshal, shall refuse to receive or keep any prisoner committed to his
charge by an officer belonging to the forces of the United States;
provided the officer committing shall, at the same time, deliver an
account in writing,
20 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
signed by himself, of the crime with which the said prisoner is charged,
ART. 81. No officer commanding a guard or provost
marshal, shall presume to release any person committed to his charge
without proper authority for so doing, nor shall he suffer any person
to escape on the penalty of being punished for it by the sentence of a
ART. 82. Every officer or provost marshal, to whose
charge prisoners shall be committed, shall, within twenty-four hours
after such commitment, or as soon as he shall be relieved from bis
guard, make report in writing, to the commanding officer, of their
names, their crimes, and the names of the officers who committed them,
on the penalty of being punished for disobedience or neglect, at the
discretion of a court-martial.
ART. 83. Any commissioned officer convicted before a
general court-martial of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman,
shall be dismissed the service.
ART. 84. In cases where a court-martial may think it
proper to sentence a commissioned officer to be suspended from command,
they shall have power also to suspend his pay and emoluments for the
same time, according to the nature and heinousness of the offense.
ART. 85. In all cases where a commissioned officer
is cashiered for cowardice or fraud, it shall be added in the sentence,
that the crime, name, and place of abode, and punishment of the
delinquent, be published in the newspapers in and about the camp, and
of the particular State from which the offender came, or where he
usually resides; after which it shall be deemed scandalous for an
officer to associate with him.
ART. 86. The commanding officer of any post or
detachment, in which there shall not be a number of officers adequate
to form a general court-martial, shall, in eases which require the
cognizance of such a court, report to the commanding officer of the
department" who shall order a court to be assembled at the nearest post
or department, and the party accused, with necessary witnesses, to be
transported to the place where the said court shall be assembled.
ART. 87.* No person shall be sentenced to suffer
death but by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of a general
court-martial, nor except in the cases herein expressly mentioned; nor shall more than fifty lashes be inflicted on any offender, at the discretion of a
So much of these rules and articles as authorizes the infliction of
corporeal punishment by stripes or lashes, was specially repealed by
act of 16th May, 1812, By act of 2d March, 1833, the repealing act was
repealed, so far as it applied to the crime of desertion, which; of
course, revived the punishment by lashes for that offense .
ARTICLES OF WAR. 21
court-martial; and no officer, non-commissioned officer, soldier or follower of the army, shall be tried a second time for the same offense.
ART. 88. No person shall be liable to be tried and
punished by a general court-martial for any offense which shall appear
to have been committed more than two years before the issuing of the
order for such trial, unless the person, by reason of having absented
himself or some other manifest impediment, shall not have been amenable
to justice within that period.
ART. 89. Every officer authorized to order a general
court-martial shall have power to pardon or mitigate any punishment
ordered by such court, except the sentence of death, or of cashiering
an officer; which, in the cases where he has authority (by Article 65)
to carry them into execution, he may suspend, until the pleasure of the
President of the United States can be known; which suspension, together
with copies of the proceedings of the court-martial, the said officer
shall immediately transmit to the President, for his determination. And
the colonel or commanding officer of the regiment or garrison where any
regimental or garrison court-martial shall be held, may pardon or
mitigate any punishment ordered by such court to be inflicted.
ART. 90. Every judge advocate, or person officiating
as snch, at any general court-martial, shall transmit, with as much
expedition as the opportunity of time and distance of place can admit,
the original proceedings and sentence of such court-martial to the
Secretary of War; which said original proceedings and sentence shall be
carefully kept and preserved in the office of said Secretary, to the
end that the persons entitled thereto may be enabled, upon application
to the said office, to obtain copies thereof. The party tried by any
general court-martial shall, upon demand thereof, made by himself, or
by any person or persons in his behalf, be entitled to a copy of the
sentence and proceedings of such court-martial.
ART. 91. In cases where the general, or commanding
officer may order a court of inquiry to examine into the nature of any
transaction, accusation, or imputation against any officer or soldier,
the said court shall consist of one or more officers, not exceeding
three, and a judge advocate, or other suitable person, as a recorder,
to reduce the proceedings and evidence to writing; all of whom shall be
sworn to the faithful performance of their duty. This court shall have
the same power to summon witnesses as a court-martial, and to examine
them on oath. But they shall not give their opinion on the merits of
the case, excepting they shall be thereto specially required. The
parties accused shall also be permitted to cross-examine and
interrogate the witnesses, so as to investigate fully the circumstances
in the question.
22 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK
ART. 92. The proceedings of a court of inquiry must
be authenticated by the signature of the recorder and the president,
and delivered to the commanding officer, and the said proceedings may
be admitted as evidence by a court-martial, in cases not capital, or
extending to the dismission of an officer, provided that the
circumstances are such that oral testimony can not be obtained. But as
courts of inquiry may be perverted to dishonorable purposes, and may be
considered as engines of destruction to military merit, in the hands of
weak and envious commandants, they are hereby prohibited, unless
directed by the President of the United States, or demanded by the
ART. 93. The judge advocate or recorder shall
administer to the members the following oath: "You shall well and truly
examine and inquire, according to your evidence, into the matter now
before you, without partiality, favor, affection, prejudice, or hope of
reward. So help you God." After which the president shall administer to
the judge advocate or recorder the following oath: "You, A. B., do
swear that you will, according to your best abilities, accurately and
impartially record the proceedings of the court, and the evidence to be
given in the case in hearing. So help you God." The witnesses shall
take the same oath as witnesses sworn before a court-martial.
ART. 94. When any commissioned officer shall die or
be killed in the service of the United States, the major of the
regiment, or the officer doing the major's duty in his absence, or in
any post or garrison, the second officer in command, or the assistant
military agent, shall immediately secure all his effects or equipage,
then in camp or quarters, and shall make an inventory thereof, and
forthwith transmit the same to the office of the Department of War, to
the end that his executors or administrators may receive the same.
ART. 95. When any non-commissioned officer or
soldier shall die, or be killed in the service of the United States,
the then commanding officer of the troop or company shall, in the
presence of two other commissioned officers, take an account of what
effects he died possessed of, above his arms and accouterments, and
transmit the same to the office of the Department of War, which said
effects are to be accounted for, and paid to the representatives of
such deceased non· commissioned officer or soldier. And in case
any of the officers, so authorized to take care of the effects of
deceased officers and soldiers, should, before they have accounted to
their representatives for the same, have occasion to leave the regiment
or post, by preferment or otherwise, they shall, before they be
permitted to quit the same, deposit in the hands of the commanding
officer, or of the assistant military agent, all the effects of such
deceased non-commissioned officers and soldiers, in order that
ARTICLES OF WAR. 23
the same may be secured for, and paid to their respective representatives.
ART. 96. All officers, conductors, gunners,
matrosses, drivers, or other persons whatsoever, receiving pay or hire
in the service of the artillery, or corps of engineers of the United
States, shall be governed by the aforesaid rules and articles, and
shall be subject to be tried by courts-martial, in like manner with the
officers and soldiers of the other troops in the service of the United
ART: 97. The officers and soldiers of any troops
whether militia or others, being mustered and in pay of the United
States, shall, at all times and in all places, when joined, or acting
in conjunction with the regular forces of the United States, be
governed by these rules and articles of war, and shall be subject to be
tried by courts-martial, in like manner with the officers and soldiers
in the regular forces; save only that such courts-martial shall be
composed entirely of militia officers.
ART. 98. All officers serving by commission from the
authority of any particular State, shall, on all detachments,
courts-martial, or other duty wherein they may be employed in
conjunction with the regular forces of the United States, take rank
next after all officers of the like grade in said regular forces,
notwithstanding the commissions of such militia or State officers may
be elder than the commissions of the officers of the regular forces of
the United States.
ART. 99. All crimes not capital, and all disorders and neglects which
officers and soldiers may be guilty of, to the prejudice of good order
and military discipline, though not mentioned in the foregoing articles
of war, are to be taken cognizance of by a general or regimental
court-martial, according to the nature and degree of the offense, and
be punished at their discretion.
ART. 100. The President of the United States shall have power to prescribe the uniform of the army.
ART. 101. The foregoing articles are to be read and
published, once in every six months, to every garrison, regiment,
troop, or company, mustered, or to be mustered, in the service of the
United States, and are to be duly observed and obeyed by all officers
and soldiers who are, or shall be, in said service.
SEC. 2. And be further enacted,
That in time of war, all persons not citizens of, or owing allegiance
to, the United States of America, who shall be found lurking as spies
in or about the fortifications or encampments of the armies of the
United States, or any of them, shall suffer death, according to the law
and usage of nations, by sentence of a general court-martial.
SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the rules and regulations by
24 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
which the armies of the United States have heretofore been governed,
and the resolves of Congress thereunto annexed, and respecting the
same, shall henceforth be void and o( no effect, except so far as may
relate to any transactions under them prior to the promulgation of this
act, at the several posts and garrisons respectively, occupied by any
part of the army of the United 8tates. [APPROVED, April 10 1806.)
PERSONAL HINTS TO VOLUNTEERS. 25
PERSONAL HINTS TO VOLUNTEERS.
A VOLUNTEER has his choice of regiments, and,
therefore, can, to a great degree, choose his associations. At the
best, a soldier's life is one calculated to test a man's moral as well
as physical qualities; hence, if a person is to embark in the service,
he should earnestly strive to obtain a place in those regiments or
companies which reject all "hard cases" and men of vicious habits.
Otherwise, he will be annoyed by fellowship with creatures whom he must
despise, and may be subjected to mortification, if not to actual
disgrace from their bad conduct.
" Going into the tented field" really means going to
privation; to danger in several shapes; to constant self-denial; to a
kind of slavery where your will and wish are both totally ignored in
the will and wish of your superiors;
therefore, it behooves the volunteer to weigh the matter well in his
mind that he may not regret his step, nor ever be tempted to grumble at
his duty, much less to desert. One who flinches from duty, or complains
at privations, is not fit for a soldier's great trust; while a deserter
is one of the most despised of men, even by those to whose protection
The" Zouave" mania is becoming, in plain words,
overdone. Some men appear to think that, to be a good soldier, a man
must needs look as much as possible like a Turk, who dresses with far
more regard to a peacock display of colors than of utility or good
taste. That this is true, let anyone compare the solid, sober gray
uniform, or the modest and sensible blue, with the flaunting firey red
" bag" breeches, the uncouth jacket and senseless gew-gaw trimmings of
the " Zouave," and we will venture to say he can have but one opinion
if he judges of service and propriety rather than of show. The Zouave
drill doubtless will become engrafted upon our military system, for in guerrilla
war, or in charges and assaults, thB Zouave system of practice is
superior to that of the received tactics for infantry. What we inveigh
against is, not the system, but the gay colors and cumbrous nature of
the costume adopted.
26 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK
There is really great art in the choice of a
uniform, and the volunteer should understand it before adopting his
regimental costume. Thus, a dark gray dress is preferable, in a
professional view, because it affords less attraction to the enemy's aim. A Zouave will be detected at a long distance by his red and yellow dress, and will, therefore, make a good mark
for the enemy, when a gray would so assimilate to the color of the
ground as to be unobserved at a distance, or in the night. A
scouting-party, or spies, dressed in red breeches would be a
commander's folly. The old hunters and Indian fighters understood this art
of dress, and practiced it in choosing only gray and blue for their
outer dress, with leggings of buckskin. They always wore their red
flannel next to the skin, and out of sight.
Choose that branch of service-infantry, cavalry,
artillery, or naval-to which you are best adapted by taste, by physical
strength and by desire to excel.
Make a solemn pledge not to gamble, not to drink
ardent spirits, not to swear nor use obscene language if you would
preserve your own self-respect as well as the respect of your officers.
A soldier's life is embraced by the vicious man from an inclination to
indulge his vicious propensities, and it should be the volunteer's aim
to elevate the service by frowning down whatever tends to injure and
debase the service.
When once enlisted, strive, by all diligence and
duty, to attain to perfection in the various exercises of the squad,
the company and the regiment. An earnest desire to excel, a close
attention to duty, and thoughtful observation will soon render you an
expert, to be pointed out by the captain as " one of my best men." A
soldier's profession can only be learned by practice and observation.
Many a man goes through an entire season's campaign without attaining a
knowledge beyond the simplest exercises and maneuvers because of
indifference to duty, and inattention.
Discipline has every thing to do with success.
Anthony Wayne, with his two Pennsylvania brigades, was considered
equal, in combat, to twice his force of the enemy, because his
discipline was so rigid. So with all great commanders. No man ever made
a great captain who did not control his men with the most mathematical
certainty. The soldier will not,
PERSONAL HINTS TO VOLUNTEERS. 27
therefore, complain at the severity of a superior who exacts the most
explicit obedience to all orders, for, in hours of danger, he can rely
upon that officer as his leader, and the severe discipline enforced may
be the means of bringing a victory, where a lax discipline would surely
bring defeat and disgrace.
As very much of the efficiency of the soldier
depends upon the state of his health, particular care should be taken
to preserve that health. Let the utmost attention be given to habits,
to food and drink, to sleeping, to the state of the body in regard to
cleanliness, so far as circumstances will allow. Even poor food, well
prepared, will conduce to health, whereas good food, poorly prepared,
will prove deleterious. We give, herewith, such hints, recipes and
general directions as will enable the soldier to pass through hard
service without forsaking all comforts, or foregoing all the
satisfaction derived from healthy food and sound sleep.
Finally, in your entire demeanor and habits, be
exemplary, steady, studious. Observe all the regulations of the army to
the letter. Be not remiss in your respect of the Sabbath, and all
religious exercises of your chaplain. Remember that it is better to die
on the field of battle as a Christian should die, than to die as one
careless of his relations to the great Hereafter. With a heart open to
generous impulses, be as firm and invincible to duty as steel-as true
to your cause as the stars to the mariner.
The soldier, embodying these suggestions, will gain
laurels, will command respect and be sure of promotion; while he who
discards all counsels to duty and right will be certain to come forth
from the service without honor, without. that good name which should be
his most blessed inheritance.
28 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
GENERAL ORDERS, REGULATIONS, ETC.
Who Can Enlist.
The same rule applies to volunteers that prevails in
the regular service, in regard to enlistment, viz. :-" Any free white
male person above the age of eighteen and under thirty-five, being at
least five feet, four and a half inches high; effective, able-bodied,
sober, free from disease, of good character and habits, and with a
competent knowledge of the English language, may be enlisted."
"No person who is under the age of twenty-one years is to be enlisted
without the written consent of his parent, guardian or master." Of
course large numbers of volunteers are enlisted who do not meet all
these requisitions. Some are discarded before inspection by the State
authorities. Others again do not pass that inspection, and are dropped
from the roll; and then, after the company or regiment is ordered into
Government service, another inspection is made by the regular army
authorities, whereby any defective or incompetent man is liable to be
ordered out. Notwithstanding all this routine, however, many a bad man,
many drunkards, many unsound men" pass muster." The fact that an entire
regiment has recently been enlisted from the professional thieves and
pickpockets of New York city shows that the regulations are sometimes
compromised, to suit special cases.
The different States have authorized slightly
different equipments for their volunteers, though they all conform,
very nearly, to the Federal Government provision for troops in the
regular service. New York furnishes to each private volunteer :-one
jacket, one pair trowsers, one over-coat, two flannel shirts, two
flannel drawers, two pairs woolen socks, one pair shoes, one fatigue
cap, one blanket, one knapsack, one haversack, and one canteen. Also,
one tin cup, plate, spoon, etc. This is the preliminary
outfit. When the troops are mustered into Government service, they
receive regular Government allowances, according to the terms of their
service. Officers provide their own equipments.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS-TRANSFERS-PAY. 29
Election of Officers.
After enrollment and classification into companies,
the election or choice of officers takes place. Captains, subalterns
and non-commissioned officers are elected by the votes (written
ballots) of their respective companies. Great care should be taken by
the men that their choice is carefully made, for their whole comfort and happiness is in the hands oj the captain and his subordinates.
Field-officers of regiments and separate battalions,
brigadier-generals and brigade inspectors are chosen by the
field-officers of their respective brigades. Staff-officers are
selected by their chief officers, viz.:- major-generals,
brigadier-generals and commanding officers of regiments or separate
battalions appoint staff-officers to their respective commands.
No non-commissioned officer or soldier can be
transferred from one regiment to another without the authority of the
commanding general. The colonel may, however, upon the application of
the captains, transfer a non-commissioned officer or soldier from one
company to another of the same regiment, but then only with the consent
of the department commander in case of change of post. When soldiers
are authorized to be transferred the same will take place on the first
of the month. In all cases of transfer, a complete descriptive roll
will accompany the soldier transferred, which roll will embrace an
account of his pay, clothing and other allowances; also all stoppages
to be made on account of the Government and debts due the washerwomen,
as well as such other facts as may be necessary to show his character
and military history.
See tabular statement of pay to all classes and
grades of officers and men, pages 58-59-60-61-62-63. Volunteers receive
the same pay as regulars after their acceptance by the State. The State
pays through its paymaster-general its troops until they are sworn into
the general Government service, when all State responsibility ceases.
is paid for when soldiers are required to work on fortifications, on
artillery roads, making surveys, or any other unusual labor of ten
days' duration or more, viz.:twenty-five cents per day.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS-TRANSFERS-PAY. 29
are paid for enlistments in the regular service, at various stations,
thus :-for enlistment at or near any of the posts in Texas, $26 bounty;
in New Mexico, $52; in California, $117; in Oregon, or in Washington
Territory, $142; at or near Fort Snelling, $23; at or near Great Salt
Lake City, $85, etc. Privates, in the regular army, are also given certificates of merit
for good conduct, upon which they draw two dollars extra, per month.
Three months extra pay is also granted to every non-commissioned
officer, musician or private on re-enlistment, after expiration of his
The Oath of Allegiance.
The volunteer is not required to take any special
oath upon his enlistment further than the paper which is signed at the
time of such enlistment; but when the troops are mustered into the
general Government service the following oath is administered :-
"I, A. B., do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I wih bear true
allegiance to the United States of America, and that I will serve them
honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers
whatsoever, and observe and obey the orders of the President of the
United States, and the orders of the officers appointed over me
according to the rules and articles for the government of the armies of
the United States."
When once in the service the subsistence rations are
as follows, per day, which it is the captain's duty to see is provided,
regularly and of good quality:
Pork, . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Beef ( salt) (in lieu of pork), . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Beef (fresh) (in lieu of salt beef), . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Flour, . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Hard bread (in lieu of flour), . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Beans or peas, . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
Coffee, . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Sugar, . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Vinegar, . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Candles, . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Soap, . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . .
Salt, . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
112 1/2 lbs
8 qts, or 15 lbs
1 ¼ Ibs.
DAILY ROUTINE RULES. 31
Hard bread extra, four ounces per day, per man, at
sea, on the march, or in active service. In lieu of beans or peas, ten
pounds of rice is allowed to everyone hundred rations. Watson's edition
of Hardee's Tactics adds to each ration desiccated mixed vegetables,
one ounce; desiccated potatoes, one and one-half ounce; but by what
authority the addition is made we know not.
The army regulations specify that when a soldier is
detached on duty, and it is impracticable for him to carry his
subsistence with him, it will be commuted at seventy-five cents per
day. The ration of a soldier stationed in a city, with no opportunity
of messing, will be commuted at forty cents. The rations of soldiers on
furlough, or on stations where they can not be issued in kind, are
commuted at the cost or value at the post. When a soldier on duty has
paid his own subsistence from necessity, he will have refunded the cost
of his regular ration. Extra issues are allowed in certain cases, of
fresh vegetables, pickled onions, sourkrout, molasses, dried apples,
etc., as specified in regulation 1079 of" Army Regulations." The
soldier is of course at liberty to add to his daily rations such
articles of food as he may purchase. The army is rarely ever in a
locality where such purchases may not be made of the sutler or
Daily Routine Rules.
Once in camp, the soldier enters upon military life
in earnest. As he is expected to consult this manual to understand what
his daily routine of duty and habit is, we will here give the official
regulations at length, as prescribed for companies in camp or barracks:
The captain will cause the men of the company to be numbered, in a
regular series, including the non-commissioned officers, and divided
into four squads, each to be put under the charge of a non-commissioned
Each subaltern officer will be charged with a squad
for the supervision of its order and cleanliness; and captains will
require their lieutenants to assist them in the performance of all
As far as practicable, the men of each squad will be quartered together.
The utmost attention will be paid by commanders of
32 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
companies to the cleanliness of their men as to their persons,
clothing, arms, accouterments, and also as to their quarters or tents.
The name of each soldier will be labeled on his
bunk, and his company number will placed against his arms and
The arms will be placed in the arm-racks, the
stoppers in the muzzles, the cocks let down and the bayonets in their
scabbards; the accouterments suspended over the arms, and the swords
hung up by the by the belts on pegs.
The knapsack of each man will be placed on the lower
shelf of his bunk, at its foot, packed with his effects, and ready to
be slung; the great coat on the same shelf, rolled and strapped; the
coat, folded inside out, and placed under the knapsack; the cap
on the upper shelf,; and the boots well cleaned.
Dirty clothes will be kept in an appropriate part of
the knapsack; no article of any kind to be put under the bedding.
Cooking utensils and table equipage will be cleaned and arranged
in closets or recesses; blackiong and brushes out of view; the fuel in
Ordinarily the cleaning will be on Saturdays.
The chiefs of the squads will cause bunks and bedding to be
overhauled; floors dry rubbed; tables and benches scoured; arms
cleaned; accuuterments whitened and polished, and everything put in
Where conveniences for bathing are to be had, the
men should bathe once a week. The feet are to be washed at least twice
a week. The hair kept short, and beard neatly trimmed.
Non-commissioned officers, in command of squads,
will be held more immediately responsible that their men observe what
is prescribed above; that they wash their hands and faces
daily; that they brush or comb their heads, that those who are to go on
duty put their arms, accoutrements, dress, etc., in the best order, and
that as have permission to pass the chain of sentinels are in the dress
that may be ordered.
Commanders of companies and squads will see that the
DAILY ROUTINE RULES. 33
arms and accouterments in possession of the men are always kept in good order, and that proper care be taken in cleaning them.
When belts are given to a soldier, the captain will
see that they are properly fitted to the body; and it is forbidden to
cut any belt without his sanction.
Cartridge-boxes and bayonet-scabbards will be
polished with blacking; varnish is injurious to the leather, and will
not be used.
All arms in the hands of the troops, whether browned
or bright, will be kept in the state in which they are issued by the
Ordnance Department. Arms will nut be taken to pieces without
permission of a commissioned officer. Bright barrels will be kept clean
and free from rust without polishing them; care should be taken in
rubbing not to bruise or benrl the barrel. After firing, wash out the
bore; wipe it dry, and then pass a bit of cloth, slightly greased, to
the bottom. In these operations, a rod of wood with a loop in one end
is to be used instead of the rammer. The barrel, when not in use, will
be closed with a stopper. For exercise, each soldier should keep
himself provided with a piece of sole leather to fit the cup or
countersink of the hammer.
Arms shall not be left loaded in quarters or tents, or when the men are off duty, except by special orders.
Ammunition issued will be inspected frequently. Each man will be made
to pay for the rounds expended without orders, or not in the way of
duty, or which may be damaged or lost by his neglect.
Ammunition will be frequently exposed to the dry air, or sunned.
Special care shall be taken to ascertain that no
ball-cartridges are mixed with the blank cartridges issued to the men.
All knapsacks are to be painted black. Those for the
artillery will be marked in the center of the cover with the number of
the regiment only, in figures of one inch and a half in length, of the
character called full face with yellow paint. Those fur the infantry
will be marked in the same way, in white paint. Those for the ordnance
will be marked with two cannon, crossing; the cannon to be seven and a
half inches in length, in yellow paint, to resemble those on the cap.
The knapsack straps will be black.
34 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
The knapsacks will also be marked upon the inner
side with the letter of the company and the number of the soldier, on
such part as may be readily observed at inspections.
Haversacks will be marked upon the flap with the
number and name of the regiment, the letter of the company, and number
of the soldier, in black letters and figures. And each soldier must, at
all times, be provided with a haversack and canteen, and will exhibit
them at all inspections. It will be worn on the left side on marches,
guard, and when paraded for detached service-the canteen outside the
The front of the drums will be painted with the arms
of the United States, on a blue field for the infantry, and on a red
field for the artillery. The letter of the company and number of the
regiment, under the arms in a scroll.
Officers at their stations, in camp or in garrison, will always wear their proper uniform.
Soldiers will wear the prescribed uniform in camp or
garrison, and will not be permitted to keep in their possession any
other clothing. When on fatigue parties, they will wear the proper
An important adjunct of convenience and comfort is
the arrangement of the company into messes. The matter is the subject
of express regulation. We will give the "official" requisitions, viz. :
In camp or barracks, the company officers must visit
the kitchen daily and inspect the kettles, and at all times carefully
attend to the messing and economy of their respective companies. The
commanding officer of the post or regiment will make frequent
inspections of the kitchens and messes.
The bread must be thoroughly baked, and not eaten
until it is cold. The soup must be boiled at least five hours, and the
vegetables always cooked sufficiently to be perfectly soft and
Messes will be prepared by privates of squads,
including private musicians, each taking his tour. The greatest care
will be observed in washing and scouring the cooking utensils; those
made of brass and copper should be lined with tin.
The messes of prisoners will be sent to them by the
cooks. No persons will be allowed to visit or remain in the kitchens,
except such as may come on duty, or be occupied as cooks.
Those detailed for duty in the kitchens will also be
required to keep the furniture of the mess-room .in order.
On marches and in the field, the only mess furniture
of the soldier will be one tin plate, one tin cup, one knife, fork, and
spoon, to each man, to be carried by himself on the march.
If a soldier be required to assist his first
sergeant in the writing of the company, to excuse him from a tour of
military duty, the captain will previously obtain the sanction of his
own commander, if he have one present; and whether there be a superior
present or not, the captain will be responsible that the man so
employed does not miss two successive tours of guard-duty by reason of
Tradesmen may be relieved from ordinary military
duty to make, to alter, or to mend soldiers' clothing, etc. Company
commanders will fix the rates at which work shall be done, and cause
the men, for whose benefit it is done, to pay for it at the next
Each company officer, serving with his company, may
take from it one soldier as waiter, with his consent and the consent of
his captain. No other officer shall take a soldier as a waiter. Every
soldier so employed shall be so reported and mustered.
Soldiers taken as officers' waiters shall be
acquainted with their military duty, and at all times be completely
armed and clothed, and in every respect equipped . according to the
rules of the service, and have all their necessaries complete and in
good order. They are to fall in with their respective companies at all
reviews and inspections, and are liable to such drills as the
commanding officer shall judge necessary to fit them for service in the
Non-commissioned officers will, in no case, be
permitted to act as waiters; nor are they, or private soldiers, not
waiters, to be employed in any menial office, or made to perform any
service not military, for the private benefit of any officer or mess of
To each company are allowed four women, who each
receive the regular ration of a soldier, but are not otherwise paid.
Their duties are those of washer-women to the men. The price of the
washing is prescribed, and is paid out of the
36 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
soldiers' regular monthly pay. The women are liable to be discharged or
"drummed out of camp" in event of any gross misconduct, drunkenness or
breach of camp etiquette. Each woman is required to have a certificate
of good character from head-quarters before she can assume duty within
Captains inspect their companies every Sunday
morning. No soldier is excused from the inspection except the guard,
the sick and the necessary attendants on the hospital.
Regimental inspection is made on the last day of
each month. It is preceded by a review, as are all general inspections.
Inspection is also made of troops when mustered for payment.
Inspection implies a thorough examination of the
arms, acconterments and clothing of the soldier, as well as his own
The hospital is thoroughly inspected, by its officers in charge, every Sunday morning.
Muster always precedes the review. A daily dress parade is always made.
The army rules which govern musters, reviews,
inspections and parades are only to be learned from the official work,
Issues of Rations
Depend upon circumstances. When an army is not
moving rations are generally issued for four days at a time. Issues to
the companies of a regiment, and the fatigues to receive them, are
superintended by an officer detailed from the regiment.
Twelve pounds of straw per month, is allowed in
barracks for each man, servant and company woman, for bedding. One
hundred pounds per month is allowed each horse. In camp it is not used
to any extent for bedding, except the camp becomes barracks, in
permanency. The commissary is, as a general thing, able to supply it to
all who can produce an order for it from the proper officer.
Watchwords, Countersigns, etc.
See Dictionary of Military Terms comprised in this work, for the nature and uses of these terms.
HOURS OF SERVICE AND ROLL CALL, ETC. 37
Hours of Service and Roll Call.
The duties of the day commence, in garrison, with the morning reveille,
which sounds at five o'clock in May, June, July and August; at six
o'clock in March, April, September and October; and at half-past six in
November, December, January and February. The troop call, surgeon's call, water calls, breakfast. and dinner signals are prescribed by the commanding officer according to season, climate and circumstances. In cavalry, stable calls immediately after reveille.
In camp, the commanding officer prescribes the hours
of reveille reports, roll calls, guard mounting, meals, stable calls,
issues, fatigues, etc.
The several signals are as follows:
1. To go for fuel-poing stroke and ten stroke roll.
2. To go for water-two strokes and a flam.
3. For fatigue party-pioneers march.
4. Adjutant's call-first part of the troop.
5. 1st sergeant's call-one roll and four taps.
6. Sergeant's call-one roll and three taps.
7. Corporal's call-one roll and two taps.
8. For the drummers-the drummer's call.
Are three daily, viz.: reveille; retreat and tattoo,
and one made on company parades by the first sergeants, superintended
by a commissioned officer of the company. Captains are instructed to
report all absentees without leave to the colonel or commanding
officer. Immediately after the reveille roll call (or after stable duty
in the cavalry) the tents or quarters, and the space around them, will
be put in order by the men of the companies, superintended by the
chiefs of the squads, and the guard house or guard tent by the guard or
The importance of the guard especially commends the
subject to the volunteer for his early study. We may here give the
official regulations entire as affording the proper preliminary school
for the novice:
Sentinels will be relieved every two hours, unless
the state of the weather, or other causes, should make it necessary or
proper that it be done at shorter or longer intervals.
38 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Each relief, before mounting, is inspected by the
commander of the guard of of its post.. The corporal reports to him,
and presents the old relief on its return.
or watchword, is given to such persons as are entitled to pass during
the night, and to officers, noncommissioned Officers, and sentinels of
the guard. Interior guards receive the countersign only when ordered by
the commander of the troops.
is imparted to such officers only as have a right to visit the guards,
and to make the grand rounds; and to officers commanding guards.
As soon as the new guard has been marched off, the
officer of the day will repair to the office of the commanding officer
and report for orders.
The officer of the day must see that the officer of
the guard is furnished with the parole and countersign before retreat.
The officer of the day visits the guards during the
day at such times as he may deem necessary, and makes his rounds at
night at least once after twelve o'clock.
Upon being relieved, the officer of the day will
make such remarks in the report of the officer of the guard as
circumstances require, and present the same at head-quarters.
Commanders of guards leaving their posts to visit
their sentinels, or on other duty, are to mention their intention, and
the probable time of their absence, to the next in command.
The officers are to remain constantly at their
guards, except while visiting their sentinels, or necessarily engaged
elsewhere on their proper duty.
Neither officers nor soldiers are to take off their clothing or accouterments while they are on guard.
The officer of the guard must see that the
countersign is duly communicated to the sentinels a little before
twilight. When a fire breaks out, or any alarm is raised in a
garrison, all guards are to be immediately under arms.
Inexperienced officers are put on guard as supernumeraries, for the purpose of instruction.
Sentinels will not take orders or allow themselves
to be relieved, except by an officer or non-commissioned officer of
their guard or party, the officer of the day, or the commanding
officer; in which case the orders will be immediately
notified to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them.
Sentinels will report every breach of orders or regulations they are instructed to enforce.
Sentinels must keep themselves on the alert,
observing every thing that takes place within sight and hearing of
their post. They will carry their arms habitually at support, or on
either shoulder, but will never quit them. In wet weather, if there be
no sentry-box, they will secure arms.
No sentinel shall quit his post or hold conversation not necessary to the proper discharge of his duty.
All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required to observe respect toward sentinels.
In case of disorder, a sentinel must call out the guard, and if a fire take place, he must cry- "Fire!" adding the number of his post. If in either case the danger be great, he must discharge his firelock before calling out.
It is the duty of a sentinel to repeat all calls
made from posts more distant from the main body of the guard than his
own, and no sentinel will be posted so distant as not to be heard by
the guard, either directly or through other sentinels.
Sentinels will present arms to general and field
officers, to the officer of the day, and to the commanding officer of
the post. To all other officers they will carry arms.
When a sentinel in his sentry-box sees an officer approaching, he will stand at attention, and as the officer passes will salute him, by bringing the left hand briskly to the musket, as high as the right shoulder.
The sentinel at any post of the guard, when he sees
any body of troops, or an officer entitled to compliment, approach,
must call-" Turn out the guard!" and announce who approaches.
Guards do not turn out as a matter of compliment
after sunset; but sentinels will, when officers in uniform approach,
pay them proper attention, by facing to the proper front, and standing
steady at shouldered arms. This will be observed until the evening is so far advanced that the sentinels begin challenging.
After retreat (or the hour appointed by the
commanding officer), until broad daylight, a sentinel challenges every
40 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
who approaches him, taking, at the same time, the position of arms port. He will suffer no person to come nearer than within reach of his bayonet, until the person has given the countersign.
A sentinel, in challenging, will call out-" Who comes there?" If answered- " Friend, with the countersign," and he be instructed to pass persons with the countersign, he will reply-" Advance, friend, with the countersign! " If answered -" Friends!" he will reply-" Halt, friends! Advance one with the countersign!" If answered-" Relief," "Patrol," or " Grand Rounds," he will reply-" Halt! Advance, sergeant (or corporal), with the countersign !"
and satisfy himself that the party is what it represents itself to be.
If he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, if the
wrong countersign be given, or if the persons have not the countersign,
he will cause them to stand, and call-" Corporal of the guard!"
In the daytime, when the sentinel before the guard sees the officer of the day approach, he will call-" Turn out the guard! officer of the day." The guard will be paraded, and salute with presented arms.
When any person approaches a post of the guard at
night, the sentinel before the post, after challenging, causes him to
halt until examined by a non-commissioned officer of the guard. If it
be the officer of the day, or any other officer entitled to inspect the
guard and to make the rounds, the noncommissioned officer will call- "Turn out the guard!"
when the guard will be paraded at shouldered arms, and the officer of
the guard, if he thinks necessary, may demand the countersign and
The officer of the day, wishing to make the rounds,
will take an escort of a non-commissioned officer and two
men. When the rounds are challenged by a sentinel; the sergeant
will answer-" Grand rounds!" and the sentinel will reply "Halt, grand rounds! Advance, sergeant, with the countersign!" Upon which the sergeant advances and gives the countersign. The sentinel will then cry-" Advance, rounds!" and stand at a shoulder till they have passed.
When the sentinel before the guard challenges, and is answered-" Grand rounds," he will reply-" Halt, grand
THE POLICE GUARD. 41
rounds! Turn out the guard; grand rounds!"
Upon which the guard will be drawn up at shouldered arms. The officer
commanding the guard will then order a sergeant and two men to advance;
when within ten paces, the sergeant challenges. The sergeant of the
grand rounds answers-" Grand rounds!" The sergeant of the guard replies- " Advance, sergeant, with the countersign!"
The sergeant of the rounds advances alone, gives the countersign, and
returns to his round. The sergeant of the guard calls to his officer- "The countersign is right!" on which the officer of the guard calls"Advance, rounds!"
The officer of the rounds then advances alone, the guard standing at
shouldered arms. The officer of the rounds passes along the front of
the guard to the officer, who keeps his post on the right, and gives
him the parole. He then examines the guard, orders back his escort,
and, taking a new one, proceeds in the same manner to other guards.
All material instructions given to a sentinel on
post by persons entitled to make grand rounds, ought to be promptly
notified to the commander of the guard.
Any general officer, or the commander of a post or
garrison, may visit the guards of his command, and go the grand rounds,
and be receivec1 in the same manner as prescribed for the officer of
The Police Guard.
In each regiment a police guard is detailed every
day, consisting of two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, and
men enough to furnish the required sentinels and patrols. The men are
taken from all the companies, from each in proportion to its strength.
The guard is commanded by a lieutenant, under the supervision of a
captain, as regimental officer of the clay. It furnishes ten sentinels
at the camp: one over the arms of the guard; one at the colonel's tent;
three on the color front, one of them over the colors; three fifty
paces in rear of the field officers' tents; and one on each flank,
between it and the next regiment. If it is a flank regiment, one more
sentinel is posted on the outer flank.
An advanced post is detached from the police guard,
composed of a sergeant, a corporal, a drummer and nine men to furnish
sentinels and the guard over the prisoners. The men
42 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
are the first of the guard roster from each company. The men of the
advanced post must not leave it under any pretext. Their meals are sent
to the post. The advanced post furnishes three sentinels; two a few
paces in front of the post, opposite the right and left wing of the
regiment, posted so as to see as far as possible to the front, and one
over the arms.
In the cavalry, dismounted men are employed in
preference on the police guard. The mounted men. on guard are sent in
succession, a part at a time, to groom their horses. The advanced post
is always formed of mounted men.
In each company, a corporal has charge of the
stable-guard. His tour begins at retreat, and ends at morning
stable-call. The stable-guard is large enough to relieve the men on
post every two hours. They sleep in their tents, and are called by the
corporal when wanted. At retreat, he closes the streets of the camp
with cords, or uses other precautions to prevent the escape of loose
The officer of the day is charged with the order and
cleanliness of the camp; a fatigue is furnished to him when the number
of prisoners is insufficient to clean the camp. He has the calls beaten
by the drummer of the guard.
The police guard and the advanced post pay the same
honors as other guards. They take arms when an armed body approaches.
The sentinel over the colors has orders not to
permit them to be moved except in presence of an escort; to let no one
touch them but the color-bearer, or the serg€ant of the police
guard when he is accompanied by two armed men.
The sentinels on the color front permit no soldier
to take arms from the stacks, except by order of some officer, or a
non-commissioned officer of the guard. The sentinel at the colonel's
tent has orders to warn him, day or night, of any unusual movement in
or about the camp.
The sentinels on the front, flanks, and rear, see
that no soldier leaves camp with horse or arms unless conducted by a
non-commissioned officer. They prevent non-commissioned officers and
soldiers from passing out at night, except to go to the sinks, and mark
if they return. They arrest, at any time, suspicious persons prowling
about the camp, and at night,
THE POLICE GUARD. 43
everyone who attempts to enter, even the soldiers of other corps.
Arrested persons are sent to the officer of the guard, who sends them,
if necessary, to the officer of the day.
The sentinels on the front of the advanced post have
orders to permit neither non-commissioned officers nor soldiers to pass
the line, without reporting at the advanced post; to warn the advanced
post of the approach of any armed body, arid to arrest all suspicious
persons. The sergeant sends persons so arrested to the officer of the
guard, and warns him of the approach of any armed body.
The sentinel over the arms at the advanced post
guards the prisoners and keeps sight of them, and suffers no one to
converse with them without permission. They are only permitted to go to
the sinks one at a time, and under a sentinel.
If anyone is to be passed out of camp at night, the
officer of the guard sends him under escort to the advanced post, and
the sergeant of the post has him passed over the chain.
At retreat, the officer of the guard has the roll of
his guard called, and inspects arms, to see that they are loaded and in
order; and visits the advanced post for the same purpose. The sergeant
of the police guard, accompanied by two armed soldiers, folds the
colors and lays them on the trestle in rear of the arms. He sees that
the sutler's stores are then closed, and the men leave them, and that
the kitchen fires are put out at the appointed hour.
The officer of the day satisfies himself frequently
during the night, of the vigilance of the police guard and advanced
post. He prescribes patrols and rounds to be made by the officer and
non -commissioned officers of the guard. The officer of the guard
orders them when he thinks necessary. He visits the sentinels
At reveille, the police guard takes arms; the
officer of the guard inspects it and the advanced post. The sergeant
replants the colors in place. At retreat and reveille the advanced post
takes arms; the sergeant makes his report to the officer of the guard
when he visits the post.
When necessary, the camp is covered at night with
small outposts, forming a double chain of sentinels. These posts are
under the orders of the commander of the police guard, and are visited
by his patrols and rounds.
44 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
The officer of the guard makes his report of his
tour of service, including the advanced post, and sends it, after the
guard is marched off, to the officer of the day.
When the regiment marches, the men of the police
guard return to their companies, except those of the advanced post. In
the cavalry, at the sound, "boot and saddle," the officer of the guard
sends one-half the men to saddle and pack; when the regiment assembles,
all the men join it.
When the camping-party precedes the regiment, and
the new police guard. marches with the camping-party, the guard, on
reaching the camp, forms in line thirty paces in front of the center of
the ground marked for the regiment. The officer of the guard furnishes
the sentinels required by the commander of the camping-party. The
advanced post takes its station.
The advanced post of the old police guard takes
charge of the prisoners on the march, and marches, bayonets fixed, at
the center of the regiment. On reaching camp, it turns over the
prisoners to the new advanced post.
The picket guard and grand guard are so involved in
general orders as to render the detail of their performance unnecessary
here. They concern officers more than the men, and their service is to
be learned from the commanding officer.
On the March.
Thus far we have given an insight into camp or
stationary duty and life- a life the true soldier soon learns to grow
weary of, and to be "on the march" is his daily wish. We will then show
him what that really is, as applied to the movement of an entire
division or army.
The object of the movement and the nature of the
ground determine the order of march, the kind of troops in each column,
and the number of columns.
The force is divided into as many columns as
circumstances permit, without weakening anyone too much. They ought to
preserve their communications, and be within supporting distance of
each other. The commander of each column ought to know the strength and
direction of the others.
The advance and rear guards are usually light
troops; their strength and composition depend on the nature of the
ON THE MARCH. 45
and the position of the enemy. They serve to cover the movements of the
army, and to hold the enemy in check until the general has time to make
The advance guard is not always at the head of the
column; in a march to a flank, it takes such positions as cover the
movement. Sappers are attached to the advanced guard if required.
The "general," sounded one
hour before the time of marching, is the signal to strike tents, to
load the wagons, and pack horses, and send them to the place of
assembling. The fires are then put out, and care taken to avoid burning
straw, etc., or giving to the enemy any other indication of the
The "march" will be beat in the infantry, and the"
advance" sounded in the cavalry, in succession, as each is to take its
place in the column.
When the army should form suddenly to meet the enemy, the "long roll" is beat, and "to horse" sounded. The troops form rapidly in front of their camp.
Batteries of artillery and their caissons move with
the corps to which they are attached; the field train and ambulances
march at the rear of the column; and the baggage with the rear-guard.
Cavalry and infantry do not march together, unless the proximity of the enemy makes it necessary.
In cavalry marches, when distant from the enemy,
each regiment, and, if possible, each squadron, forms a separate
column, in order to keep up the same gait from front to rear, and to
trot, when desirable, on good ground. In such cases, the cavalry may
leave camp later, and can give more rest to the horses, and more
attention to the shoeing and harness. Horses are not bridled until the
time to start.
When necessary, the orders specify the rations the
men are to carry in their haversacks. The field officers and captains
make inspections frequently during the march; at halts they examine the
knapsacks, valises, and haversacks, and throw away all articles not
authorized. The officers and non-commissioned officers of cavalry
companies attend personally to the packs and girths.
When it can be avoided, troops should not be assembled
46 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
on high roads or other places where they interrupt the communication.
Generals of division and commanders of detached
corps send a staff officer to the rendezvous, in advance, to receive
the troops, who, on arriving, take their place in the order of battle,
and form in close column, unless otherwise ordered. Artillery, or
trains halted on the roads, form in file on one side.
The execution of marching orders must not be
delayed. If the commander is not at the head of his troops when
they are to march, the next in rank puts the column in motion.
If possible, each column is preceded by a detachment
of sappers, to remove obstacles to the march, aided, when necessary, by
infantry, or the people of the country. The detachment is divided into
two sections: one stops to remove the first obstacle, the other moves
on to the next.
In night marches, and at bad places, and at
cross-roads, when necessary, intelligent non-commissioned officers are
posted to show the way, and are relieved by the regiments as they come
On the march no one shall fire a gun, or cry "halt" or "March" without orders.
Soldiers are not to stop for water; the canteens should be filled before starting.
It is better to avoid villages; but if the route
lies through them, officers and non-commissioned officers are to be
vigilant to prevent straggling. Halts should not take place at
Besides the rear-guard, the general sometimes takes
a detachment from the last regiment, and adds to it non-commissioned
officers from each regiment, to examine villages and all hiding-places
on the route, to bring up stragglers and seize marauders.
In night marches, the sergeant-major of each
regiment remains at the rear with a drummer, to give notice when
darkness or difficulty stops the march. In cavalry, a trumpet is placed
in rear of each squadron, and the signal repeated to the head of the
The general and field officers frequently stop, or
send officers to the rear, to see that the troops march in the
prescribed order, and keep their distances. To quicken the
march, the general warns the colonels, and may order a signal to be beat. It is repeated in all the regiments.
In approaching a defile the colonels are warned;
they close their regiments as they come up; each regiment passes
separately, at an accelerated pace, and in as close order as possible.
The leading regiment having passed, and left room enough for the whole
column in close order, then halts, and moves again as soon as the last
regiment is through. In the cavalry, each squadron, before quickening
the pace to rejoin the column, takes its original order of march.
When the distance from the enemy permits, each
regiment, after closing up in front and rear of the defile, stacks
Halts to rest and re-form the troops are·
frequent during the day, depending on the object and length of the
march. They are made in preference after the passage of defiles.
No honors are paid by the troops on the march or at halts.
The sick march with the wagons.
Led horses of officers, and the horses of dismounted
men, follow their regiment. The baggage wagons never march in the
column. When the general orders the field train and ambulances to take
place in the column, he designates the position they shall take.
If two corps meet on the same road, they pass to the right, and both
continue their march, if the road is wide enough; if it is not, the
first in the order of battle takes the road, the other halts.
A corps in march must not be cut by another. If two
corps meet at cross-roads, that which arrives last halts if the other
i.s in motion. A corps in march passes a corps at a halt, if it has
precedence in the order of battle, or if the halted corps is not ready
to move at once.
A column that halts to let another column pass
resumes the march in advance of the train of this column. If a column
has to pass a train, the train must halt, if necessary, till the column
passes. The column which has precedence must yield it if the commander,
on seeing the orders of the other, finds it for the interest of the
We now come to the great event, the conflict-pregnant
48 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
with such momentous results to all concerned, bringing death, wounds,
pain, victory, defeat, all in its sad, fearful train of consequences.
It is well to contemplate the manner in which the great tragedy is to
be enacted. We, hence, give the official announcements of the order of
the day, so far as it can be regulated by the authorities at
Dispositions for battle depend on the number, kind,
and quality of the troops opposed, on the ground, and on the objects of
the war; but the following rules are to be observed generally:
In attacking, advance guard endeavors to capture the
enemy's outposts, or cut them off from the main body. Having done so,
or driven them in, it occupies, in advancing, all the points that can
cover or facilitate the march of the army, or secure its retreat, such
as bridges, defiles, woods, and heights; it then makes attacks, to
occupy the enemy, without risking too much, and to deceive them as to
the march and projects of the army.
When the enemy is hidden by a curtain of advanced
troops, the commandant of the advanced guard sends scouts, under
intelligent officers, to the right and left, to ascertain his position
and movements. If he does not succeed in this way, he tries to unmask
the enemy by demonstrations; threatens to cut the advance from the main
body; makes false attacks; partial and impetuous charges in echelon;
and if all fail, he makes a real attack to accomplish the object.
Detachments left by the advanced guard to hold
points in the rear rejoin it when other troops come up. If the army
takes a position, and the advanced guard is separated from it by
defiles or heights, the communication is secured by troops drawn from
the main body.
At proper distance from the enemy, the troops are
formed for the attack in several lines; if only two can be formed, some
battalions in column are placed behind the wings of the second line.
The lines may be formed of troops in column or in order of battle,
according to the ground and plan of attack.
The advanced guard may be put in the line or on the
wings, or other position, to aid the pursuit or cover the retreat.
The reserve is formed of the best troops of foot and horse,
to complete a victory or make good a retreat. It is placed in the rear of the center, or chief point of attack or defense.
The cavalry should be distributed in echelon on the wings, and at the center on favorable ground.
It should be instructed not to take the gallop until
within charging distance; never to receive a charge at a halt, but to
meet it, or, if not strong enough, to retire maneuvering; and .in order
to be ready for the pursuit, and prepared against a reverse, or the
attacks of the reserve, not to engage all its squadrons at once, but to
reserve one-third, in column or in echelon, abreast of or in the rear
of one of the wings; this arrangement is better than a second line with
In the attack, the artillery is employed to silence
the batteries that protect the position. In the defense it is better to
direct its fire on the advancing troops. In either case, as many pieces
are united as possible, the fire of artillery being formidable in
proportion to its concentration.
In battles and military operations it is better to
assume the offensive, and put the enemy on the defensive; but to be
safe in doing so requires a larger force than the enemy, or better
troops, and favorable ground. When obliged to act on the defensive, the
advantage of position and of making the attack may sometimes be secured
by forming in rear of the ground on which we are to fight, and
advancing at the moment of action. In mountain warfare, the assailant
has always the disadvantage; and even in offensive warfare, in the open
field, it may frequently be very important, when the artillery is well
posted, and any advantage of ground may be secured, to await the enemy
and compel him to attack.
The attack should be made with a superior force on
the decisive point of the enemy's position, by masking this by false
attacks and demonstrations on other points, and by concealing the
troops intended for it by the ground, or by other troops in their
Besides the arrangements which depend on the
supposed plan of the enemy, the wings must be protected by the ground,
or supported by troops in echelon; if the attack of tile enemy is
repulsed, the offensive must at once be taken, to inspire the troops to
disconcert the enemy, and often to decide the action. In thus taking
the offensive, a close column should be
50 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
pushed rapidly on the wing or flank of the enemy. The divisions of this
column form in line of battle successively, and each division moves to
the front as soon as formed, in order, by a rapid attack in echelon, to
prevent the enemy from changing front or bringing up his reserves. In
all arrangements, especially in those for attack, it is most important
to concea! the design until the moment of execution, and then to
execute it with the greatest rapidity. The night, therefore, is
preferred for the movement of troops on the flank or rear of the enemy,
otherwise it is necessary to mask their march by a grand movement in
front, or by taking a wide circuit.
In making an attack, the communication to the rear
and for retreat must be secured, and the general must give
beforehand all necessary orders to provide for that event.
When a success is gained, the light troops should
pursue the enemy promptly and rapidly. The other troops will restore
order in their columns, then advance from position to position, always
prepared for an attack or to support the troops engaged.
Before the action, the generals indicate the places
where they will be; if they change position, they give notice of it, or
leave a staff officer to show where they have gone.
During the fight the officers and non-commissioned
officers keep the men in the ranks, and enforce obedience if necessary.
Soldiers must not be permitted to leave· the ranks to strip or
rob the dead, nor to assist the Wounded, unless by express permission,
which is only to be given after the action is decided. The highest
interest and duty is to win the victory, which only can insure proper
care of the wounded.
Before the action, the quartermaster of the division
makes all the necessary arrangements for the transportation of the
Wounded. He establishes the ambulance depots in the rear, and gives his
assistants the necessary instruction for the service of the ambulance
wagons and other means of removing the wounded.
The ambulance depot, to which the wounded are
carried or directed for immediate treatment, is generally established
at the most convenient building nearest the field of battle. A red flag
marks its place, or the way to it, to the conductors of the ambulances
and to the wounded who can walk.
The active ambulance follow the troops engaged to
succor the wounded and remove them to the depots; for this purpose the
conductors should always have the necessary assistants, that the
soldiers may have no excuse to leave the ranks for that object.
The medical director of the division, after
consultation with the quartermaster-general, distributes the·
medical officers and hospital attendants at his disposal, to the depots
and active ambulances, He will send officers and attendants, when
practicable, to the active ambulances, to relieve the wounded who
require treatment before being removed from the ground. He will see
that the depots and ambulances are provided with the necessary
apparatus, medicines, and stores. He will take post and render his
professional services at the principal depot.
If the enemy endanger the depot, the quartermaster
takes the orders of the general to remove it or to strengthen its
The wounded in the depots and the sick are removed,
as soon as possible, to the hospitals that have been established by the
quartermaster-general of the army on the flanks or rear of the army.
After an action, the officers of ordnance collect
the munitions of war left on the field, and make a return of them to
the general. The quartermaster's department Collects the rest of the
public property captured, and makes the returns to bead -quarters.
Written reports for the general commanding-in-chief
are made by commandants of regiments, batteries, and separate
squadrons, and by all commanders of a higher grade, each in what
concerns bis own command, and to his immediate commander.
When an officer or soldier deserves mention for
conduct in action, a special report shall be made in bis case, and the
general commanding-in-chief decides Whether to mention him in his
report to the Government and in his orders. But he shall not be
mentioned in the report until he has been mentioned in the orders to
the army. These special reports are examined with care by the
intermediate commanders, to verify the facts, and secure commendation
and rewards to the meritorious only.
The report of battles, which must frequently be made before
52 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
these special reports of persons are scrutinized, is confined to general praise or blame, and an account of the operations.
The law in regard to courtesies to superiors is very
strict, and is enforced in both army and navy to its fullest extent.
The following are the rules for observance:
The President or Vice-President
is to be saluted with the highest honors-all standards and colors
dropping, officers and troops saluting, drums beating and trumpets
A general commanding-in-chief
is to be received-by cavalry, with sabers presented, trumpets sounding
the march, and all the officers saluting, stands dropping; by infantry,
with drums beating the march, color dropping, officers saluting, and
is to be receive cavalry, with sabers presented, trumpets sounding
twice the trumpet-flourish, and officers saluting; by infantry, with
three ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms presented.
A brigadier-general is
to be received-by cavalry, with sabers presented, trumpets sounding
once the trumpet· flourish, and officers saluting; by infantry,
with two ruffles, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms
An adjutant-general or inspector-general,
if under the rank of a general officer, is to be received at a review
or inspection of the troops under arms-by cavalry, with sabers
presented, officers saluting; by infantry, officers saluting and arms
presented. The same honors to be paid to any field-officer authorized
to review and inspect the troops. When the inspecting officer is junior
to the officer commanding the parade, no compliments will be paid: he
will be received only with swords drawn and arms shouldered.
All guards are to turn out and present arms to general officers
as often as they pass them, except the personal guards of general
officers, which turn out only to the generals whose guards they are,
and to officers of superior rank.
To commanders of regiments, garrison, or camp, their
own guard turn out, and present arms once a day; after which, they turn
out with shouldered arms.
To the members of
the Cabinet; to the Chief Justice, the President of the Senate, and
Speaker of the House of Representa-
tives of the United States ; and to Governors within their respective and Territories-the same honors will be paid as to a general commanding-in-chief.
Officers of a foreign service may be complimented with the honors due to their rank.
American and foreign envoys or ministers will be received with the compliments due to a major-general.
The colors of a regiment passing a guard are to be
saluted, the trumpets sounding, and the drums beating a march.
When general officers, or persons entitled to a
salute, pass in the rear of a guard, the officer is only to make his
men stand shouldered, and not to face his guard about, or beat his
When general officers, or persons entitled to a
salute, pass guards while in the act of relieving, both guards are to
salute, receiving the word of command from the senior officer of the
All guards are to be under arms when armed parties
approach their posts; and to parties commanded by commissioned
officers, they are to present their arms, drums beating a march, and
No compliments by guards or sentinels will be paid between retreat and reveille, except as prescribed for grand rounds.
All guards and sentinels are to pay the same
compliments to the officers of the navy, marines, and militia, in the
service of the United States, as are directed to be paid to the
officers of the army, according to their relative ranks.
It is equally the duty of non-commissioned officers and soldiers, at all times and in all situations,
to pay the proper compliments to officers of the navy and marines, and
to officers of other regiments, when in uniform, as to officers or
their own particular regiments and corps.
Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline.
Respect to superiors will not be confined to
obedience on duty, but will be extended to all occasions. It is always
the duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first the customary
salutation, and of the superior to return such complimentary notice.
Sergeants, with swords drawn, will salute by
bringing them to a present-with muskets, by bringing the left hand
54 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
the body, so as to strike the musket near the right shoulder. Corporals
out of the ranks, and privates not sentries, will carry their muskets
at a shoulder as sergeants, and salute in like manner.
When a soldier without arms, or with side-arms only,
meets an officer, he is to raise his hand to the right side of the
visor of his cap, palm to the front, elbow raised as high as the
shoulder, looking at the same time in a respectful and soldierlike
manner at the officer, who will return the compliment thus offered.
A non-commissioned officer or soldier being seated,
and without particular occupation, will rise on the approach of an
officer and make the customary salutation. If standing, he will turn
toward the officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the
same place or same ground such compliments need not be repeated.
Furloughs will be granted only by the commanding
officer of the post, or the commanding officer of the regiment actually
quartered with it. Furloughs may be prohibited at the discretion of the
officer in command.
Soldiers on furlough shall not take with them their arms or accouterments.
The form of the furlough is as follows:
TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN.
The bearer hereof, __________, a
sergeant (corporal, or private, as the case may be) of Captain________
company,_______regiment of ______, aged _____ years, ____ feet ____
inches high, _____ complexion, _____eyes, _____ hair, and by profession
a ______; born in the _____ of ____, and enlisted at _____, in the
_____ of ____, on the ____ day of ____, eighteen hundred and ___, to
serve for the period of _____, is hereby permitted to go to _____, in
the county of ____, State of _____, he having received a furlough from
the ____day of ____, to the ____ day of ____, at which period he will
rejoin his company or regiment at ______, or wherever it then may be,
or be considered a deserter.
Subsistence has been furnished to said _______ to the ____day of _____, and pay to the ____ day of ____, both inclusive.
Given under my hand, at _____, this ____ day of ____, 18_______
Signature of the officer giving the furlough. __________
We hope we are not writing for any deserter's
information. It is not agreeable to give the law to rogues, at any
time, but a deserter is one of the basest of rogues; he may betray his
brothers' secrets and send them to death or defeat, and we can not
think of such a man without disgust. But the soldier must know the law,
even in extreme cases, that he may know to what those are amenable who
are base enough to dare the ignominy of a deserter's fate. The laws
If a soldier desert from, or a deserter be received
at, any post other than the station of the company or detachment to
which he belonged, he shall be promptly reported by the commanding
officer of such post to the commander of his company or detachment. The
time of desertion, apprehension, and delivery will be stated. If the
man be a recruit, unattached, the required report will be made to the
adjutant-general. When a report is received of the apprehension or
surrender of a deserter at any post other than the station of the
company or detachment to which he belonged, the commander of such
company or detachment shall immediately forward his description and
account of clothing to the officer making the report.
A reward of thirty dollars will be paid for the
apprehension and delivery of a deserter to an officer of the army at
the most convenient post or recruiting station. Rewards thus paid will
be promptly. reported by the disbursing officer to the officer
commanding the company in which the deserter is mustered, and to the
authority competent to order his trial. The reward of thirty dollars
will include the remuneration for all expenses incurred for
apprehending, securing, and delivering a deserter.
When non-commissioned officers or soldiers are sent
in pursuit of' a deserter, the expenses necessarily incurred will be
paid whether he be apprehended or not, and reported as in case of
Deserters shall make good the time lost by desertion, unless discharged by competent authority.
No deserter shall be restored to duty without trial, except by the authority competent to order the trial.
Rewards and expenses paid for apprehending a deserter
56 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
will be set against his pay, when adjudged by a court-martial, or when he is restored to duty without trial on such condition.
In reckoning the time of service, and the pay and
allowances of a deserter, he is to be considered in service when
delivered up as a deserter to the proper authority.
An apprehended deserter, or one who surrenders
himself, shall receive no pay while waiting trial, and only such
clothing as may be actually necessary for him.
No enlisted man shall be discharged before the
expiration of his term of enlistment without authority of the War
Department, except by sentence of a general court-martial, or by the
commander of the department ~ an army in the field, on certificate of
disability, or on application of the soldier after
twenty years' service.
When an enlisted man is to be discharged, his
company commander shall furnish him certificates of his account,
according to form.
Blank discharges on parchment will be furnished from
the adjutant-general's office. No discharge shall be made in duplicate,
nor any certificate given in lieu of a discharge.
The cause of discharge will be stated in the body of
the discharge, and the space at foot for character cut off, unless a
recommendation is given.
Whenever a non-commissioned officer or soldier shall
be unfit for the military service in consequence of wounds, disease, or
infirmity, his captain shall forward to the commander of the department
or of the army in the field, through the commander of the regiment or
post, a statement of his case, with a certificate of his disability
signed by the senior surgeon of the hospital, regiment or post,
according to the form prescribed in the Medical Regulations.
If the recommendation for the discharge of the
invalid be approved, the authority therefor will be indorsed on the
"certificate of disability," which will be sent back to be completed
and signed by t.he commanding officer, who will then send the same to
the adjutant-general's office.
Insane soldiers will not be discharged, but sent,
under proper protection, by the department. commander to Washington for
the order of the War Department for their admission
RELATIVE RANK-PAY DEPARTMENT. 57
into the Government asylum. The history of the cases, with the men's
descriptive list, and accounts of pay and clothing, will be sent with
The relative rank and command of commissioned and noncommissioned. officers in the United States army is as follows, viz. :
And in each grade by date of commission or appointment.
4. Colonel of a regiment.
8. First lieutenant.
9. Second lieutenant.
12. Quartermaster sergeant of a regiment.
13. Ordnance sergeant and hospital steward.
14. First sergeant.
Officers serving by commission from any State in the Union take rank next after officers of the like grade by commission
from the United States. This rule prescribes the relative rank and
command of volunteer or militia commissioned officers in service of the
When commissions are of the same date the rank is to
be decided, between officers of the same regiment or corps, by the order of appointment; between officers of different regiments or corps: 1st, by rank in actual service when appointed;
2d, by former rank and service in the army or marine corps; 3d, by
lottery among such as have not been in the military service of the
United States. In case of equality of rank by virtue of a brevet commission, reference is had to commissions not brevet. See also 61st and 62d Articles of War.
An officer not having orders from competent authority can not put himself on duty by virtue of his commission alone.
Herewith we give an important table showing the pay, rations, horses
and servants given and allowed to every branch of the service:
64 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
THE frequent mention of the terms" Mortars,"
"Dahlgren gun," "Columbiads," "Armstrong gun," "Howitzers," etc.,
renders a notice of these several" man killers" proper.
A mortar is a short cannon, bell-shaped, and is used
principally for throwing shells filled with explosive materials for
crushing and destroying buildings in sieges They were used in Europe
four centuries ago, but their destructive powers have acquired such
terrific energy from modern improvements, that the bombardment of a
city, or shelling it, is perhaps the most horrible fate to which it can
be subjected. The bursting of a single shell spreads havoc and death
among all near whom it may explode. It was these terrible missives
which wrought the complete destruction of the quarters in Fort Sumter.
Colonel Anderson's extreme care of his men on that occasion alone saved
them from death, by keeping look-outs to give warning of the approach
of shot or shell, and requiring his brave men to take shelter within
the bomb-proof portions of the fort. Shells were rained down upon
Sevastopol in such awful showers that the Russian commander wrote to
the Emperor that it was the" fire of hell itself." The shell is
supplied with a fuse, which takes fire when the mortar is exploded, and
reaches the powder within the shell very often at the moment of its
striking. Long practice has enabled gunners to know exactly the length
of fuse necessary to the distance which the shell is to traverse. Many
mortars in our service will throw a shell thirteen inches in diameter.
Shells were formerly called bombs, and hence the word bombardment.
A howitzer is a gun with a chamber in it, and is
used generally to throw shells and other hollow projectiles, which act
as well by their explosion as by their force of percussion, setting
fire to towns, ships and other quarters of an enemy. The field-howitzer
is of course a much lighter gun than the siege or garrison-howitzer,
and is used in light batteries. The mountain-howitzer is a very light
twelve-pounder, and is used for service in countries so rough as not to
admit the passage
of wheeled vehicles. The howitzer and its carriage, when taken to
pieces, are carried on the backs of mules, which, when the roads are
favorable, may be used to draw the common two-wheeled carriage, with
the mounted piece. The howitzer is lighter and shorter, in proportion
to its projectile, than the ordinary cannon; the charges used are
smaller, and the accuracy of fire much less. But this is compensated
for by the greater execution of the shell when it bursts. The system of
shell-guns was first brought into practical use by the French General,
Paixan, in 1822, soon after which it was adopted by the United States.
What is known among us as a columbiad is, in reality, a modification of
the Paixan gun. There are two sizes, carrying balls eight and ten
inches in diameter, either hollow or solid. This gun, therefore,
combines the essential qualities of the ordinary cannon, the howitzer
and the mortar. It discharges shot or shell with much greater precision
than a mortar, and is terribly destructive. In casting columbiads, it
has been found almost impossible to make them strong enough to
withstand the proper number of discharges. It is a remarkable fact that
the length of time that a piece has been cast has much influence on its
power of endurance. On trial of three eight inch columbiads, cast in
the same mold and at the same time, one of them, a few days after
casting, burst at the seventy second round. Of the other two, after
lying six years, one burst after eight hundred rounds, the other
sustained two thousand five hundred and eighty-two fires without
yielding. It is considered that all iron guns, after one thousand two
hundred rounds, are no longer safe.
The Armstrong gun is a rifled cannon of English
invention, and is loaded at the breech. All accounts. agree in
presenting it as throwing balls further, and more accurately than any
other gun. It throws an explosive ball filled with percussion powder,
which explodes when the ball strikes, tearing to pieces every thing
near it. The British have introduced it extensively into the army. In
their recent campaign in China it proved to be a terrific engine of
death. At six hundred yards a target no larger than a man's hat, has
been struck at almost every discharge, and at three thousand yards an
object nine feet square, which can barely be seen at that distance, can
be struck by every other shot. The largest Armstrong guns
66 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
yet made carry balls weighing one hundred and twenty pounds. The
number of guns made last year was seven hundred and eighty, at an
average cost of one thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. There are
few such guns in this country, perhaps none.
The steam-frigate Niagara is armed with Sixty
Dahlgren guns, weighing nearly five tons each. Six of them carry
a ten- inch ball or shell, the remainder nine inch, and will
throw them from two or three miles. This gun was contrived from
Captain Dahlgren of our Navy, after a multitude of trials to determine
the best form to avoid bursting. As all guns burst at or very
near the breech, this is made of extraordinary thickness at this part,
and for some three feet of its length, when it tapers down sharply to
the muzzle. One of these guns has been made which weighs sixteen
thousand pounds, and will throw an eleven-inch shell four miles.
The highest engineering talent, both in Europe and
in this country, has been devoted to the construction of improved
ordnance. Science and mechanical ingenuity, combined with millions of
money, have been devoted to the business of discovering and remedying
the defects of these death dealing engines, as well as of
inventing others more destructive. The French have rendered the rifle
ten times as deadly as formerly, while the English, in the Armstrong
gun, seemed to have rendered the cannon as true a marksman as the
rifle. Up to this time, experience has demonstrated that there are
insuperable obstacles to the formation of cast-iron guns of more than
ten-inch caliber. Beyond that, so many defects are liable to occur in
the casting, it is not considered safe to go, though with mortars the
caliber has been extended to thirteen inches.
As all attempts to make casting larger than this
have failed, attention has been turned to wrought-iron, with the hope
of increasing the caliber. Yet the use of wrought-iron has been proved
to be almost as dangerous as that of cast-iron. It is liable to many
destructive casualties even after perfect welding has been secured. The
huge wrought-iron gun which burst on board the Princeton in 1848, was
proved to have parted with one-third of the original strength of the
iron by the intense heat used in forging it Wrought iron guns of large
caliber must be built up of separate pieces, and only a small amount of
heat and welding force employed.
RIFLES AND THEIR USE. 67
All the ordnance for the United States service is
made at private founderies, and afterward inspected and proved by
officers of the ordnance detailed for that purpose. The founderies
where most of our cannon are made, are the following: The West Point
Foundery, near Cold Spring, N. Y.; Fort Pitt, near Pittsburg;
Tredegar near Richmond, Va.; Algers, near Boston; and the Ames
Foundery, near Chicopee, Mass. The last two furnish the bronze
cannon, and the others the iron. By the term artillery
is meant all fire-arms of large caliber, together with the machines and
implements used with them. In the United States Service, the
artillery corps is entrusted with the use of the arms and munitions,
and the ordnance corps with their construction and preservation. The
term ordnance is applied to the guns themselves, and in our
service the ordnance is divided into guns, howitzers and mortars_
This weapon is now becoming a great favorite with
all classes of regiments Even the Zouaves' are now calling for the
Minie or Sharpe's Rifle. The musket seems to be regarded as less
effective and sure in its mission of death. Notwithstanding, it
is “Uncle Sam's favorite” and we think will tell as true a
story when a campaign is over as the more expensive rifle- an
instrument that needs great practice to render it available and
effective. Hence, as schools of practice, established by
government, are indispensable, and should be organized in this
country. The French have such at Vincennes, Toulouse, St. Omer
and Grenoble, whence officers and men, well instructed in the
principles of firing, are sent out into the army at large, and impart
to it the same system and efficiency. An attempt was made to establish
such a school at Ft. Monroe for artillery practice, but schools for
infantry are far more pressingly needed. The value of the bayonet in
battle is well understood; but the fact is now incontestable that the
efficiency of a body of infantry resides essentially in its accuracy of
fire, a fact made more apparent from the recent improvements in
firearms. A cool, well directed-fire from a
68 THE MILITARY HANDBOOK.
body of men, armed with the best modern rifle or rifle-musket, is
sufficient to stop the advance of almost any body of troops, but the
very best disciplined men will, in time of battle, fire with
precipitancy and at too great a distance. The thoroughness of practice,
also, should be in proportion to the efficiency of the troops to be
encountered. In one of Colonel Steptoe's encounters with the Indians of
Washington Territory, men were armed with the old musket, and they soon
expended their ammunition in ineffectual firing against enemies mounted
on fleet horses, armed partly with rifles, partly with bowed arrows,
whose deadly shaft was shot with astonishing accuracy and at a rate
exceeding the rapidity of an expert hand with a revolver. Charges of
cavalry against them failed, and our men retreated to avoid
annihilation. Some weeks subsequently the same troops met the same
Indians, but having in the interval procured the rifle instead of the
musket, the Indians were totally routed.
In the successful and oft-repeated repulse of
cavalry charges by squares of infantry, the main dependence is not on
the use of the bayonet; but in the close, well-directed fire, delivered
as the horsemen approach. This, breaking their formation, and
disorganizing their ranks, leaves them at the end of their charge with
a wall of bayonets in front, against which horses can not be forced
unless at full speed and supported by numbers behind. It is this.
injury, before the shock takes place, which prevents cavalry from
breaking squares of infantry. So accurate and fatal has the rifle
become by modern improvement, that it has been customary to underrate
the artillery arm on the field of battle; and the assertion is
frequently made that the use of the rifle will entirely supersede the
use of fieldpieces in war, since their fire has a greater range and
more accuracy than the field-pieces now in use. But able military
writers doubt this. Others insist that artillerymen will be shot down
at such a distance from their guns as to make it impossible to serve
them in the face of infantry; that bayonets will not be crossed so
often; that personal conflicts, such as line against line; or column
against column, will cease altogether, and future combats be decided by
the effects of a rapid and destructive fire, on the precision of which,
rather than on personal contact and extensive combinations, the
RIFLES AND THEIR USE. 69
result will depend. In India, Havelock mowed down whole columns of
advancing insurgents by Minie rifles. They worked dreadful havoc to the
Austrians at Magenta and Solferino. Garibaldi retreated before their
withering fire at Rome. At the battle of Ilstedt, a body of
skirmishers, armed with rifles, discharging conical balls, made an
attack on the Danes at a distance of one hundred and fifty yards.
Artillery replied to them, cavalry made repeated charges at them, and
infantry advanced, but they could not be moved. In less than an hour
they killed seventy men, with several officers of high rank, and ninety
horses. This havoc gives color to the idea of the improved rifle
The fire of the ordinary musket is uncertain beyond
two hundred yards, but when troops are in compact masses, it is still
very effective beyond that distance. At six hundred and fifty yards the
musket-ball is still deadly, and has been known to kill at even greater
distances. The effective range of the rifled spherical ball is over
four hundred yards; the oblong rifle-ball is effective at one thousand
yards, or more than half a mile. The rifle was in use as early as 1498.
Almost every European army has adopted its own kind of rifle,
essentially differing from each other. In the small German States they
use bullets of almost every conceivable shape and size. The principal
arms adopted for the British army is the Enfield rifled musket,
manufactured in the Government establishment. Its principal competitor
is the Whitworth rifle. The French are now perhaps more advanced than
all others in experience and efficiency with that arm. To Captain
Minie, of their army, they are indebted for the weapon bearing his
name, and it is now being rapidly adopted throughout the French
The schools for practice established in that country
should be imitated here. The men are there taught to take the easiest
and most stable positions, either standing or kneeling; to sight and
fire with blank cartridges, preserving immovable both the body and the
piece. The quick movement the soldier imparts to the piece, by pulling
the trigger, is the great cause of his losing his aim. The principal
object of instruction is to habituate him not to being surprised by the
explosion, by pressing gradually upon it. For this purpose
70 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
they are made to fire caps at a lighted candle, placed about three
inches from the piece. If the piece is properly aimed, the jet of gas
produced by the cap will extinguish the candle. After this, they fire
blank cartridges. The officers are thoroughly instructed in estimating
distances, as they will so much better direct the fire of the men they
command. This knowledge is of great advantage to them in maneuvering
troops, and soldiers thrown out as skirmishers will out-general an
enemy if they know how to estimate distances with precision, for their
fire will thel1 be more accurate and efficacious. There are regular
instructors in all these departments. Records of the firing are kept in
each battalion. It is to this thorough training, combined with the use
of the best weapon, that the French army owes most of its present
supremacy. The men are as much marksmen as any of our deer-slayers. The
Minie ball, fired by them, is a terrific missile. That destruction it
works was shown at the recent riot at St. Louis. Those which struck the
walls of the houses, tore up bricks for a space of four inches in
diameter. When they struck fair, they sunk six inches into the solid
wall. One of them struck the angle of a wall, tore away a brick next to
the door-frame, passed six inches through the frame, then through the
door and into the wall beyond. A stroke of lightning has frequently
done less damage.
At six hundred yards, and even further, a handful of
riflemen can render field-artillery useless in a few minutes, by the
destruction of its ammunition and gunners; and even a single rifleman,
well ensconced, may silence a field-battery: a feat performed by
Lieutenant Godfrey of the Rifles, who silenced a Russian battery at
Balaklava. A bullet has been recently invented by the commander of the
Normal School of Gunnery, in France, which, besides superiority of
precision over that of the rifle ball, may be fired from a smooth
barrel. Of one hundred balls fired from a rifle, at six hundred yards
distance, forty three struck the target, and at eight hundred yards,
fourteen. Of one hundred of the newly-invented ball fired from a smooth
barrel, at the distance of six hundred yards, sixty-five struck the
target, and at eight hundred yards, thirty-nine,
PREPARATION OF FOOD. 71
Preparation of Food.
To prepare good food from the ordinary ration is
comparatively an easy matter; but, so poorly do most persons understand
the art of compounding, or even of simple roasting, boiling and
dressing, that soldier's fare has become proverbial for its
unpalatableness. It was no matter of surprise to the French, in the
late War in the Crimea,to see their allies, the English, die off by
hundreds, when their detestable arrangements in the commissary
department and hospitals were unveiled; and it was not until the
English government sent skillful cooks (headed by the celebrated
Soyer), to show the troops how to live,
that the awful mortality ceased. Soyer found the army eating
half-cooked beans, raw salt meat and hard bread rather than be at the
trouble of preparing their rations by careful cooking. He instituted a
thorough system in the
culinary department, and, by his excellent arrangements and thoroughly
scientific principles of preparing and mixing the food, produced a most
astonishing change in the comfort, health and happiness of the entire
army. His published "Cookery for the Army" places us in possession of
the hints and recipes requisite for a good table
from the ordinary army ration list, and we here subjoin such of the
recipes as our troops may render available for their comfort and
To COOK SALT MEAT FOR FIFTY MEN.*-Put fifty pounds of meat in the boiler. Fill with water, and let soak all night.
Next morning wash the meat well. Fill with fresh water, and boil gently
three hours, and serve. Skim off the fat, which, when cold, is an
excellent substitute for butter.
For salt pork proceed as above, or boil half beef
and half pork-the pieces of beef may be smaller than the pork,
requiring a little longer time doing.
Dumplings may be added to either pork or beef in
proportion; and when pork is properly soaked, the liquor will make a
very good soup, by the addition of five pounds of split peas, half a
pound of brown sugar, two table-spoonfuls of pepper, ten onions; simmer
gently till in
* In all these cases, dishes for half or quarter of the number named, use only half or quarter .of the proportions given.
72 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
pulp, remove the fat and serve; broken biscuit may be introduced. This will make au excellent mess.
SALT PORK WITH HASHED PEAS, FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN.-Put
in two stoves fifty pounds of pork each; divide twenty-two pounds, in
four pudding-cloths, rather loosely tied, putting to boil at the same
time as your pork; let all boil gently till done, say about two hours;
take out the pudding and peas; put all meat in one caldron; remove the
liquor from the other pan, turning back the peas in it; add two
teaspoonfuls of pepper, a pound of the fat, and with the wooden spatula
smash the peas and serve both. The addition of about half a pound of
flour and two quarto of liquor, boiled ten minutes, makes a great
improvement. Six sliced onions, fried and added to it, makes it very
STEWED SALT BEEF AND PORK FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN.-Put
in a boiler, of well-soaked beef thirty pounds, cut in pieces of a
quarter of a pound each; twenty pounds of pork; one and a half pound of
sugar; eight pounds of onions, sliced; twenty-five quarts of water;
four pounds of rice. Simmer gently for three hours, skim the fat off
the top, and serve.
Soup FOR FIFTY MEN.-Put in the boiler sixty pints,
seven and a half gallons, or five and a half camp-kettles of water. Add
to it fifty pounds of meat, either beef or mutton; the rations of
preserved or fresh vegetables; ten small table-spoonfuls of salt.
Simmer three hours, and serve. When rice is issued put it in when
boiling. Three pounds will be sufficient. About eight pounds of fresh
vegetables; or four squares from a cake of preserved ditto; a table
spoonful of pepper, if handy. Skim off the fat, which, when cold, is an
excellent substitute for butter.
Soups FOR Two MEN*-Camp Soup.-Put
half a pound of salt pork in a saucepan, two ounces of rice, two pints
and a half of cold water, and, when boiling, let simmer another hour,
stirring once or twice; break in six ounces of biscuit; let soak ten
minutes; it is then ready, adding one tea-spoonful of sugar, and a
quarter one of pepper, if handy.
Beef Soup.-Proceed as above, boil an hour longer, adding a pint more water.
[Those who can obtain any of the following
vegetables will find them a great improvement to the above soups: Add
four ounces of either onions, carrots, celery, turnips, leeks, greens,
cabbage or potatoes, previously well washed or peeled, or any of these
mixed to make up four ounces, putting them in the pot with the meat.
'I'he green tops of leeks and the leaf of celery as well as the stem,
for stewing are preferable to the white part for flavor. The meat being
generally salted with rock
* For more than two men simply increase the proportions pro rata.
PREPARATION OF FOOD 73
salt, it ought to be well scraped and washed, or even soaked in water a
few hours if convenient; but if the last can not be done, and the meat
is therefore too salt, which would spoil the broth, parboil it for
twenty minutes in water before using for soup, taking care to throw
this water away.]
Fresh Beef Soup.-For fresh beef proceed, as far as the cooking goes, as for salt beef, adding a tea-spoonful of salt to the water.
Bean or Pea Soup.-Put
in your pot half a pound of salt pork, half a pint of peas, three pints
of water, one tea-spoonful of sugar, half one of pepper, four ounces of
vegetables cut in slices, if to be had; boil gently two hours, or until
the peas are tender, as some require boiling longer than others, and
FRESH BEEF SOUP, OR POT-AU-FEU-CAMP FASHION, FOR THE
ORDINARY CANTEEN PAN.- Put in the canteen saucepan six pounds of beef,
cut in two or three pieces, bones included, three-quarter pound of
plain mixed vegetables-as onions, carrots, turnips, celery, leeks, or
such of these as can be obtained-or three ounces of preserved in cakes,
as now given to the troops; three tea-spoonfuls of salt, one ditto of
pepper, one ditto of sugar, if handy; eight pints of water; let it boil
gently three hours; remove some of the fat, and serve. The addition
of one and a half pound of bread cut into slices, or one pound of
broken biscuits, well soaked, in the broth, will make a very nutritious
soup; skimming is not required.
PLAIN IRISH STEW FOR FIFTY MEN.-Cut fifty pounds of
mutton into pieces of a quarter of a pound each; put them in the pan;
add eight pounds of large onions, twelve pounds of whole potatoes,
eight tablespoonfuls of salt, three table-spoonfuls of pepper; cover
all with water, giving about half a pint to each pound; then light the
fire; one hour and a half of gentle ebulition will make a most
excellent stew; mash some of the potatoes to thicken the gravy, and
serve. Fresh beef, veal, or pork, will also make a good stew. Beef
takes two hours doing. Dumplings may be added half an hour before done.
SEMI FRYING, CAMP FASHION, CHOPS, STEAKS, AND ALL
KINDS OF MEAT.-If it is difficult to broil to perfection, it is
considerably more so to cook meat of any kind in a frying-pan. Place
your pan on the fire for a minute or so; wipe it very clean; when the
pan is very hot, add in it either fat or butter, but the fat from salt
and ration meat is preferable; the fat will immediately get very hot;
then add the meat you are going to cook; turn it several times to have
it equally done; season to each pound a small teaspoonful of salt,
quarter that of pepper, and serve., Any sauce or maitre d'hotel butter
may be added. A few fried onions in the remaining fat, with the
addition of a little flour to the onions, a quarter of a pint of water,
two table-spoonfuls of vinegar, a few chopped pickles or piccalilly,
will be very relishing.
74 TIIE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
RECEIPTS FOR THE FRYING-PAN,-Those who are fortunate
enough to possess a frying-pan will find the following receipts very
useful: Cut in small dice half a pound of solid meat, keeping the bones
for soup; put your pan, which should be quite clean, on the fire; when
hot through, add an ounce of fat, melt it and put in the meat, season
with half a tea-spoonful of salt; fry for ten minutes, stirring now and
then; add a tea-spoonful of flour, mix all well, put in half a pint of
water, let simmer for fifteen minutes, pour over a biscuit previously
soaked and serve.
The addition of a little pepper and sugar is an
improvement, as is also a pinch of cayenne, curry-powder, or spice;
sauces and pickles used in small quantities would be very relishing;
these are articles which will keep for any length of time, as fresh
meat is not easily obtained, any of the cold, salt meat, may lie
dressed as above, omitting the salt, and only requires warming; or, for
a change, boil the meat plainly, or with greens, or cabbage or
dumplings, as for beef; then the next day cut what is left in small
dice-say four ounces-put in a pan an ounce of fat; when very hot, pour
in the following: Mix in a basin a table-spoonful of flour, moisten
with water to form the consistency of thick melted butter, then pour it
in the pan, letting it remain for one or two minutes, or until set; put
it in the meat, shake the pan to loosen it, turn it over, let it remain
a few minutes longer, and serve,
To cook bacon, chops, steaks, slices of any kind of
meat, salt or fresh sausages, black puddings, etc, Make the pan very
hot, having wiped it clean, add in fat, dripping, butter, or oil, about
an ounce of either; put in the meat, turn three or four times, and
season with salt and pepper, A few minutes will do it. If the meat is
salt, it must be well soaked previously.
TURKISH PILAFF FOR ONE HUNDRED MEN,-Put in the
caldron two pounds of fat, which you have saved from salt pork, add to
it four pounds of peeled and sliced onions; let them fry in the fat for
about ten minutes; add in then twelve pounds of rice; cover the rice
over with water, the rice being submerged two inches; add to it seven
table-spoonfuls of salt and one of pepper; let simmer gently for about
an hour, stirring it with a spatula occasionally to prevent it burning,
but when commencing to boil, a very little fire ought to be kept under.
Each grain ought to be swollen to the full size of rice and separate.
In the other stove put fat and onions the same quantity, with the same
seasoning; cut the flesh of the mutton, veal, pork, or beef from the
bone, cut in dice of about two ounces each, put in the pan with the fat
and onions, set it going with a very sharp fire, having put in two
quarts of water; steam gently, stirring occasionally for about half an
hour, till forming rather a rich thick gravy. When both the rice and
meat is done, take half the
PREPARATION OF FOOD 75
rice and mix with the meat, and then the remainder of the meat and
rice, and serve; save the bones for soup the following day. Salt pork
or beef well soaked, may be used-omitting the salt. Any kind of
vegetables may be frizzled with the onions.
COFFEE A LA ZOUAVE FOR A MESS OF TEN SOLDIERS.- Make
it in the canteen saucepan holding ten pints, Put nine pints of water
into a canteen saucepan on the fire; when boiling, add seven and a half
ounces of coffee, which forms the ration, mix them well together with a
spoon or a piece of wood, leave on the fire for a few minutes longer,
or until just beginning to boil. Take it off and pour in one pint of
cold water; let the whole remain for ten minutes or a little longer.
The dregs of coffee will fall to the bottom, and your coffee will be
clear. Pour it from one vessel to the other, leaving the dregs at the
bottom; add your ration sugar, or two tea-spoonfuls to the pint; if any
milk is to be had make two pints of coffee less; add that quantity of
milk to your coffee; the former may be boiled previously, and serve.
This is a very good way for making coffee, one ounce
to the quart if required stronger. For a company of eighty men use four
times the quantity of ingredients.
COFFEE, TURKISH FASHION.- When the water is just on
the boil add the coffee and sugar, mix well as above, give just a boil,
and serve. The grounds of coffee will in a few seconds fall to the
bottom of the cups, The Turks wisely leave it there. I would advise
everyone in camp to do the same,
COCOA FOR EIGHTY MEN.-Break eighty portions of
ration cocoa in rather small pieces; put them in the boiler, with five
or six pints of water; light the fire, stir the cocoa round till
melted, and forming a pulp not too thick, preventing any lumps forming;
add to it the remaining water, hot or cold; add the ration sugar, and
when just boiling, it is ready for serving. If short of cocoa in
campaigning, put about sixty rations, and when in pulp, add half a
pound of flour or arrow-root.
TEA FOR EIGHTY MEN.-One boiler will, with ease, make
tea for eighty men, allowing a pint each man. Put forty quarts of water
to boil, place the rations of tea in a fine net very loose, or in a
large perforated ball; give one minute to boil, take out the fire, if
too much, and shut down the cover; in ten minutes it is ready to serve.
This will do for Soyer, which dishes, after all, appear to us to be too expensive. For instance, in the preparation of his soups he gives one pound of meat to every man to be fed. As the men are only rationed with three-quarters of a pound of pork per day, or twenty ounces of salt or fresh beef, the entire daily ration is thus consumed to prepare one dish. We never,
74 TIIE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
in our own household, use so great a proportin of meat in soups, While
other dishes are prepared by good housewives with more economy than
those given above. We shal1, therefore, here add a number of
recipes especially prepared
for this work by an able and experienced American housewife, which, we
hope, will prove very acceptable and valuable to the company cook.
HOE-CAKE.--Mix a stiff dough of Indian meal, a
little salt, and water (scalding water is best); flatten it on a board,
and tilt it up before the camp-fire until brown on one side; turn, and
brown the other. When our fathers fought the Indians, and ground their
corn in mortars, they thought hoe-cake very good. It can also be baked
in hot ashes, and with hot stones, Southern fashion.
SHORT-CAKE.--Mix a dough of flour, salt, and cold
water, and bake in the same way. If you have any kind of fat, rub a
little into the flour thoroughly, before adding the water. If you have
baking-powder, use it, a tea-spoonful to a pint of flour, stirring it
in before adding the water; but it is good without, when baked before
BROILED MEAT.-- When yon have fresh meat, broil it,
in preference to frying it. It is much sweeter, and far healthier. A
bit of fresh meat, stuck on a stick (in the absence of a gridiron), and
broiled over the coals, is more delicious than the most carefully
SALT PORK-Is also excellent, broiled before the fire or on the coals.
Put slices on the end of a stick sharpened at both
ends and set aslant before the fire, so that the fat will drop off, on
a piece of bread or biscuit which can be placed beneath it, and which
will brown at the same time, and make an acceptable relish.
HASH.-Cut up the cold bits of corned beef with the
cold potatoes (if you have no potatoes, dry bread or biscuit will
answer very well), about half and half; heat a kettle or tin-dish with
a bit of fat in the bottom, put in the hash, moisten with water, season
with pepper and salt, stir till well heated through. A good dish for
breakfast, and makes the “pieces" available.
BAKED BEANS,-If on the march, and you have not time
to bake beans for dinner, you can have them for breakfast. Let them
boil until soft, in two waters. In the first water put a tea-spoonful
of soda to a quart of beans; when they have cooked in this twenty or
thirty minutes, pour it off, and add another water, enough for them to
swell in until soft. Do this in the evening; before bed-time, put the
beans in a pan, with a chunk of pork in the middle, and a little salt
and pepper to season, and let them stand where they will bake slowly through the night-in a slow oven, if you have a cooking-stove; if not, in hot
PREPARATION OF FOOD. 77
ashes, with some coals or heated stones on the cover of the pan. They
will be ready for breakfast; and this is the real Boston way of eating
beans of a Sunday morning.
BOILED BEANS.--When there is no chance to soak beans
over night, put soda in the first water, turn it off, after boiling
half an hour, add fresh water, and boil two hours, with a chunk of
COFFEE.-Don't spoil your coffee by pouring the water on it before it boils, or by adding water to it, after
it is steeped. Mix the ground coffee first with cold water to a thin
paste; pour on boiling water, allowing a table-spoonful of coffee to a
person, and a pint of water; boil quickly ten minutes, let it stand to
settle three or four minutes, and pour off from the dregs. If you have
egg-shells, or a bit of codfish-skin, mix with the ground coffee before
adding water; they will help to make it clear. If you have milk, boil it, and add it to the coffee after it is poured from the dregs.
TEA.-A tea-spoonful to a person. Always use boiling
water; steep two or three minutes; then let it stand to "draw" as many
more. If you have any tea left, do not throw it away. Fill your
canteens with it. It is infinitely more refreshing than almost any
other drink, upon a hot, weary march. If, instead of filling your
canteens with fresh water, you would boil
it in the morning, before starting, with enough tea to flavor it and
keep it from being insipid when warmed by tho sun, it would be a
thousand times healthier, and the best preventive against dysentery.
Water which has been boiled is freed from the bad effects which it
frequently has. The Southern people boil their lemonade, and then allow it to cool, before using it. Learn from your enemies how to protect yourselves in their climate.
EGGS.-May be roasted by standing them on end in hot
ashes; they may be boiled hard to carry in the pockets on forced
marches; they may he scrambled, by melting a piece of fat or butter the
size of an egg to a dozen eggs in a hot dish of any kind you have,
frying-pan, kettle, tin-basin, etc., breaking the eggs in and stirring
them about till they are thick, adding pepper and salt, also chopped
ham, if you have it. To make a dozen eggs go as far as two dozen, heat
the pan as above, with a piece of fat, cut bread in square dice, put in
the pan and fry a light brown, then add the eggs, and stir about till
set. Or beat a couple of eggs in half a pint of milk, dip slices of
bread in the mixture and fry a light brown.
SOUP.-Unless compelled, by being on the march, never
throw away the bones of any meat, fresh or salt, nor the pieces-they
make good soup, with the addition of very little or no meat, and thus
save the rations of meat, so that the soldier can sometimes have two courses for his dinner. Of course when there is less meat, there must be more
78 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK
thickening with other substances. Almost any kind of vegetables,
chopped or sliced, barley, rice, or even flour, browned in a hot frying
pan, and cooked well into the soup, and well seasoned with pepper and
salt, will make palatable soup, with but a little meat to flavor it.
Onions are especially useful in flavoring soup. Peas and bean soup
needs less meat, because the vegetables themselves are nourishing. They
should be boiled until thoroughly dissolved, with a chunk of pork, or a
ham-bone. An excellent thickening for soups may be made, by mixing
flour and fat, and frying brown, and stirring into the soups a
half-hour before they are taken off. Vegetables should be put into soup
from two hours to an hour before it is done; rice or flour an hour
before, pepper or other pungent flavorings just before it is taken from
DUMPLINGS-May be made to add to soup, when there is
a lack of vegetables, and to all stewed meats, for the same reason. Mix
a dough, as for biscuits, by rubbing a small piece of fat into a quart
of flour; stir two tea-spoonsful of baking-powder through it, mix it
up, not very hard, with cold water, cut into slices, or roll into small
balls, and boil three-quarters of an hour in soup, or along with meat
which is stewing.
WARMED-UP MEAT FOR BREAKFAST.-Cut cold corned-beef
in slices or small pieces. Put a piece of fat or butter, the size of an
egg, in a frying-pan, pour on a pint of water, mix a table-spoonful of
flour to a paste with cold water, thicken the gravy with this, and warm
up the beef in the gravy.
RICE.-To boil rice, put it in cold water, let it
swell upon a slow fire, until tender, without stirring; then add salt.
It can be eaten with sweet gravy, with butter and pepper, with sugar or
molasses, with sugar and butter, or plain . Take the cold rice and fry
it for supper or breakfast, by cutting it in slices, or making it in
balls, and frying it on both sides in a little fat.
PEPPER.-If you will learn to use cayenne pepper in
place of black you will find it a preventive of dysentery, and a cure
for colds. An extra pinch of it in your breakfast will often break up a
cold caught through the night; and a smart sprinkle of it in your
liquid will relieve sickness caused by bad drinking water. Black pepper
produces inflammation-red pepper heals it.
"If the voice of a woman could prevail, she would
have red pepper take the place of black in the army; and have all
drinking-water boiled before
using, whenever possible; and further, have it flavored with coffee, or
tea- tea being preferable. It would promote the cause of temperance and
OTHER GOOD THINGS. 79
most effective sanitary measure." So writes our good housewife. Is there not good sense in her suggestions?
OTHER GOOD THINGS.
From Soyer's recipes we may quote the following as
embodying many good things which the soldier can have prepared for bis
" occasional treat:"
CHEAP PLAIN RICE PUDDING, FOR CAMPAIGNING-In which
no eggs or milk are required; important in the Crimea or the field. Put
on the fire, in a moderate sized saucepan, twelve pints of water; when
boiling, add to it one pound of rice or sixteen table-spoonfuls, four
ounces of brown sugar or four table-spoonfuls, one large tea-spoonful
of salt, and the rind of a lemon thinly peeled; boil gently for half an
hour, then strain all the water from the rice, keeping it as dry as
possible. The rice water is then ready for drinking, either warm or
cold. The juice of a lemon may be introduced, which will make it more
palatable and refreshing.
THE PUDDING.-Add to the rice three ounces of sugar,
four table- spoonfuls of flour, half a tea-spoonful of pounded
cinnamon; stir it on the fire carefully for five or ten minutes; put it
in a tin or a pie-dish and bake. By boiling the rice a quarter of an
hour longer, it will be very good to eat without baking. Cinnamon may
BATTER PUDDING.-Break two fresh eggs in a basin,
beat them well, add one table-spoonful and a half of flour, which beat
up with your eggs with a fork until no lumps remain; add a gill of milk
and a teaspoonful of salt; butter a tea-cup or a basin, pour in your
mixture, put some water in a stewpan, enough to immerge half way up the
cup or basin in water; when boiling, put in your cup or basin, and boil
twenty minutes, or till your pudding is well set; pass a knife to
loosen it, turn out on a plate, pour pounded sugar and a pat of fresh
butter over, and serve. A little lemon, cinnamon, or a drop of any
essence may be introduced. A little light-melted butter, sherry and
sugar, may be poured over. If required more delicate, add a little less
flour. It may be served plain.
BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING.-Butter a tart-dish well,
and sprinkle some currants all around it, then lay in It few slices of
bread and butter; boil one pint of milk, pour it on two eggs well
whipped, and then on the bread and butter; bake it in a hot oven for
half an hour. Currants may be omitted.
BREAD PUDDING.-Boil one pint of milk, with a piece
of cinnamon and lemon-peel; pour it on two ounces of bread-crumbs; then
add two eggs, half au ounce of currants, and a little sugar; steam it
in a buttered mold for one hour.
80 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
CUSTARD PUDDING.-Boil one pint of milk, with a small
piece of lemon-peel and half a bay leaf, for three minutes; then pour
these on to three eggs, mix it with one ounce of sugar well together,
and pour it into a buttered mold; steam it twenty-five minutes in a
stewpan with some water; turn out on a plate and serve.
RICE RICE PUDDING.-Put half a pound of rice in a
stewpan, washed, three pints of milk, one pint of water, three ounces
of sugar, one lemon-peel, one ounce of fresh butter; boil gently half
an hour, or until the rice is tender; add four eggs, well beaten; mix
well, and bake quickly for half an hour, and serve. It may be steamed
STEWED MACARONI.-Put in a stewpan two quarts of
water, half a table-spoonful of salt, two ounces of butter; set on the
fire; when boiling, add one pound of macaroni, broken up rather small;
when boiled very soft, throw off the water; mix well into the macaroni
a table-spoonful of flour, and add enough milk to make it of the
consistency of thin melted butter; boil gently twenty minutes; add in a
table-spoonful of either brown or white sugar, or honey, and serve. A
little cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon-peel, or orange-flower water may be
introduced to impart flavor; stir quick. A gill of milk or cream may
now be thrown in three minutes before serving. Nothing can be more
nutritious than macaroni done this way. If no milk, use water.
MACARONI PUDDING.-Put two pints of water to boil;
add to it two ounces of macaroni, broken in small pieces; boil till
tender, drain off the water, and add half a-table-spoonful of flor, two
ounces of white sugar, a quarter of a pint of milk, and boil together
for ten minutes; beat an egg up, pour it to the other ingredients, with
a nut of butter; mix well and bake, or steam. It can be served plain,
and may be flavored with either cinnamon, lemon, or other essences, as
orange-flower water, vanilla, etc.
SAGE PUDDING.-Put in a pan four ounces of sago, two
ounces of sugar, half a lemon-peel or a little cinnamon, a small pat of
fresh butter, if handy, and half a pint of milk; boil for a few
minutes, or until rather thick, stirring all the while; beat up two
eggs and mix quickly with the same; it is then ready for either baking
or steaming, or may be served plain.
TAPIOCA PUDDING.-Put in a pan two ounces of tapioca,
one and a half pint of milk, one ounce of white or brown sugar, a
little salt; set on the fire; boil gently for fifteen minutes, or until
the tapioca is tender, stirring now and then to prevent its sticking to
the bottom, or burning; then add two eggs well beaten; steam or bake,
and serve. It will take about twenty minutes steaming, or a quarter of
an hour baking slightly. Flavor with either lemon, cinnamon, or any
GENERAL ADVICE. 81
" A YOUNG trooper needs an old horse," says the
proverb. The greater part of our volunteers are entering upon an
untried life- a life in which they must rely upon themselves,
individually, and in which their only guides are common sense and the
experience of others. The first is not as common as it ought to be, and
young men are proverbial for refusing to learn by the other. Yet there
are many who are prudent enough to borrow a light, and to them a few
hints from one accustomed to camp-life may be valuable. Without
apology, they will be very plain and practical.
Every volunteer who goes from city or country to
field and camp, and from home fare and regular habits to camp rations
and military discipline, must go through a process of adaptation, more
or less severe, even under the most favorable circumstances. In the
present case a process of acclimation must be added, which will make
the change unusually trying, and will require unusual prudence. A
new army is never thrown into camp without incurring disease not
necessarily severe, but which may be aggravated by carelessness into
epidemic and chronic forms. Among others, diseases of the bowels are
common, and almost inevitable. The first thing the young soldier will
have to contend with is a craving appetite for something, which he is
apt to gratify by a stimulant. If he is a temperate man he is likely to
drink frequently and profusely of water. Both are to be resisted and
avoided. The only possible good that spirits can do is in cases of
great exhaustion, and even then their use is of very exceptional utility.
A cup of coffee or tea is almost invariably better. The habit of
drinking spirits in advance of labor, to gain strength, is one of the
worst in the world. The action and reaction of a stimulant are equal,
and the greater its strength the shorter its good effect, and the worse
the depression afterward. If you will drink spirits, never do it before a march, or action, because the unnatural energy which it imparts may fail you at the very moment you need it most.
As to water, nothing effects the]
82 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
bowels more certainly than liberal draughts of a kind to which we are
unused. But we must drink something, you say. Not a quarter as much as
you think. Drinking, in warm weather especially, is very much a matter
of habit. Every one who exercises self-denial for a day or two will
find that he really needs but little, and that, when he must drink, a
single draught will do as well as a dozen.
A moderate use of salt rations, and especially of
fat meat, will pay on the score of health, beyond calculation. Although
there are occasions when a soldier's meals are necessarily irregular,
it is a very favorable circumstance that, in camp, rations are usually
served with perfect uniformity as to time. Every soldier should take
all the time he can to eat, and be careful about indulging his appetite
between meals, when he has access, as he sometimes will, to unused
delicacies. In case of bowel complaints, if circumstances allow,
fasting and lying flat upon the back (not upon the bare ground), and
keeping as warm as possible, are usually more curative then medicines.
Nothing is more tempting, when a man is foot-weary
after a hard march, then to plunge the feet into cold water. Nothing is
more dangerous, or more likely to induce pulmonary diseases. Wait until
the feet are entirely dry and cool--it
is better to wait until the next morning. The same is true of all
bathing-the face, wrists and hands only excepted-it should never be
indulged when heated. Bathing early in the morning is healthful and
invigorating, and should be regularly practiced, when possible, for the
sake of cleanliness. A dirty man is always liable to disease. Yet it is
not well to use much soap, except upon the hands, as the alkali
contained in it unduly purges the pores. Water, the natural solvent,
when freely used, is the most efficacious cleanser.
Next to the temptation of bathing at improper times,
is that of throwing one's self on the cool, inviting ground, when hot
and weary. Never do it, or at most for more than a minute. Leaning
against a tree or the back of a comrade, as both sit upon blankets or
knapsacks, is far better. When you must sleep on the ground, spread
your india rubber blanket under, if you have one. Rheumatisms, agues,
diarrheas, dysenteries, and fevers may thus be avoided.
Don't discard your flannel shirt because it is warm; and
GENERAL ADVICE. 83
always remember that a suddenly checked perspiration, whether by
incautious draughts of water, by lying on the damp ground, by sitting
in the wind, or otherwise, may be the means of swift disease and death.
When you are on guard, or marching in the rain, keep your shoulders dry
if you can. If you are wet through, keep going till your clothes dry,
and you will not be likely to take cold.
Upon the recommendation of the Medical Commission,
Governor Andrew has issued the following directions to the
Massachusetts regiments in active service, to which all volunteers
would do well to pay attention:
Soldiers shou1d recollect that in a campaign, where
one dies in battle, from three to five die of disease. You should be on
your guard, therefore, more against this than the enemy, and you can do
much for yourselves which nobody can do for you.
Avoid especially all use of ardent spirits. If you will take them, take them rather after
fatigue than before. But tea and coffee are much better. Those who use
ardent spirits are always the first to be sick and the most likely to
Avoid drinking freely of very cold water, especially
when hot or fatigued, or directly after meals. Water quenches thirst
better when not very cold and sipped in moderate quantities slowly,
though less agreeable. At meals, tea, coffee and chocolate are best.
Between meals, the less the better. The safest in hot weather is
molasses and water with ginger or small beer.
Avoid all excesses and irregularities in eating and
drinking. Eat sparingly of salt and smoked meats, and make it up by
more vegetables, as squash, potatoes, peas, rice, hominy, Indian meal,
etc., when you can get them. Eat little between, when you have plenty
Wear flannel all over in all weathers. Have it
washed often when you can; when not, have it hung up -in the sun. Take
every opportunity to do the same by all your clothing, and keep every
thing about your person dry, especially when it is cold.
Do not sit, and especially do not sleep upon the
ground, even in hot weather. Spread your blanket upon hay, straw,
84 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
shavings, brushwood, or any thing of the kind. If you sleep in the day, have some extra covering over you.
Sleep as much as you can, and whenever you can. It is better to sleep too warm than too cold.
Recollect that cold and dampness are great breeders
of disease. Have a fire to get around whenever you can, especially in
the evening and after rain, and take care to dry every thing in and
about your person and tents.
Take every opportunity of washing the whole body
with soap and water. Rinse well afterward. If you bathe, remain in the
water but a little while.
If disease begins to prevail, wear a white bandage of flannel around the bowels.
Keep in the open air, but not directly exposed to a
hot sun. When obliged to do this, a thin, light, white covering over
the head and neck in the form of a cap with a cape, is a good
Wear shoes with very thick soles, and keep them dry.
When on the march, rubbing the feet after washing with oil, fat, or tallow, protects against foot-sores.
Doctors will differ somewhat in their views of the
same subject; hence, we are not surprised to find that excellent
authority, "Hall's Journal of Health," offering advice not entirely in
consonance with the instructions of army surgeons. Still, the advice is
so unquestionably sensible that we here give place to
Dr. Hall's Paper.
In any ordinary campaign, sickness disables or destroys three times as many as the sword.
On a march, from April to November, the entire
clothing should be a colored flannel shirt, with a loosely-buttoned
collar, cotton drawers, woolen pantaloons, shoes and stockings, and a
light-colored felt hat, with broad brim to protect the eyes and face
from the glare of the sun and from the rain, and a substantial but not
heavy coat when off duty.
Sun-stroke is most effectually prevented by wearing a silk handkerchief in the crown of the hat.
Colored blankets are best, and if lined with brown
drilling the warmth and durability are doubled, While the protection
against dampness from lying on the ground, is almost complete.
RULES FOR SOLDIERS' HEALTH. 85
Never lie or sit down on the grass or bare earth for
a moment; rather use your hat- a handkerchief even, is a great
protection. The warmer you are, the greater need for this precaution,
as a damp vapor is immediately generated, to be absorbed by the
clothing, and to cool you off too rapidly.
While marching, or on other active duty, the more
thirsty you are, the more essential is it to safety of life itself, to
rinse out the month two or three times, and then
take a swallow of water at a time, with short intervals. A brave French
general, on a forced march, fell dead on the instant, by drinking
largely of cold water, when snow was on the ground.
Abundant sleep is essential to bodily efficiency,
and to that alertness of mind which is all important in, an engagement;
and few things more certainly and more effectually prevent sound sleep
than eating heartily after sun-down, especially after a heavy march or
Nothing is more certain to secure endurance and
capability of long-continued effort, than the avoidance of every thing
as a drink except cold water, NOT excluding coffee at breakfast. Drink
as little as possible, of even cold water.
After any sort of exhausting effort, a cup of
coffee, hot or cold, is an admirable sustainer of the strength, until
nature begins to recover herself.
Never eat heartily just before a great undertaking;
because the nervous power is irresistibly drawn to the stomach to
manage the .food eaten, thus draWing off that supply which the brain
and muscles so much need.
If persons will drink brandy, it is incomparably safer to do so after
an effort than before; for it can give only a transient strength,
lasting but a few minutes; but as it can never be known how loug any
given effort is to be kept in continuance, and if longer than the few
minutes, the body becomes more feeble than it would have been without
the stimulus, it is clear that its use before an effort is always hazardous, and is always unwise.
Never go to sleep, especially after a great effort, even in hot weather, without some covering over you.
Under all circumstances, rather than lie down on the
bare ground, lie in the hallow of two logs placed together, or across
several smaller pieces of wood, laid side by side; or sit on
86 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
your hat, leaning against a tree. A nap of ten or fifteen minutes in
that position will refresh you more than an hour on the bare earth,
with the additional advantage of perfect safety.
A cut is less dangerous than a bullet-wound, and heals more rapidly.
If from any wound the blood spurts out in jets:
instead of a steady stream, you will die in a few minutes unless it is
remedied; because an artery has been divided, and that takes the blood
directly from the fountain of life. To stop this instantly, tie a
handkerchief or cloth very loosely BETWEEN!! the wound and the heart;
put a stick, bayonet, or ramrod between the skin and the handkerchief, and twist it around until the bleeding ceases, and keep it thus until the surgeon arrives.
If the blood flows in a slow, regular stream, a vein
has been pierced, and the handkerchief must be on the other side of the
wound from the heart, that is, below the wound.
A bullet through the abdomen (belly or stomach) is
more certainly fatal than if aimed at the head or heart; for in the
latter cases the ball is often glanced off by the bone, or follows
round it under the skin; but when it enters the stomach or bowels, from
any direction, death is inevitable under all conceivable circumstances,
but is scarcely ever instantaneous. Generally the person lives a day or
two with perfect clearness of intellect, often not suffering greatly. The practical bearing of this statement in reference to the great future is clear.
Let the whole beard grow, but not longer than some
three inches. This strengthens and thickens its growth, and thus makes
a more perfect protection for the lungs against dust, and of the throat
against winds and cold in winter, While in the summer a greater
perspiration of the skin is induced, with an increase of evaporation;
hence, greater coolness of the parts on the outside, while the throat
is less feverish, thirsty and dry.
A void fats and fat meats in summer and in all warm
days. Whenever possible, take a plunge into any lake or running stream
every morning, as soon as you get up; if none at hand, endeavor to wash
the body all over as soon as you leave your bed, for personal
cleanliness acts like a charm against all
RULES FOR SOLDIERS' HEALTH. 87
diseases, always either warding them off altogether, or greatly mitigating their severity and shortening their duration.
Keep the hair of the head closely cut, say within an
inch and a half of the scalp in every part, repeated on the first of
each month, and wash the whole scalp plentifully in cold water every
Wear woolen stockings and moderately loose shoes, keeping the toe and finger-nails always cut close.
It is more important to wash the feet well every
night, than to wash the face and hands of mornings; because it aids to
keep the skin and nails soft, and to prevent chafings, blisters and
corns, all of which greatly interfere with a soldier's duty.
The most universally safe position, after all
stunnings, hurts, and wounds, is that of being placed on the back, the
head being elevated three or four inches only; aiding more than anyone
thing else can do, to equalize and restore tho proper circulation of
The more weary you are after a march or other work,
the more easily will you take cold, if you remain still after it is
over, unless the moment you cease motion, you throw a coat or blanket
over your shoulders. This precaution should be taken in the warmest
weather, especially if there is even a slight air stirring.
The greatest physical kindness you can show a
severely wounded comrade is first to place him on his back, and then
run with all your might for some water to drink; not a second ought to
be lost. If no vessel is at hand, take your hat; if no hat, off with
your shirt, wring it out once, tie the arms in a knot, as also the
lower end, thus making a bag, open at the neck only. A fleet person can
convey a bucketful half a mile in this way. I've seen a dying man
clutch at a single drop of water from the finger's end, with the
voraciousness of a famished tiger.
If wet to the skin by rain or by swimming rivers,
keep in motion until the clothes are dried, and no harm will result.
Whenever it is possible, do, by all means, when you
have to use water for cooking or drinking from ponds or sluggish
streams, boil it well, and when cool, shake it, or stir it, so that the
oxygen of the air shall get to it, which greatly improves
88 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
it for drinking. This boiling arrests the process of fermentation which
arises from the presence of organic and inorganic impurities, thus
tending to prevent cholera and all bowel diseases. If there is no time
for boiling, at least strain it through a doth, even if you have to use
a shirt or trowser-leg.
Twelve men are hit in battle, dressed in red, where
there are only five dressed in a bluish gray, a difference of more
than two to one; green, seven; brown, six.
Water can be made almost ice cool in the hottest
weather, by closely enveloping a filled canteen, or other vessel, with
woolen cloth kept plentifully wetted and exposed.
While on a march, lie down the moment you halt for a
rest; every minute spent in that position refreshes more than five
minutes standing or loitering about.
A daily evacuation of the bowels is indispensable to
bodily health, vigor and endurance; this is promoted in many cases, by
stirring a table-spoonful of corn (Indian) meal in a glass of water,
and drinking it on rising in the morning.
Loose bowels, namely, acting more than once a day,
with a feeling of debility afterward, is the first step toward cholera;
the best remedy is instant and perfect quietude of body, eating nothing
but boiled rice with or without boiled milk; in more decided cases, a
woolen flannel, with two thicknesses in front, should be bound tightly
around the abdomen, especially if marching is a necessity.
To have "been to the wars" is a life-long honor,
increasing with advancing years, while to have died in defense of your
country will be the boast and the glory of your children's children.
Dr. Phillips, late Army surgeon in the Crimea gives the following excellent advice in regard to
First, it is of the utmost importance that the men's
boots should fit well. They will necessarily have a great deal of
marching on a hot and perhaps sandy soil, more indeed than the English
soldiers had, who were confined in a space of ten miles by about
twenty, comprising the lower part of the Crimean Peninsula, from
Balaklava to the Tohernaya River, and from Sevastopol to Baidar. While
in charge of the fourth Division of the military train at the village
of Kadikeid I had,
in two months, more than thirty soldiers entirely disabled from
badly-fitting boots, out of a force of two hundred and thirty five
English comprising the division, (not enumerating three hundred Turks,
who often went barefooted, and whose feet frequently dropped off from
These boots were generally too large, so that in
walking they caused friction on the heels and produced ulcers. Such
cases were not numerous among the officers, although several were
The British Government sent out boots of only two
sizes, large and small, so that men with medium feet could not be
fitted, and were obliged to take those or none. The men were in
hospital, disabled from sore heels alone, being otherwise perfectly
healthy. This may appear to many in civil life a mere trifle, but it
was of serious import, as their services were entirely lost for many
months. I may here remark, it is a most difficult matter to cure an
ulcerated heel, on account of the skin being thick and sparingly
supplied with blood vessels. The remedy I adopted in many cases (for
the cure of the boot's)-for many men applied for relief whom I did not
consider sufficiently disabled to be admitted into hospital -was to out
a lozenge-shaped piece out of the boot over the instep, make two or
three holes on either side, and order the men to lace them. This
prevented the friction to a certain extent.
I would also recommend woolen stockings as being
greatly superior to cotton, for men on the march. I have frequently
found the smearing the feet with a tallow candle before putting on the
stockings an admirable preventive of blistering.
I may also mention that it is a favorite habit of
soldiers when they halt on the banks of a river, to take off their
boots and wash their feet, and walk about barefooted while smoking
their pipes; nothing blisters the feet sooner than this practice.
When they are allowed to wash, the sergeants and corporals should
insist on the feet being well dried, and the boots immediately
replaced. This is a matter of great importance. Soldiers require as
much care as children.
In case of an attack of dysentery the soldier should
get his hospital permit as soon as possible. Any ordinary disorder
90 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
of the bowels may be corrected by a proper regard to diet and rest from
duty. It is very aggravating to a diarrhea to be on the feet much,
either at night or in the sun; hence, when the bowels are much
loosened, the sergeant should report the man unfit for duty, and allow
him all requisite aids to a cure. Rest and an abstinence from the usual
ration food will, in most cases, effect a cure, and keep the soldier
from the hospital. But diarrhea, aggravated by active duty, change of
water and exciting diet, will soon become dysentery-one of the most
fatal afflictions of camp-life. To avoid it the soldier should pay
particular attention to his diet and his habits. Water had better be boiled
before drinking if that is possible; if not, then decoct it with tea,
or cut its edge with spirits. Weak soups, made of strained flour, or
barley water, or of rice are to be resorted to- leaving off the usual
salt rations. Go to bed early, sleep warmly in a dry spot. This course will avert many an attack which inevitably will result in a chronic dysentery.
A good authority before us says: "The first, the
most important, and the most indispensable item in the arrest and cure
of looseness of the bowels, is absolute quietude on a bed. Nature
herself always prompts this by disinclining us to locomotion. The next
thing is to eat nothing but common rice parched like coffee, and then
boiled, and taken with a little salt and butter. Drink little or no
liquid of any kind. Bits of ice may be eaten and swallowed at will.
Every step taken in diarrhea, every spoonful of liquid, only aggravates
the disease. If locomotion is compulsory, the misfortune of the
necessity may be lessened by having a stout piece of woolen flannel
bound tightly around the abdomen, so as to be doubled in front, and
kept well in its place. In the practice of many years we have never
failed to notice a gratifying result to follow these observances."
Procure the ingredients of the following of the
surgeon and use it as directed: Take equal parts of syrup of rhubarb,
paregoric, and spirits of campor; mix together. Dose for an adult, one
tea-spoonful. If necessary, it may be repeated in two or three hours.
This with quiet will surely restore the patient. The food to be used
should be extremely non-irritant. We give a few recipes of such dishes
as it is proper to use in
FOOD FOR THE SICK. 91
cases of illness of any kind where light nourishment is required:
PANADA.-Having pared off the crust, boil some slices
of bread in a quart of water for about five minutes. Then take out the
bread, and beat it smooth in a deep dish, mixing in a little of the
water it has boiled in; and mix it with a bit of fresh butter, and
sugar, and nutmeg to your taste.
TOAST- WATER.-Take a thin slice of stale bread,
toast it brown on both sides slowly and equally. Lay it in a bowl, and
pour on boiling water, and cover with a saucer to cool.
BEEF-TEA.-Take one pound of lean fresh beef cut
thin, put it in a jar or wide-mouthed bottle, add a little salt, place
it in a kettle of boiling water to remain one hour, then strain it, and
there will be a gill of pure nourishing liquid. Begin with a
tea-spoonful and increase as the stomach will bear. This has been
retained on the stomach when nothing else could be, and has raised the
patient when other means have failed .
CHICKEN, BEEF, OR VEAL BROTH.-This is made by
cutting up the chicken, or the lean of veal or beef, and putting in two
spoonfuls of washed rice, and boiling until tender. It may be used, if
needed in haste, after boiling in less water about fifteen minutes,
then filling it up and finishing. It should be put by in a bowl or
pitcher covered, to keep for use. Warm it, and add crumbs of Boston
crackers or bread a day or two old, with a little salt, and there is
nothing more palatable for the sick.
WATER GRUEL.-Mix two table-spoonfuls of Indian or
oatmeal with three of water. Have ready a pint and a half of boiling
water in a saucepan or skillet, perfectly clean; pour this by degrees
into the mixture in the bowl; then return it back into the skillet, and
place it on the fire to boil. Stir it, and let it boil nearly half an
hour. Skim it, and season it with a little salt. If it is admissible, a
little sugar and nutmeg renders it more palatable. Also, if milk is not
forbidden, a small tea-cupful added to a pint of gruel, and boiled up
once, makes a nice dish for an invalid.
RICE GRUEL.-Take one spoonful of rice, a pint and a
half of water, a stick of cinnamon or lemon-peel, boil it soft, and add
a pint of new milk; strain it, and season with a little salt. If you
make it of rice flour, mix one spoonful with a little cold water
smoothly, and stir it into a quart of boiling water. Let it boil five
or six minutes, stirring it constantly. Season it with salt., nutmeg,
and sugar, and if admissible, a little butter. If the patient bears
stimulants, a little wine may be added.
92 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
MILK PORRIDGE.-This is made nearly in the same way
as gruel, only using half flour, and half meal, and half milk. instead
of water. It should be cooked before the milk is added, and only boiled
up once afterward.
MUTTON CUSTARD FOR BOWEL COMPLAINTS.-Take two ounces
of fresh mutton suet shred fine, and a half dram of cinnamon, or some
grated nutmeg, and boil in rather more than a pint of milk; when
boiled, to be set by the fire till the scum rises, which should then be
carefully taken off. Half a tea-cupful may be given warm or cold, as
the patient prefers, three or four times a day. It should be continued
till the complaint is quite cured.
FOR BREAD JELLY.- Measure a quart of boiling water,
and set it away to get cold. Take one-third of an ordinary baker's
loaf, slice it, pare off the crust, and toast the bread nicely to a
light brown. Then put it into boiling water, set it on hot coals in a
covered pan, and boil it gently, till yon find, by putting some into a
spoon to cool, that the liquid has become a jelly. Strain it through a
thin cloth, and set it away for use. When it is to be taken, warm a
tea-cupful, sweeten it with sugar, and add a little grated lemon-peel.
WINE WHEY.-Take half a pint of new milk, put it on
the fire and the moment it boils, pour in that instant two glasses of
wine and a tea-spoonful of powdered sugar previously mixed. The curd
will soon form, and after it is boiled, set it aside until the curd
settles. Pour the whey off and add a pint of boiling water, and
loaf-sugar to sweeten to the taste. This may be drank in typhus and
other fevers, debility, etc.
CALVES' FEET BROTH.-Boil two feet in three quarts of
water until the water is half gone. Take off all the fat, season with a
little salt, and, if suitable, a spoonful of white or port wine to a
tea-cupful. This is nourishing and strengthening for an invalid. If a
richer broth may be used, boil with the feet two ounces of veal or
beef, a slice of bread, a blade or two of mace.
RICE JELLY.-Having picked and washed a quarter of a
pound of rice, mix it with half a pound of loaf sugar, and just
sufficient water to cover it. Boil it till it becomes a glutinous mass;
then strain it; season it with whatever may be thought proper; and let
it stand to cool.
HOT LEMONADE.-Cut up the whole of a lemon, rind and
all, add one tea-cupful of white sugar, and pour on boiling water. This
is good for colds, and is a pleasant drink for the sick.
These recipes are of most delicious dishes for the
sick or convalescent, and can be made for the soldier in any ordinary
FEVERS-EXCELLENT RECIPES. 93
hospital or camp, with a little exertion. We are indebted to Mrs. Victor's" Recipe Book" for them.
Fevers require hospital treatment. Only a physician
should attempt to deal with them. Our advice to every soldier is to
gain his hospital permit as soon as he finds an attack of fever
Excellent· Recipes for Various Cases
We here subjoin some excellent and very available
recipes for various troubles which flesh is heir to in camp and
campaign life. The soldier should preserve them and seek to aid his
fellows when possible by their use upon others as well as upon himself:
THIEVES' VINEGAR.-Take of rue, sage, mint, rosemary,
wormwood, and lavender, a large handful of each; infuse in one gallon
of vinegar, in a stone jar closely covered, and keep warm by the fire
for four days; then strain, and add one ounce of camphor, pounded;
bottle, and keep well corked. There is a legend connected with this
preparation (called in French Vinaigre a quatre Voleurs),
that during the plague at Marseilles certain robbers plundered the
infected houses with impunity, and being apprehended and condemned to
death, were pardoned on condition of disclosing the secret of their
preventive, as above. The mode of using is to wash the face and hands
with it previous to exposure to any infection. It is very aromatic and
refreshing in a sick-room, if nothing more.
PROTECTION AGAINST MUSKETO BITES.-Mix oil of
pennyroyal with olive oil, and anoint the exposed parts of the person
with it, when few if any insects will annoy one thus guarded. It is
said that flies will not bite a horse if he is wet each morning with a
decoction of walnut leaves.
FOR SPRAINS AND BRUISES one pint of train-oil, half
a pound of stone-pitch, half a pound of resin, half a pound of
bees-wax, and half a pound of stale tallow, or in like proportion. Boil
them together for about half an hour, skim off the scum, and pour the
liquid into cups, and when cold, it will be ready for use. When needed,
it must be spread as thick, but not thicker than
blister salve, upon a piece of coarse flaxen cloth. Apply it to the
part sprained or bruised, and let it remain for a day or more; it will
give almost immediate relief, and one or two plasters will be
sufficient for a perfect cure.
ANOTHER.-In the Paris hospitals a treatment is
practiced that is found most successful for a frequent accident, and
which can be applied
94 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
by the most inexperienced. If the ankle is sprained, for instance, let
the operator hold the foot in his hands, with the thumbs meeting on the
swollen part. These having been previously greased, are pressed
successively with increasing force on the injured and painful spot for
about a quarter of an hour. This application being repeated several
times, will, in the course of the day, enable a patient to walk, when
other means would have failed to relieve him.
RELIEF FOR A SPRAINED ANKLE.-Wash the ankle
frequently with cold salt and water, which is far better than warm
vinegar or decoctions of herbs. Keep your foot as cold as possible to
prevent inflammation, and set with it elevated on a cushion. Live on
very low diet, and take every day some cooling medicine. By obeying
these directions only, a sprained ankle has been cured in a few days.
BRUISES, STINGS, ETC.-1. For a bruise, etc.-Bathe
the part well with warm water, and afterward apply treacle spread on
paper or linen, as most convenient; it soon heals, and no mark will be
left. Treacle, if applied also in the early stages of a quinsy or sore
throat, will speedily effect a cure. 2. For the sting of a wasp or bee.-Take
about a wine-glassful of vinegar, put a little common soda into it, and
bathe the parts affected. It gives almost immediate ease, and no pain
or swelling will afterward be felt.
FOR A STING.-Bind on the place a thick plaster of
common salt or saleratus moistened-it will soon extract the venom.
REMEDY FOR BLISTERED FEET FROM LONG WALKING.-Rub the
feet, at going to bed, with spirits mixed with tallow dropped from a
lighted candle into the palm of the hand.
DIRT IN THE EYE.-Place your forefinger upon the
cheek-bone, having the patient before you; then draw up the finger, and
you will probably be able to remove the dirt; but, if this will not
enable you to get at it, repeat this operation while yon have a
netting-needle or bodkin placed over the eyelid; this will turn it
inside out, and enable you to remove the sand or eyelash, etc., with
the corner of a fine silk handkerchief. As soon as the substance is
removed, bathe the eye with cold water, and exclude the light for a
day. If the inflammation is severe, take a purgative, and use a
POULTICE FOR A FESTER.-Boil bread in lees of strong
beer; apply the poultice in the general manner. This has saved many a
limb from amputation.
FROSTED FEET.-For frosted feet, deer's marrow will
be found excellent. For chilblains, tincture of iodine; also muriatic
acid, frequently applied, will relieve them.
FOR FROSTED FLESH.-Take chrome yellow and hog's
lard, and make it into an ointment, and apply to the injured parts,
warming the same into the skin.
EXCELLENT RECIPES. 95
COUGH MIXTURE.-Take one tea-cupful of molasses; add
two tablespoonfuls of vinegar; simmer this over the fire; then, when
taken off, add three tea-spoonfuls of paregoric, and as much refined
niter as can be put upon the point of a small breakfast knife. Of this
mixture, take two or three tea-spoonfuls on going to bed, and one or
two during the day when you have a disposition to cogh.
BLEEDING AT THE NOSE.-In obstinate cases, blow a
little gum Arabic powder up the nostrils through a quill, which will
immediately stop the discharge. Powdered alum is also good.
CERTAIN CURE FOR HEADACHE AND ALL NEURALGIC
PAINs.-To be applied as any other lotion; opodeldoc, spirits of wine,
sal ammoniac, equal parts.
TO STOP THE BLEEDING OF A WOUND.--Lay on the
orifice, lint; if that is not sufficient, put on flour and then lint.
To PREVENT WOUNDS FROM MORTIFYING.-Sprinkle sugar on
them. The Turks wash fresh wounds with wine, and sprinkle sugar on
them. Obstinate ulcers may be cured with sugar dissolved in a strong
decoction of walnut leaves.
WARTS.-Wet them with tobacco juice, and rub them with chalk.
ANOTHER.- Rub them with fresh beef every day until
they begin to disappear. This last is simple and effectual.
CORNS.-Take half an ounce of verdigris, two ounces
of bees-wax, two ounces of ammonia; melt the two last ingredients
together, and just before they are cold, add the verdigris. Spread it
on small pieces of linen, and apply it, after paring the corn. This has
cured inveterate corns.
BUNIONS.-Bunions may be checked in their early
development by binding the joint with adhesive plaster, and keeping it
on as long as any uneasiness is felt. The bandaging should be perfect,
and it might be well to extend it round the foot. An inflamed bunion
should be poulticed, and larger shoes he worn. Iodine twelve grains,
lard or spermaceti ointment half an ounce, make a capital ointment for
bunions. It should be rubbed on gently twice or thrice a day. Enlarged
joints should be rubbed thrice a day with common salad oil, care being
taken at the same time, not to strain or overtax the feet by too great
or too frequent exercise. Slippers, and loose ones, should invariably
be worn. On no account have tight-fitting shoes, slippers, or boots.
BOlLS.-Make a plaster of molasses and flour, or
honey and flour, and apply it as often as they get dry. If very
painful, make a soft poultice of bread and milk, moistened with
volatile liniment and laudanum. This will ease pain, allay
inflammation, and hasten a cure. Remedies for cleansing the blood
should be freely used.
96 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
To REMOVE PROUD FLESH.-Pulverize loaf-sugar very
fine, and apply it to the part affected. This is a new and easy remedy,
and is said to remove it entirely without pain. It has been practiced
in England for years.
Soyer's Hospital Recipes.
From Soyer's Crimean hospital experience we have
obtained many good suggestions for the benefit of troops. We may here
add to our already liberal quotations such as seem to us particularly
desirable and useful:
BOILED RICE, SEMI-CURRIED, FOR THE PREMONITORY
SYMPTOMS OF DIARRHEA.-Put one quart of water in a pot or saucepan; when
boiling, wash one and a half pound of rice and throw it into the water
; boil fast for ten minutes; drain your rice in a colander, put it back
in the saucepan, which you have slightly greased with butter, and let
soak all night; and prior to using it, wash it and squeeze with your
hands, to extract the salt. In case the meat is still too salt, boil it
for twenty minutes, throwaway the water, and put fresh to your stew. By
closely following the above receipt you will have an excellent dish.
PLAIN OATMEAL.-Put in a pan one-quarter of a pound
of oatmeal, one and a half ounce of sugar, half a tea-spoonful of salt,
and three pints of water; boil slowly for twenty minutes, "stirring
continually," and serve. A quarter of a pint of boiled milk, an ounce
of butter, and a little pounded cinnamon or spice added previous to
serving is a good variation. .This receipt has been found most useful
at the commencement of dysentery by the medical authorities.
BEEF TEA-RECEIPT FOR SIX PINTS.-Cut three pounds of
beef into pieces the size of walnuts, and chop up the bones, if any;
put it into a convenient-sized kettle, witli one and a half pound of
mixed vegetables, such as onions, leeks, celery, turnips, carrots (or
one or two of these, if all are not to be obtained), one ounce of salt,
a little pepper, one teaspoonful of sugar, two ounces of butter, half a
pint of water; set it on a sharp fire for ten minutes or a quarter of
an hour, stirring now and then with a spoon, till it forms a rather
thick gravy at bottom, but not brown; then add seven pints of hot or
cold water, but hot is preferable; when boiling, let it simmer gently
for an hour; skim off all the fat, strain it through a sieve, and
ESSENCE OF BEEF TEA-For Camp Hospitals.-" Quarter
pound tin case of essence." If in winter, set it near the fire to melt;
pour the contents in a stewpan and twelve times the case full of water
over it hot or cold; add to it two or three slices of onion, a sprig or
two of parsley, a leaf or two of celery, if handy, two tea-spoonfuls of
salt, one of sugar; pass through a colander, and serve. If required
SOYER'S HOSPITAL RECIPES. 97
eight cases of water will suffice, decreasing the seasoning in
proportion. In case you have no vegetables, sugar or pepper, salt alone
will do, but the broth will not be so succulent.
THICK BEAF TEA.-Dissolve a good tea-spoonful of
arrow-root in a gill of water, and pour it into the beef tea twenty
minutes before passing through the sieve; it is then ready.
STRENGTHENG BEEF TEA, WITH CALVES' FOOT JELLY OR
ISINGLASS.- Add one-quarter calves' foot gelatine to the above quantity
of beef tea previous to serving, when cooking.
MUTTON AND VEAL TEA.-Mutton and veal will make good
tea by proceeding precisely the same as above. The addition of a little
aromatic herbs is always desirable. If no fresh vegetables are at hand,
use two ounces of mixed preserved vegetables to any of the above
CHICKEN BROTH.-Put in a stewpan a fowl, three pints
of water, two tea-spoonfuls of rice, one tea-spoonful of salt, a
middled-sized onion, or two ounces of mixed vegetables; boil the whole
gently for three quarters of an hour; if an old fowl, simmer from one
hour and a half to two hours, adding one pint more water; skim off the
fat, and serve. A small fowl will do.
light mutton broth may be made precisely the same by using a pound and
a half of scrag of mutton instead of fowl. For thick mutton broth
proceed as for thick beef tea, omitting the rice; a tablespoonful of
burnt sugar-water will give a rich color to the broth.
PLAIN BOILED RICE.-Put two quarts of water in a
stewpan, with a tea-spoonful of salt; when boiling, add to it half a
pound of rice, well washed; boil for ten minutes, or till each grain
becomes rather soft; drain it into a colander, slightly grease the pot
with butter, and put the rice back into it; let it swell slowly for
about twenty minutes near the fire, or in a slow oven; each grain will
then swell up, and be well separated; it is then ready for use.
SWEET RICE.-Add to the plain boiled rice one ounce
of butter, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, a little cinnamon, a quarter
of a pint of milk; stir it with a fork, and serve; a little currant
jelly or jam may be added to the rice.
RICE WITH GRAVY.-Add to the rice four
table-spoonfuls of the essence of beef, a little butter, if fresh, half
a tea-spoonful of salt; stir together with a fork, and serve.
SAGE JELLY.-Put into a pan three ounces of sage, one
and a half ounce of sugar, half a lemon-peel cut very thin, one-quarter
tea-spoonful of ground cinnamon, or a small stick of the same; put to
it three pints of water, and a little salt; boil ten minutes or rather
longer, stirring continually until rather thick, then add a little port
sherry, or Marsala wine; mix well, and serve hot or cold.
98 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
ARROW-ROOT MILK.-Put into a pan four ounces of
arrow- root, three ounces of sugar, the peel of half a lemon,
one-quarter tea-spoonful of salt, two and a half pints of milk; set it
on the fire, stir round gently, boil for ten minutes, and serve. If no
lemons at hand, a little essence of any kind will do. When short of
milk, use half water; half an ounce of fresh butter is an improvement
before serving; if required thicker, put in a little milk.
THICK ARROW-ROOT PANADA.-Put in a pan five ounces of
arrow-root, two and a half ounces of white sugar, the peel of half a
lemon, a quarter of a tea-spoonful of salt, four pints of water, mixed
well; set on the fire, and boil for ten minutes; it is then ready. The
juice of a lemon is an improvement; a gill of wine may also be
introduced, and one ounce of calves' foot gelatine previously dissolved
in water, will be strengthening. Milk, however, is preferable, if at
ARROW-ROOT WATER.-Put into a pan three ounces of
arrow-root, two onnces of white sugar, the peel of a lemon, one-half
tea-spoonful of salt, four pints of water; mix well, set on the fire,
and boil for ten minutes. It is then ready to serve either hot or cold.
RICE WATER.-Put seven pints of water to boil, add to
it two ounces of rice, washed, two ounces of sugar, the peel of
two-thirds of a lemon; boil gently for three-quarters of an hour; it
will reduce to five pints; strain through a colander; it is then ready.
The rice may be left in the beverage, or made into a pudding, or by the
addition of a little sugar or jam, will be found very good for either
children or invalids.
BARLEY WATER.-Put in a saucepan seven pints of
water, two ounces of barley, which stir now and then while boiling; add
two ounces of white sugar, the rind of half a lemon, thinly peeled; let
it boil gently for two hours without covering it; pass it through a
sieve or colander; it is then ready. The barley and lemon may be left
SOYER'S PLAIN LEMONADE.-Thinly peel the third part
of a lemon, which put into a basin with two table-spoonfuls of sugar;
roll the lemon with your hand upon the table to soften it; cut it into
two, lengthwise, squeeze the juice over the peel, etc., stir round for
a minute with a spoon to form a sort of syrup; pour over a pint of
water, mix well, and remove the pips; it is then ready for use. If a
very large lemon, and full of juice, and very fresh, you may make a
pint and a half to a quart, adding sugar and peel in proportion to the
increase of water. The juice only of the lemon and sugar will make
lemonade, but will then be deprived of the aroma which the rind
contains, the said rind being generally thrown away.
THE LAW OF PRIZES. 99
PRIZE, from the French prise,
is the taking at sea of a vessel by a belligerent power with intent of
appropriating to the use of the captor the ship, or cargo, or both. The
subject of the capture is also called a prize. In order to make a valid
title to the prize, a trial must be had before a court of competent
jurisdiction to ascertain the true character of the prize, and a
sentence or degree of condemnation must be passed or made in due form.
The claimant of the ship and cargo or of either has a right to appear
and be heard in defense of his claim, and witnesses are examined either
orally or by commission, according to the usual practice of courts. A
belligerent has a right to take his prize into any port of a neutral
power, but no prize court of a belligerent can sit in a neutral
country, but it must sit either in the country of the captor, or else
in the country of an ally. The prize, however, may remain in a neutral
port while being adjudicated upon by the prize court of the captor or
captor's ally, and a good title is made by the sentence of
condemnation, although the proceeding is in legal language, in rem, and the subject or corpus
out of the jurisdiction of the court. It is to be understood that
neutral powers may refuse to belligerents the right to bring prizes
into their ports, unless the right is guaranteed by treaty. .
Ships and cargoes belonging to neutrals are likewise
subject to capture and confiscation by belligerents for various
offenses. First, for attempting to violate a blockade after reasonable
notice of its existence. Even sailing for a blockaded port, or standing
off and on, subjects neutral ships and cargoes to condemnation, whether
the port be reached or not. But the blockade must in all cases be an
actual, and not a constructive or paper blockade; otherwise no rightful
sentence of condemnation can be passed. Secondly, neutral ships and
cargoes are subject to capture and condemnation for,carrying to an
enemy's country articles contraband of war, such as arms, ammunition,
and naval stores, and also provisions when
100 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
carried to an enemy's navy or a place besieged, or for carrying
dispatches or soldiers to the enemy. Thirdly, neutral ships and cargoes
may be captured and condemned for resisting a belligerent's right of
search. Fourthly, such ships and cargoes may be lawfully captured and
condemned for sailing under the enemy's flag, or with his pass or'
license. Fifthly, it is held by English courts that a neutral engaging
in the enemy's coasting trade is subject to capture and condemnation,
but our own courts have doubted this doctrine. These general principles
are subject to many distinctions of a nice character.
By the law of nations, all produce of a hostile soil
found in a neutral's ship may be seized in transitu. Most of our
treaties, however, provide. that free ships make free goods, and it is
probable that, even in the absence of treaties, and supposing that we
are not bound by the Treaty of Paris (1859), our Government would
always recognize this principle.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 101
A COMPLETE DICTIONARY
MILITARY TERMS AND SCIENCE.
Abattis. A kind of outer
intrenchment, consisting of young trees, felled and laid upon the
ground a short distance from the parapets of field works, with the
points of their larger branches sharpened and extending outward, for
retarding the enemy's advance.
Absence, with Leave and without Leave. Officers, non-commissioned officers and privates are said to be absent with leave, when they have obtained permission to that effect; absent without leave, when they fail to join their regiments on the expiration of their leave.
Accouterments. The belts,
pouches, cartridge boxes, etc., of the soldier. The belts, sashes,
etc., of the officers, are termed appointments, by the British
Acquittance-Roll. A roll
containing the names and signatures of the privates of each troop or
company of a regiment, and showing their respective debits and credits.
Adjutant. The assistant of a commanding officer of a regiment, in the details of regimental duty and discipline.
Adjutant-General. The officer who assists the general of an army in the general details of his duties.
Adjutant-General of the Forces. The chief officer of the general staff.
Advance Guard. The detachment of troops which precedes the march of the main body. The Rear Guard is that which covers its rear.
Agent (Army). The person who transacts the pecuniary business of regiments.
Aid-de-Camp. An officer on the personal staff of a general or field officer, to receive and distribute his orders.
Aiguillette . A decoration consisting of tagged points of bullion cord end loops, worn on the right shoulder of officers of the cavalry.
102 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Aim (To Take). To mark out the object to struck by a cannon or musket ball.
Alarm Post (in the Field). Is
the ground appointed by the quartermaster-general for each regiment or
detachment, to march to incase of alarm. In a garrison, it is the
place allotted by the governor for the troops to draw up in, on any
Alignment. A formation in straight lines. The alignment of a battalion
is the position of a body of troops drawn up in line. The
alignment of a camp signifies the relative position of the tents, etc.,
so as to form a straight line form given points.
Altimetry. The taking or measuring of altitudes or heights.
Altitude. In cosmography, is the perpendicular height of an object, or its distance from the horizon upward. Altitudes are accessible and inaccessible. Accessible altitude
of an object is, that to whose base access can be had, to measure the
distance of a given point and the foot of the object on the ground. Inaccessible altitude
of an object is, that when the foot or bottom of the object cannot be
approached, on account of some obstacle, as water, etc. Altitude of a shot or shell is the perpendicular height of the vertex or curve in which it moves above the horizon.
Ambulant. Changing positions according to circumstances. An ambulant hospital is that which follows an army.
Ambuscade. A detachment of troops placed in concealment to surprise or attack an enemy.
Ambush. A place of concealment from which an enemy may be surprised by a sudden attack.
Amende Honorable. Satisfaction for an offense committed against the rules of honor or military ettiquette.
Amplitude. In gunnery, the range of shot, or the horizontal line which measures the distance it has reached.
Ammunition. Powder and
ball, shells, bullets, cartridges, grapeshot, tin and case shot,
carcasses, grenades, etc. The ammunition for firearms is fixed and unfixed. The fixed
comprises loaded shells, carcasses and cartridges, filled with powder;
also shot fixed to powder. Ball and blank cartridges are also
termed fixed ammunition. Unfixed ammunition is round, case, and grapeshot or shells, not filled with powder.
Approaches. Sunk works and passages carried on toward a besieged fortress, as the trenches, saps, mines, etc.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS 103
Armistice. A truce or temporary suspension of hostilities.
Arms (Bells of) or Bell Tents. Tents in the shape of a cone, in which in which each companies arms are piled in the field.
Arms (Stand of). A complete set of arms for one soldier.
Army. Armies are, (1) a
covering army; (2) a blockading army: (3) An army of observation. (4)
An army of reserve; (5) a flying army: (6) The grand and main army; (7)
The “standing army”, which, in the United States, is always
limited by special acts of Congress.
Articles of War. Rules and regulations for the government of the army.
Arsenal. The place where warlike instruments of all kinds are deposited.
projectile machines of war, as cannons, mortars, howitzers, etc., with
the requisite apparatus and stores for field and siege service. A Train of Artillery consists of the attendants and carriages which accompany the artillery into the field. A Park of Artillery
is the place where the artillery ammunition is encamped ready for
service. It is also used to imply a heavy compliment of guns.
Back Step (The). The retrograde movement of a man or body of men, without changing front.
Backward. The retrograde movement of troops form line into column, and vice versa.
Baggage. The clothes, tents, utensils, etc., belonging to a regiment or an army.
Bags. In military
operations, are either sand bags or earth bags; and are used either to
repair breeches and the damaged embrasures of batteries, or to raise a
parapet in haste, or to repair one that is beaten down by the enemy's
Balls or Bullets.
Consist of lead or iron for the use of small arms or artillery; or they
are light or fire balls, or smoke balls. The light or fire ball,
which is which is spherical or oblong, is used during sieges, for the
purpose of discovering parties at work, etc. The smoke balls are
thrown from mortars to annoy besiegers, continuing to smoke for about
half an hour.
Band. The body of musicians attached to every regiment or battalion.
104 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Banderols. Small flags used in marking out a camp, etc.
Banquette. An elevation or step constructed along the interior of the parapet, to enable the shortest men to fire over it.
Barbette. A platform raised
behind a parapet or breast-work, that the guns mounted upon it may have
a free range over the surrounding country. Guns so placed are said to
be mounted en barbette.
formed in streets and highways, consisting of abattis, breast-works,
overturned wagons, carts, etc., to prevent an enemy's access.
Barriers. Pointed stakes to prevent cavalry or infantry from suddenly rushing in on the besieged.
Base Line, or Base of Operations.
The frontier or line of fortresses, on which all the magazines and
means of supply of an army are established, and from which the lines of
Bastion. A projection or
salient angle from the general outline of a fortress, with an opening
toward the body of the place called a gorge.
Baton. The staff or truncheon which is the symbol of a field-marshals authority.
Battalion. A body of infantry of two or more companies.
Battalion Men. The soldiers, except those of the two flank companies, belonging to the different companies of an infantry regiment.
Battering Train. A train of artillery used solely for besieging fortresses, inclusive of mortars and howitzers.
Battery. A number of pieces of
ordnance, consisting either of guns, howitzers, or mortars, according
to the service for which they are required.
Battle Array, or Line of Battle. The order or arrangement of troops in battle.
Battlements. Notches or
indentures in the top of old castles or fortified walls, or other
buildings, in the form of embrasures, for the greater convenience of
firing or looking through.
Bayonet. A weapon first used
by the French in 1671, and deriving its name from having been first
manufactured at Bayonne. It is now an instrument of war, constructed of
several shapes, that is considered of invaluable utility to infantry.
It alone is regarded equal to cope with a cavalry charge, while in a
direct charge it
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 105
is used with terrible effect by a well trained soldiery. It was the
favorite weapon of Napoleon; and by it Garibaldi has achieved his most
brilliant victories. The sword bayonet,
recently introduced, is a truly formidable instrument of death. It can
be made use of either as a cutting or thrusting instrument. By poising
it horizontally, like a quarter-staff, as high as the head of his
adversary, the soldier, by a slight movement in the segment of a
circle, can sweep its sharp blade across the neck, face and breast of
three men opposed to him in line.
Besiege (To). To invest a fortified town with an armed force.
Billeting. The quartering of troops in the houses of towns and villages.
Bivouac. Troops are said to bivouac, when they do not encamp, but lie under arms for the night.
Blackhole. A place
for confinement of soldiers guilty of insubordination or
criminality-more generally called the "Guard House."
Block-house. A wooden fort.
Body of a Place. The main line of bastions and curtains, or the space inclosed by the enceinte of a fortress.
Boom. A cable or chain floated with masts or spars, placed across the mouth of a river or harbor, to bar the access of an enemy.
Break Ground (To). Commencing the siege of a fortress by opening the trenches.
Breach Loader. A piece which is loaded at the breach instead of at the muzzle. A Muzzle Loader is one which receives the charge at the muzzle.
Breast-work. A parapet breast-high.
Brevet-Rank. A rank in the
army higher than that for which pay is received; and which gives
precedence, according to the date of the commission, when corps are
Brevet (The). A term used to express promotion by honor.
Bridge. See Pontoon and Pontooning.
Bridge-Head. See Tete du Pont.
Brigade. A division of troops, consisting of two or more regiments, under command of a brigadier-general. Mixed Brigade is composed of infantry and cavalry, generally used as advance guards.
* In the celebrated controversy between Generals Scott and Gaines
(182&-29) Congress decided that a brevet did not confer actual
rank, lind that the order of promotion must follow only the official
106 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Brigade-Major. An officer charged with the detail of the duties or a brigade.
Brown Bess. A sobriquet or nickname, for the old regulation (English) musket.
Bugle- Calls. The sounds of the bugle used in the field or on parade, where the voice would be ineffectual to convey commands.
Bugler. The person who sounds the bugle for advancing, skirmishing, or retreating maneuvers.
Bulletin. The official account of public transactions and military operations. It is more commonly called" Official Report."
Cadence. In tactics, a uniform time and pace in marching.
Cadets. Youths educated at the
Military Academy at West Point at the expense of the United States
Government. They graduate, after a term of five years, with the rank of
second lieutenant in the United States army.
Caisson. An ammunition wagon
or tumbril, Also a wooden frame or chest, containing loaded shells, and
buried at the depth of five or six feet under some work the enemy
appears desirous to possess, and which, when he has become master of,
is fired by means of the train conveyed through a pipe to it, when the
shells becoming inflamed, the assailants are blown up.
Calibre. In gunnery, the diameter of the bore of a cannon.
Caltrops, or Crow's Feet.
Pieces of iron having four points, so disposed that three of them
always rest upon the ground, and the fourth stands upward in a
perpendicular direction. Each point is three or four inches long. They
are scattered over the ground and passages where the enemy is expected
to march, especially the cavalry, in order to embarrass their progress.
Camp. The extent of ground
occupied by the tents of an army when in the field. For camp
disposition of the United States army see "Army Regulations," pages
Camp-Colors. The flags or
ensigns which mark ou the lines of an encampment. Also, small colors
placed on the right and left, of the parade of a regiment when in the
Camp-Color-Men. Those soldiers who carry camp-colors to the field on days of exercise, and plant them to mark out the lines.
Camp (Flying). A strong body
of cavalry and infantry always in motion, to coyer its own garrisons,
and to keep the army of the enemy in continual alarm.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 107
Cannon. Cannons were
originally made of iron bars soldered together, and fortified with
strong iron hoops. Others were made of thin sheets of iron rolled up
together, and hooped; and on emergencies they were made of leather, with plates of iron or copper. For a descriptive of the cannon now in use in the American army, see article, page 64.
Canteen. A tin or wooden
vessel, in which soldiers carry water or other liquid on the march. The
term also signifies a suttling house kept in a garrison or
barrack-yard, for the supplying of troops.
Cantonments. The situations in which troops are quartered in towns and villages.
Caponniere. A passage from the body of a place across the ditch to an outwork.
Carbineers or Carabineers. Horsemen armed with carabines, who occasionally act as infantry.
Carcasses. Shells containing a composition of combustibles projected from mortars.
Carronade. A short piece of iron ordnance, originally made on the Carron in Scotland.
Cartel. An agreement for a mutual exchange of prisoners.
Case or Canister Shot. Bullets, pieces of iron, etc., inclosed in a circular tin case, and discharged from heavy pieces of ordnance.
Casemate. A cave under the rampart, with loopholes through which artillery may be discharged.
Cashiered. Dismissed with ignominy from the service.
Castrametation. The planning and tracing out an encampment.
Casuals or Casualties. A term implying soldiers who die, desert, or have been discharged.
Cat-o-nine-Tails. A whip with five or nine knotted cords used for flogging military offenders. See Articles of War regarding its use, page 20.
Cavalry. Horse soldiers.
Chace of a Gun. Its entire length.
Chamade. See Drum.
Chamber of a Cannon. (or mortar). That part of the bore which receives the charge of powder. Chamber of a Mine, is the place where the charge of powder is lodged for the purpose
108 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
of blowing up the works over it. Chamber of a Battery,
is a place sunk under ground for holding powder, loaded shells and
fusees, where they may be out of danger, and preserved. from rain or
Cheeks of a Gun-carriage. The strong planks forming its sides.
Chandelier. A moveable parapet, consisting of wooden frames, filled with facines laid to cover working parties in the trenches.
Chevaux-de-Frize (Friesland Horses).
Obstacles consisting of a beam of timber, with strong stakes pointed
with iron, driven through it in different directions, used for
defending avenues and passages, for impeding river channels, stopping
up breaches, and impeding assaults. [The term takes its derivation from
the apparatus having been first used at the siege of Groningen, in
Friesland, in the year 1658, against the cavalry of the enemy].
Chevrons. The marks on the sleeves of the coats of non-commissioned officers.
Circumvallation (Line of). A
fortification of earth, consisting of a parapet or breastwork and
trench, to cover the besiegers against any atempt of the enemy, in
favor of the besieged.
Club (To). In a military sense, to throw into confusion; to deform through ignorance or inadvertency. To Club a Battalion
is to throw it into confusion. The more common use of the word,
however, in this country, implies to use the musket or rifle as a club
in a close fight.
Color-Sergeant. The regimental sergeant whose duty it is to attend to the colors in the field.
Colors (Regimental). Are two
in each regiment, one the national ensign stars and stripes, the other
the regimental color. [See "Army Regulations," 1368-69-70-71-72-73 for
special regulations for artillery, cavalry, etc.]
Column. A body of troops in deep file and narrow front. Troops are in close column when they are close together; in open column, when there are intervals sufficient for wheeling into line when requisite.
Commissary. That department of military economy which is charged with the care of the provisions, tents, etc., of an army.
Contribution. An imposition or tax paid, in provisions or money, by the inhabitants of a town or country to an enemy.
Convention. An agreement for the suspension of hostilities, or the evacuation of a post, etc.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 109
Cordon. A chain of posts, or
an imaginary line of separation between two hostile armies, either in
the field or in winter-quarters. Also. used to signify bodies of troops
stationed at detached intervals filled up by unceasing patrolling, for
preventing the escape of an enemy, or to prevent his sudden irruption
into a country. Also used to express the coping of the escarp of the
ditch of a fortress.
Corporal (in the army). A
non-commissioned officer under the sergeant. His duty is to place and
relieve sentinels and to take charge of a squad in drill. (In the
navy), an inferior officer under the master at arms.
Corporal (Lance). A soldier who acts as corporal, with only the pay of a private.
Corps. A body of troops.
Corps d'Armee. A portion of a grand army possessed of all the constituents of a separate or an independent army.
Cover. In military parlance, signifies security or protection.
Covered Way. A space extending
from the counterscarp to the crest of the glacis, and surrounding the
body of the fortress with its outworks.
Counter Approach. A trencher passage carried out by the besieged to counteract the works of the besiegers.
Counterforts or Buttresses. Solid works of masonry built behind walls to strengthen them.
Counter-Guard. A work placed before bastions to cover the opposite flanks from being seen from the covered way.
Countermarch (To). To change the front of an army, battalion, etc., by an inversion of its several component parts.
Counter Mining. (See Mining).
Counterscarp. The exterior slope of the ditch of a fortress.
Countersign. A word or number
exchanged between sentries on duty in camp or garrison. Also the
watchword demanded by sentries from those who approach their posts.
Counter Trench. (See Trench).
Countervallation (Line of). A breastwork with a ditch before it to defend the besiegers against the enterprises of the garrison.
Coup-de-Main. A sudden and vigorous attack.
Coup-d'-Oeil. The seeing at a glance of the eye, the features of a country, or the position of an enemy. The term also implies the
110 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
judicious selection of the most advantageous position for an encampment, or a field of battle.
Court of Inquiry. A meeting of
officers to inquire into the conduct of a commander of an expedition,
to ascertain whether there be ground for a court-martial.
courts appointed for the investigation and punishment of offences
committed by officers and soldiers in breach of the articles of war:
they are three; 1. General; 2. District; and 3. Regimental. See "Army Regulations," 861, et seriatim.
Cremaillere. An indented or zigzag outline, resembling the teeth of a saw.
Culverin. A long cannon.
Cunette. A trench in the middle of a dry ditch.
Cuirass. Defensive armor, covering the body of the wearer from the neck to the waist. Not now used.
Cuirassiers. Heavy cavalry, clad in cuirasses. Not in service now.
Curtain. That part of the rampart which connects two contiguous bastions.
Cut-off. In military parlance, signifies to intercept, or hinder from union or return.
Cylinder of a Gun. The whole length of the bore of a piece of ordnance.
Debouch. The outlet of a wood or narrow pass. To debouch, is to march out of a defile, narrow pass, or wood. Debouchment is the marching out of a defile, etc., into open ground.
Debris. The wreck or remains of a routed army.
Decimation. The infliction of death on every tenth man of a corps; used also to imply great slaughter.
Decoy. A stratagem to carry off the horses of a foraging party of the enemy, or from pasture. Also implies any deception.
Defaulter's Book. A regimental record of the offenses and irregularities of the privates and non-commissioned officers of a regiment.
Defilement or Defilading. The arrangement of the plan and profile of the works of a fortress, so as to prevent their being enfiladed.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 111
Defile. A narrow passage or
road, through which troops can not march, otherwise than by making a
small front, and filing off. To Defile is to move off in a line, or
file by file. The term also implies the reduction of divisions and
subdivisions of troops to a small front, to enable them to march
through a defile.
Deliver Battle (To). Is when hostile armies are in sight of each other, to commence an attack ..
Deploy (To). To display or spread out. A column is said to deploy, when the divisions open out or extend, for the purpose of making a flank march, or to form in line on any given division. Deployment is the act of unfolding. or expanding a given body of troops, so as to extend their front .
Depot. A place where military stores are deposited. The term also signifies the station of the reserve companies of regiments.
Depression. The pointing of a piece of ordnance so that the shot may be projected under the point blank line.
Depth of a Battalion or Squadron. The number of men in rank and file.
Detach (To). To send out a body of men on some particular service, distinct from that of the main body.
Detachment. A number of men drawn out from several regiments or companies.
Detonating Powder. That part of the cartridge which is detached for priming.
Diminish (To) the Front of a Battalion. To adapt the column of march or maneuver, according to the obstructions and difficulties which it meets in advancing.
Disengage (To) a Column or Line.
To clear a column or line which may have lost its proper front by the
overlapping of any particular division, company, or section, when
ordered to form up.
Disengage (To) the Wings of a Battalion. When the battalion countermarches from its center, and on its center, by files.
Dislodge (To). To drive an enemy from his post.
Dismantle a Fortification (To). To render it incapable of defense.
Dismantle a Gun (To). To render it unfit for service.
Dismount (To) Cannon. To break their carriages, wheels, axletrees, etc., so as to render them unfit for service.
Disobedience of Orders. Any infraction, by neglect or willful omission, of general or regimental orders.
112 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Division of an Army. A body of troops, consisting of two or more briigades, under the command of a general of division.
Dock- Yard Battalions. A defensive force, consisting of the superintendents, clerks, and laborers of the respective navy or dockyards.
Draw Up (To). To form in battle array.
Drawn Battle. A battle in which both sides claim the victory.
Dress (To). To arrange a
company or a battalion in such a position or order, that an exact
continuity of line is preserved in the whole front, or in whatever
direction it is to be formed. Dressing is effected by each man taking short quicksteps, until he gradually obtains his position in the rank or line.
Dressers. Those men who take
up direct or relative points by which a corps is enabled to preserve a
regular continuity of front, and to exhibit a straight alignment.
Drill (To). To teach recruits the first principles of military movements and positions, etc.
Drum (Beats of), The various beats of the drum are: The General, to give notice to the troops that they are to march: The Assembly, The Troop, to order the troops to repair to the place of rendezvous, or to their colors : The March, to command them to move, always with the left foot first: Tat-too or Tap-too, to order all to retire to their quarters: To Arms! for soldiers who are dispersed, to repair to them: The Reveille
always beats at break of day, to warn soldiers to rise, and sentinels
to forbear challenging, and to give leave to come out of quarters: The Retreat,
a signal to draw off from the enemy; also, a beat in both camp and
garrison a little before sunset, when the gates are shut, and soldiers
repair to their barracks: The Alarm, to give notice of sudden danger, that all may be in readiness for immediate duty: The Parley, (Chamade) a signal to demand some conference with the enemy: The Sergeants Call, a beat for calling the sergeants together in the orderly-room, or in camp to the head of the colors: The Drummers' Call, a beat to assemble the drummers at the bead of the colors, or in quarters at the place where it is beaten: The Preparative,
a signal to make ready for firing. As soon as it commences, the
officers step out of the rank, and when it has ceased, the several
firings commence. When the General is beat, they fall back into the front rank: The Long Roll, a
113 DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS.
signal for the assembly of troops at any parade. These beats are either ordinary or extraordinary.
Drum Major. The instructor of the drummers in the beats.
Echelon. A formation of
divisions of a regiment, or of entire regiments, resembling the steps
of a ladder. Echelon movements and positions are not only necessary and
applicable to the immediate attacks and retreats of large bodies of
troops, but also to the previous oblique and direct changes of
situation, which a battalion, or larger corps of troops already formed
in line, may be compelled to make to the front or rear, or on a
particular fixed division of the line.
Effective. Fit for service, in contradistinction to non-effective, or unfit for service.
Empilement. The act of disposing balls, grenades, and shells, in the most secure and convenient manner.
Embrasures. The openings which are made in the parapets of a work, for the purpose of pointing cannon against objects.
Encampment. The pitching of a camp.
Enceinte. The outline of a fortress, including the ramparts, wall, ditches, etc.
Enfilade (To). To sweep or rake the whole length or any work, or a line of troops, by a fire from a battery on the prolongation of that line.
Engarrison (To). To protect a place by a garrison.
Enrol (To). To enlist men to serve as soldiers.
Entrepots. Magazines, as also places appropriated in garrison towns, for the reception of stores, etc.
Epaullement. A mound of earth thrown up to cover troops from the enemy's fire.
Eprouvette . A machine to prove the strength and quality of gunpowder.
Equalize (To) a Battalion. To
tell off a certain number of companies in such a manner that the
several component parts shall consist of the same number of men.
Equipage (Camp or Field). Tents, cooking utensils, saddle horses, bat-horses, baggage-wagons, etc.
Equipment. The complete dress of a soldier, including arms, accouterments, etc.
114 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Escalade (To). To scale the walls of a fortress.
Escarp. The sides of the ditch next to the rampart.
Escort. Troops who guard prisoners on a march to prevent their escape.
Esplanade. An open space of ground separating the citadel from the town.
Estaffette. A military courier, sent express from one part of an army to another.
Evolutions. The changes of the position of troops, either for attack or defense.
Exempts. Persons exempted from certain services, or entitled to peculiar privileges.
Extraordinaries. Allowances for the expenses of barracks, marches, encampments, etc.
Faces of a Square. The four sides of a battalion when formed in square.
Facings. The different
movements of a battalion, or any other body of troops, to the right, to
the left, or to the right (or left) about, or to the right (or left)
half face, or to the right (or left) three quarter face. The term also
implies the different facings the recruit is taught while at drill.
Fall (To) Back. To recede from a position recently occupied.
Fall (To) In. To form in ranks in parade, line, division, etc.
Fall (To) Out. To quit the rank or file.
False Attack. A feigned attack for the. purpose of diverting the enemy from the real point of attack.
Fascines. Faggots made of
brushwood or small branches of trees, of various dimensions, according
to the purposes for which they are intended.
Feint . A false or mock attack or assault made for the purpose of concealing a real one. A Feint,
when in an aggressive attitude, is threatening one part of an
opponent's person, when it is intended to try his vulnerability on
Fete de Joie. A discharge of musketry, or of salvos of artillery in celebration of some important event.
Field-Days. Days on which troops are taken out to the field, to be instructed in field exercise and evolutions.
Field Officer. An officer above the rank of captain, and under that of general, namely; majors, lieutenant-colonels, and colonels.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 115
File. A line of soldiers drawn up one behind another. The term also signifies two soldiers, the front and rear rank men. To file is to advance to or from a given point by files, and to file off or defile, is to wheel off by files. File leader is the front man of a battalion or company standing two deep. File-marching is when soldiers so follow one another that every man in the first rank appears to lead a file. Filings are movements to the front, rear, or flanks, by files.
Fire (Running). Is when a line of troops fire rapidly in succession, or one after another.
Flag of Truce. A flag carded when some pacific communication is to be made to the enemy. It is generally white colored.
Flank (To). Is to take up a
position without being exposed to all the enemy's fire. To outflank, is
the increasing the front of a body of troops, till it outstretches the
Flank en Potence. Is where the extremity of the right or left wing is thrown back at an obtuse angle in the rear of the line.
Forlorn Hope. The party or
body of men and officers, who lead the storm of a fortress. In the
French service, this devoted band is emphatically styled les enfans perdus.
Formation. The arrangement or
drawing up of troops according to prescribed rules. Formations are at
close order and open order. The term also signifies the constituent or
component parts of a regiment. An infantry regiment consists of
companies and battalions; a cavalry of troops and squadrons. A squadron
consists of two troops, and a regiment, of two, three, or more
Fortification. The art of defending and attacking fortresses and military positions, and of intrenching camps and outposts. It is either natural or artificial, regular or irregular. Natural fortification
is the strength and security which nature has afforded to places (such
as mountains, steep rocks, marshes, etc.,) by the advantages of
situation and the difficulties of approach. Artificial fortification is contrived and erected to increase the advantages of a natural situation, and to remedy its defects. Fortification is regular
when erected according to the rules of art, on the construction made
from a figure or polygon which is regular, or has all its sides and
angles equal; irregular, when
the sides and angles arc not uniform, equidistant, or equal, on account
of the irregularity of the ground, rivers, hills, valleys, etc.
116 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Consist of the different galleries and branches which lead to mines, to
the chambers belonging to them, and which fire requisite when it is
necessary to explode them for the purposes of attack or defense.
Consist in the art of fortifying, constructing: attacking, and
defending all kinds of temporary field-works during a campaign; as
redoubts, field-forts, star-forts, triangular and square forts, beads
of bridges, and various kinds of lines, etc.
Fort-Major. The commandant of a fotrt, in the absence of the regular commanding officer.
Fosse: A ditch, either with or without water in it. .
Fougass. A small mine in the front of the weakest parts of a fortification; generally under the glacis or dry ditches.
Fraise. A row of stakes or
palisades placed in an inclined position, on the edge of a ditch, or
the outward slope of an earthern rampart. To fraise a battalion, is to line or cover it on every part with pikes or bayonets, to enable it to withstand the shock of a body of cavalry_
Funeral (Military). For the ceremonials of military funerals, see " Army Regulations," pages 34-35-36.
Furlough. Leave of absence granted to non-commissioned officers and soldiers.
Fuse. The tube of wood fixed to a loaded shell.
Fusil. A light musket or firelock.
Fusileer. A soldier armed with a fusil.
Gabion. A basket of a
cylindrical form, filled with earth, either to carryon the approaches
under cover during a siege, or in fieldwork. Parapets are often
constructed of gabions. To construct gab ions, some staves of the
length of three Ot· four feet are stuck into the ground, in the
form of a circle, wattled together with osier twigs.
Gabionade. A retrenchment hastily thrown up. A parapet constructed of gabions is termed a parapet en gabionade.
Gallery. An underground
passage leading to the mines. The term also is used for a communication
betwecn the interior and the exterior works of a fortified place.
Gantlet or Gauntlet. An iron glove. To throw down the gauntlet, in military acceptation, is to challenge; to take up the gauntlet is to accept the challenge.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 117
General Officer. An officer above the rank of colonel.
Generalissimo. The chief officer in command in the field.
Glacis. The slope of the parapet of the covered way.
Grand Division. A body of
troops composed of two companies. A regiment or battalion being told
off in divisions of two companies, each is said to be told off in grand
divisions. Grand division firing is when a battalion fires by two
companies at the same time, and is commanded by only one officer.
Grappling Irons. Irons thrown at an object for the purpose of dragging it near.
Grenade. A hollow ball or
shell of iron or other metal, about two and a half inches diameter,
which being filled with fine powder, is ignited by means of a small
fuse. It derives its name from having been formerly thrown by the
grenadiers of regiments.
Guard. A body of men to protect an army or a place from being surprised. The Advanced or Van Guard
is a party of cavalry or infantry, or of both arms, which marches
before the main body, for the purpose of apprising it of any
approaching danger. A Rear Guard
is that part of an army or body of men which brings up the rear on a
march, for the purpose of preventing the enemy from gaining ground on
the flanks of the main body. The term is also applied to a corporal
placed in the rear of a regiment, to keep good order in that part of
the camp. Main Guard, that from which all other guards are detached. Post Guard, a guard detached from the main guard. A Grand Guard
is a guard composed of three or four squadrons of cavalry, commanded by
a field-officer, and posted about a mile from the camp for its better
security. An Advanced or Quarter Guard, is a guard or detachment intrusted with the guard of a post. Quarter Guard, is a small guard posted in front of each battalion in camp. Picket Guard, see Picket. Guards are either ordinary or extraordinary. Ordinary, when mounted in camp or garrison towns; extraordinary, when detached to cover foragers, escorts, etc. To Relieve Guard, is to put fresh men or sentries on guard. To turn out the Guard,
is to form the guard for the purpose of receiving a general or
commanding officer; also, on the approach of an armed party, or on the
beat of the drum, sound of trumpet, or any alarm. For the various
details of guards and their service in the army of the United States,
see pages 37-38-39-40-41.
118 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Guard-Mounting. Is the hour at which a guard is mounted.
Guerrilla (Spanish for a little war).
A partisan who is not enrolled and paid by the party for whom he
serves. It is now, however, used to imply any irregular warfare.
Guides. Men who give information respecting the country, and the roads intersecting it.
Guidon. A cavalry standard or banner. Not used in our army parlance.
Gun (Morning and Evening). The
gun fired every morning at sunrise, and every evening at sunset, to
give notice to the drums and trumpets of troops in garrison, to beat
and sound the reveille, and the retreat.
Gunnery. The science of artillery, or the art of managing cannon and military projectiles.
Gun-Shot. The reach or point-blank range of a gun.
Gymnastics. The art or method
of exercising the body so as to render it supple, and capable of much
fatigue. Much used in the Zouave drill, recently introduced.
Halberd Or Halbert. A kind of spear formerly carried by sergeants of infantry and artillery. Old Halbert, a term once used in the army to designate a soldier who had risen to the rank of a commissioned officer Not now in use.
Half-Pay. Allowance made to absent or retired officers.
Halting Days. Days allowed for repose when troops are on a march, and there is no necessity for exertion or dispatch.
Hang Fire (To). Fire-arms and
trains of powder are said to hang fire, when a pause takes place
between the ignition of the gunpowder and the application of the fire
Herisson. A hedge or
chevaux-de-friese, made of one stout beam, fenced with iron spikes, and
fixed on a pivot, so that it revolves on being touched.
Hollow Square. The form in
which a body of infantry is drawn up to resist a cavalry charge; with
the colors, drums, baggage, et al, in the center.
Home Service. Military duty by citizens of towns, etc. Regular Service, is the performance of service in the army of the United States Government. Foreign Service, is service on a foreign station, beyond the limits of this country and its jurisdiction.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 119
Honors of War. Terms granted to a capitulating enemy on evacuating a fortress.
Horn Work. A kind of crown-work in advance of a fortress.
Hors-de-Combat (Put or Placed). Is to be killed, wounded, or disabled, so as not to be capable of defense or attack.
Howitzer. A piece of ordnance for discharging shells at low angles, and shot in ricochet.
Hurdles. Oblong constructions
of osier and willow twigs interwoven close together upon stakes for
rendering batteries firm, or to consolidate a passage over muddy
ditches, or to cover traverses and lodgments for the defense of workmen
Impress Money. Money paid to men who have been compelled to serve. Not often used in our service.
The term having been applied to a body of men raised by an Infante of
Spain, for the purpose of rescuing his father from the Moors; as a
memorial of the deed the term was applied to foot-soldiers in general.
Inquiry (Board of). The
meeting of a certain number of officers, for the purpose of
ascertaining facts which may become matter of. investigation by a
Insconced. When a part of an
army has fortified itself with a sconce or small work, in order to
defend a pass, etc., it is said to be insconced.
Intrenchment. A work which
fortifies a post against attack. The term usually denotes a ditch or
trench with a parapet. Intrenchments are sometimes made of fascines,
with earth thrown over them, or of gabions, hogsheads, or bags filled
with earth, as a protection from the enemy's fire.
Invalided (To be). Is to be discharged from the· service in consequence of wounds, ill-health, Or long service.
Invest. Investment. The
investment of a fortress is the seizure of all the avenues leading to
it, preparatory to its blockade or siege.
Judge Advocate. The public
prosecutor of officers and soldiers tried by court-martial for breach
of the articles of war or the general regulations.
Kit. The complement of a soldier's regimental necessaries.
120 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Knights of the Round Table. A
fraternity of twenty-four knights instituted by King Arthur. In order
to prevent among them controversies about precedence, the King caused a
round table to be made for them when assembled; from which they were
denominated Knights of the Round Table.
Lance Sergeant. A corporal who acts as sergeant, but receives only the pay of corporal.
Land Transport Corps. A body of men employed in conveyance of the wounded.
Laws of Arms. Certain
acknowledged rules, regulations and precepts, which relate to war, and
are observed by all civilized nations. The laws of arms also prescribe
the method of proclaiming war and commencing hostilities.
Law (Military). A prompt and
decisive rule of action by which justice is dispensed to the public or
to individuals, without passing through the tedious channels of legal
Leading Column. The first column which advances from the right, left, or center of an enemy or battalion. The Leading File, the first two men of a battalion or company, that marches from right, left, or center, by files.
Levy (To). Has three distinct military acceptations; to levy or raise an army, to levy or make war, and to levy contributions.
Lie under Arms (To). To be in a state of preparation for action.
Light Bobs. A familiar term for light infantry.
Light Infantry. A company of
the active, strong men of a battalion. A regiment employed as light
infantry is divided into skirmishers, supports and reserve. The
supports are in the rear of the skirmishers. The reserve is the point
on which both the supports and skirmishers may rally.
Limber. The fore-part of a
traveling gun-carriage, to which it is fastened by means of a pin-tail
or an iron pin. The hooking or unhooking the gun or howitzer-carriages
from the limbers is called, in the artillery service, for retreat or
advancing, limbering up, that is making every thing ready in the gun-carriage; and for action, unlimbering.
Line of Battle. The arrangement or disposition of an army for battle.
Line of Communication. In military strategy, that line which
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 121
corresponds with the line of operation, and proceeds from the base
point. The term also denotes that space of ground which unites the
citadel to the town.
Line of Direction. In gunnery, a line formerly marked upon guns, to direct the eye in pointing the gun.
Line of Fire. The space between contending armies, or any space from which objects may be hit by cannon or musketry.
Line of March. The regular and
tactical succession of the component parts of an army in motion. The
term also signifies the distance of ground over which armed bodies of
men move in succession toward a given object.
Line of Operation. The line
which corresponds with the line of communication, and proceeds from the
base point; or the forward movements of an army, for the purpose of
attacking the enemy, penetrating his dominions, etc.
Line (To) Men. Officers and
non-commissioned officers are said to line the men belonging to their
several battalions, divisions, or companies, when they arrive at their
dressing points, and receive the word dress from the commanding
Line (To Form the). To arrange troops in order of battle, or battle array.
Line (To Break the). To attack
an opposing front, so as to throw it into confusion. The term also
signifies to change the direction from that of a straight line, for the
purpose of obtaining a cross fire.
Lines of Approach. See Trench.
Lines of Communication. The
trenches which unite one work to another, so as to insure communication
between two approaches at a siege, or between two posts or forts.
Lines of Intrenchment. Lines which are drawn in front of a camp, or a place indifferently fortified, to secure it from assault or surprise.
Lines of March. Bodies of
armed men marching all given points for the purpose of arriving at any
straight alignments on which they are to form.
Lines of Support. Lines of attack which are formed to support one another.
Lines. A series of field-works, either continuous or at intervals, contrived so as reciprocally to flank one another. When
122 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
continuous they are termed Continual Lines; when at intervals Interrupted Lines, or Lines with Intervals.
Links (Connecting). The men sent out from a support, to keep up its connection with the skirmishers.
Lodgment. A retrenchment made
for shelter in a captured post or outwork, for the purpose of
maintaining the position. The term also signifies the possession of an
Loop-holes. Openings in the
walls of a castle or fort, through which the garrison may fire. In
general, they are nine inches long, six or seven wide within, and two
or three without, so that there may be a direct fire from them in
front, or an oblique fire to right or left, according to circumstances.
Lying. In military parlance, signifies to be stationed or quartered in a given place.
Magazine. A place in which military stores, arms, ammunition, provisions, etc., are deposited.
Main-Body. The body of troops
which march between the advanced and rear guards. In a camp, it is that
part of the army which is encamped between the right and left wings.
Main Guard or Grand Guard. A
body of cavalry posted in front of a camp for the security of the army.
In garrison, it is a guard mounted generally by a subaltern officer and
Malingerer. A soldier who feigns illness to avoid bis duty.
Mammelon. A round billock of easy ascent, rising upon the surface of the ground. The word in French literally signifies a nipple.
Maneuvers. Military evolutions. To maneuver
troops, is to habituate them to a variety of evolutions, accustom them
to different movements, and to render them familiar with the principles
of offensive and defensive operations. The term also signifies the
management of an armed force, so as to derive sudden and unexpected
advantages before an enemy.
Manual Exercise. A regulated
method of rendering troops familiar with the musket, and of adapting
their persons to military movements under arms. Platoon Exercise is the method of drilling soldiers in small numbers or subdivisions. Sword-bayonet Exercise is that in which riflemen are taught to use their swords when fixed to the rifle.
Mantlets. Wooden fences, on rolling wheels, used during a siege to protect the sappers frm the enemy's fire.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 123
March (Dead). The strains of music played during the procession of a military funeral.
March (Rogue's). The beats of a drum when a criminal offender is expelled or drummed out of a regiment.
Marching. Is either in slow time, quick time, or double-quick time. In slow or quick time,
the length of the step or pace is thirty inches, except in stepping
out, when it is increased to thirty three inches, and in stepping
short, when it is reduced to ten inches. In double-quick time, the step or pace is thirty-six inches. In slow time, seventy-five steps or paces are taken in a minute; in quick time, one hundred and eight, and in double-quick time, one hundred and fifty. The side or closing step,
which is taken when it is necessary to move a small distance to either
flank, is ten inches, and is always taken in quick time; but when taken
to clear or cover another soldier, it is twenty-one inches. In stepping back, the step or pace is thirty inches.
Marching by Files. To march with the narrowest front, except that of rank entire or Indian file, of which bodies of troops are susceptible.
Marching, or Billet Money. Money paid to officers and soldiers, for covering their expenses incurred when marching for the purpose of changing quarters.
Marching Regiments. A term
given to those corps who have not any permanent quarters. Latterly,
they have been denominated regiments of the line or line regiments.
Marines or Marine Forces. Troops raised for the naval service, and trained to fight either in a naval engagement, or in an action on shore.
Mark (To) Time. Is alternately
to throw out each foot, bringing it back square with the other, without
gaining ground, so that the cadenced step may be preserved until the
obstacle is removed which required the necessity of marking time. Changing the feet in marching,
by quickly bringing up the ball of the rear foot to the heel of the
advanced one, and instantly making another step forward, is to recover
the cadenced step which has been lost.
Martello Towers. Round towers
of a conical form, rather broader at the base than the summit, and
about forty feet in height, constructed as coast defenses. Not now used
in our military arrangements.
124 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Martial Law. The law of war.
Martinet. A strict
disciplinarian, who gives officers and soldiers unnecessary trouble.
The term is supposed to have had its origin from an adjutant of that
name, who was in high repute, as a drill-officer, in the reign of Louis
Materiel. The appurtenants of an army, such as horses, cannon, ammunition, stores, provisions, etc.
Melee. A confused hand-to-hand fight.
Mess. A kind of ordinary or table d'hote, at which the officers of a regiment dine: For the mess and regulations of the Soldiers' Mess, see pages 30-31.
Military Fever. Humorously called the Scarlet Fever; an overweening fondness for the outward appendages of the soldier.
Military Messengers. Confidential men who are sent on messages, or with letters to and from head-quarters, etc.
Military Regulations. The
rules and regulations by which the discipline, formations,
field-exercise, and movements of the army are directed to be observed,
according to a uniform system.
Militia. Citizen soldiers.
Each State has its separate military organization, by which all
citizens liable to bear arms are enrolled, and mustered into divisions,
brigades, regiments, companies, etc. In most States, even the
commissioned general officers are elective, each division electing its
commanding officers, who are commissioned by the Governor on their
certificates of election. The Governor nominates the adjutant-general;
quartermaster-general, inspectors, etc., as well as his own staff. The
militia, in time of peace, are only required to attend the various
annual or semiannual musters ordered by State laws. In event of war,
the general Government issues its proclamation announcing war and its
causes, when the Secretary of War makes bis requisition on the
Governors of the States for the needed troops. The Governors then
accept volunteers for their quota, and send them forward at command of
the War Department. If volunteers do not offer in sufficient numbers,
then the requisite force is obtained by drafting.
The militia are mustered, and the white and black bean, drawn from a
box, indicates the men. These either go, or find substitutes-there is
no other course. By this admirable system our Government is saved the
expense of a large standing
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 125
army, yet has, upon short call, several millions of troops. The
facility of the organization has been made manifest in our recent
internecine troubles. An army of very effective men, 250,000 strong,
was ready for the field in six weeks time.
Minie Rifle . A rifle invented
by Captain Minie, of France, carrying a conical ball, hollowed at its
base. The powder exploding, expands the base of the ball closely into
the grooves of the rifle barrel. Additional force is thus gained for
Mining. The making of
subterraneous passages under the wall or rampart of a fortification,
for the purpose of blowing it up with l gunpowder. Counter-mining, the making of galleries and mines by the besieged, to counteract the mines of the besiegers.
Missing. The expression used
in military returns, especially in field reports, after an engagement,
to account for the general loss of men.
Mitraille. Small pieces of old iron, as heads of nails, etc., with which pieces of ordnance are loaded, commonly called grapeshot.
Mobilize (To). To embody or incorporate. Used in the French service vocabulary.
Mortars. Short brass or iron cannon, of a large bore, for throwing shells.
Mount (To) Guard. To go on duty.
Mount (To) Cannon. To put a
piece of ordnance on its frame, for its more easy carriage, and the
management of it in firing. To dismount cannon, is to remove it from
its serviceable position.
Mount (To) a Gun. Is either to put the gun into its carriage, or when in the carriage, to elevate the mouth, or raise it higher.
Movements. In military parlance, signify the different evolutions, marches, counter-marches, and maneuvers made in tactics.
Musketry Range. Effective
musketry range of fire is when delivered against infantry from 200 to
250 yards, and against cavalry from 30 to 60 yards. The reasons that
the range of a cannon or a musket-ball is limited when fired from
rifled artillery and musketry, or from the smooth-bored cannon and
musket, are, that its momentum gradually diminishes in its range or
flight, and is subject to the friction of the air in its passage
through it. A ball fired in vacuo would have thirty-four times the
range which it has when fired in air. Another reason that musketry fire
126 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
so little execution when delivered by troops aligned, is, that owing to
the curvature of the earth, at the distance of 800 yards, a man of
ordinary stature, presents a mark of only one-tenth of an inch in altitude or height,
and at 1,000 feet,but little more than a twelfth. Colonel Schliminback,
of the Prussian service, from a number of calculations extending over a
series of battles during the wars which sprung out of the French
Revolution, ascertained that a man's weight in lead, and ten times his
weight in iron, are consumed before he is put hors de combat!
At the battle of Vittoria, nearly four millions and a quarter of ball
cartridges and 6,570 round shot and shell were fired by artillery, but
the killed and wounded of the French army, consisting of 90,000 men,
did not amount to 8,000. The same was true in the Crimean struggle.
Notwithstanding the terribly destructive nature of the contest, it is
proven that two hundred and eighty shots were expended for every man
killed! This makes no account of the vast amount of shot and shell
used. If even one in ten shots proved fatal, an army would soon be
Muster-Roll. A nominal return
of the officers and men in every regiment, troop, or company in the
service, forwarded monthly to the War Department.
Mutiny Act. A statute
specifying military offenses, and by virtue of which the English army
is continued on a peace or a war establishment.
Naval Camp. A fortification
consisting of a ditch and a parapet on the land side, or a wall built
in the form of a semi-circle, arid extending from one point of the sea
to the other.
Necessaries (Regimental). The boots, shirts, stockings, et cetera., issued to soldiers.
Non-commissioned Officers. Are
those officers elected by the men, or those not served with
commissions, either by the general Government or by the State
authorities. See Officers. In
infantry regiments are, the sergeant-major, the quartermaster-sergeant,
the sergeants, corporals, and drum and fife majors.
Non-effective. The negative of effective.
Oblique (To). To move forward to the right or left, according to the word of command.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 127
Oblique Deployment. Is when
the component parts of a column extending into line, deviate to the
right or left, for the purpose of taking up an oblique position; in
which operation its movements are termed oblique deployments.
Oblique Fire or Defense. A fire under too great an angle.
Oblique Step. A step or movement in marching, taken gradually to the right or left, at an angle of about twenty-five degrees.
Obstacles. In a military
sense, are narrow passes, or any impediments which present themselves
when a battalion or other body of men is marching to front or rear.
Officers. Are commissioned or non-commissioned. Commissioned Officers are either general, field, staff, or subaltern. Staff Officers are the quartermaster-general, the adjutant-general, brigade officers, and aides-de-camp, etc.
Off-Reckonings. The account of money issued by Government to colonels of regiments, for the clothing of the men.
Opening of Trenches. The first breaking of ground by the besiegers, for the purpose of carrying on their approaches toward the place.
Order of Battle. The arrangement or disposition of the various component parts of an army for battle.
Orderly. A non-commissioned officer or private who attends an officer for the performance of orderly duty.
Orderly Book. A book into
which the sergeants of companies transcribe the general and regimental
orders, for the specific information of the officers and men.
Orderly Officer. The officer of the day.
Orderly Room. A room in barracks used as a regimental office.
Orders. In a military acceptation, are the lawful commands of superior officers relative to military affairs, and are; General Orders,
which are those issued by the commander-in-chief, for the government of
the army at large, or for any specific purpose: Abbreviated G. O. Garrison Orders, those issued by the governor of a garrison: Abbreviated Gar. O. District Orders, those issued by a general commanding a district: Abbreviated D. O. Brigade Orders, those issued by a general commanding troops brigaded: Abbreviated B. O. Regimental Orders, those issued by the commanding officer of a regiment, arising out of general or garrison orders; Abbreviated R. O. Standing Orders,
128 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
general rules and instructions which are to be invariably followed, and
are not subject to the temporary intervention of rank. Of this
description are those orders which the colonel of a regiment may judge
fit to have inserted in the orderly books, and which can not be altered
by the next in command, without the colonel's concurrence: Abbreviated S. O. Station Orders, orders issued by the commanding officer of a particular station or post for its interior government: Abbreviated Sn. O. Pass Orders,
written directions to sentries, etc., belonging to outposts, etc., to
allow the bearer to go through the camp or garrison: Abbreviated P. O. Beating Order,
an authority given to an individual, empowering him to raise men by
beat of drum, etc., for a particular regiment, or for general service.
Ordnance. Heavy artillery, as cannon, howitzers, mortars, etc.
Outfit. The necessaries, uniform, etc. which an officer provides when appointed to a commission.
Outpost. A body of men posted beyond the grand guard, Or the limits of a camp.
Outworks. The works
constructed beyond the enceinte or body of a place, as ravelins,
half-moons, tenailles, horn and Crown-works, lunettes, etc.
Pace. The military step. The word also signifies the relative distance in the formation of a battalion at close or open order.
Palisades. Wooden stakes,
about nine feet long, and six Or seven inches square, having one end
sharpened in a pyramidical form to the extent of a foot. They are
planted three feet deep in the ground. When placed in an inclined
position, they are termed fraises.
Parallels. The trenches which connect the approaches and batteries carried on before a besieged fortress.
Parallel Lines. Lines drawn in the same direction, preserving equal distances from each other.
Parapet. A screen of a fortified post to protect troops from the enemy's fire.
Park of Artillery. A spot in an encampment in which the artillery is placed. The term also signifies the whole train of artillery materiel belonging to an army in the field.
Parley. A conference with an enemy by means of a flag of truce.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 129
To Beat a Parley. Is to give a signal for holding a conference by beat of drum, or sound of trumpet.
Parole. The promise or word of honor given by a prisoner of war, when
he has leave to go at large, of returning at an appointed time, or not
to take up arms, if not exchanged. A paroled person, if taken with arms
in his hands, is shot for violation of his parole.
Partisan. One dextrous in commanding a party for obtaining
intelligence, surprising the enemy's convoys, etc. The term is used to
denominate an officer who has the command of a partisan corps or party.
It is also used, in American parlance, to signify a guerrilla
leader-one who serves with no particular division or regiment.
Party. A small number or detachment of men, either cavalry or infantry.
Recruiting party, a certain number of men, under an officer or a
non-commissioned officer, detached from their battalions for the
purpose of raising recruits. Working Parties, small detachments of men,
under the command and superintendence of officers, who are employed on
Passages. Openings cut in the passages of the covered way, to afford communication to all its parts.
Patrol. A Email party under the command of a subaltern or a non~
commissioned officer, detached from the main or quarter guard, to
patrol, for the purpose of maintaining order and regularity in a camp
Pause. The stop or intermission between the first and last words of a command.
Pay-Sergeant. The non-commissioned officer who pays the men of each company their pay.
Peace-Establishment. The reduced number of regulars when the country is in a state of peace.
Permanent Rank. In the army, which does not cease with a particular
service or locality of service; a term in contradistinction to local or
temporary rank, which ceases on the performance of the duty for which
it was granted. Thus, officers in the regular service are of permanent
rank - those in the volunteer or militia service are of temporary rank.
Petard, A pot charged with gunpowder, fixed against the gate of a
fortress, for the purpose of blowing it open. In recent practice,
130 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
leather bags containing powder have superseded the use of the petard.
Pickets. Sharp stakes for securing the fascines of batteries or
fastening the tent ropes of camps. Picket Ropes are ropes twisted at
given intervals round the several picket stakes, to confine the horses
within a proper space of ground. Picket Poles are round pieces of wood,
shod. with iron, and driven firmly into the earth, to fasten the
cavalry horses by, when at picket.
Picket. A small detachment of cavalry or infantry, which is either
in·lying or out-lying. An In-lying Picket is within the lines
of intrenchment of a camp, or within. the walls of a garrison town,
ready to turn out on alarm. An Out-lying Picket, is that which does
duty without the limits of a camp or garrisoned town; being in the
first-mentioned position, posted on the front and flanks of the army,
to guard against surprise, or to oppose reconnoitering parties. They
are also called In-Line and Out-Line pickets.
Pike. A shaft of wood, from ten to fourteen feet in length, pointed
with a flat;. steel blade, about six inches in length. Men armed with
pike, cutlass, and revolver are very formidable on charges, or in close
conflict. In event of the negroes of the slave States rising in
insurrection, almost their only reliance would be the pike, which they
themselves would manufacture.. The pike is much used in South American
warfare. As a lance, it is used both by horse and foot soldiery. A
regiment of pikemen is a very desirable organization for every grand
Piling Arms. Locking muskets together by means of that part of the
ramrods near the muzzles of the pieces; and Unpiling Arms, is the
unlocking or detaching them from one another.
Pioneers. Soldiers selected from every regiment for mending tbe ways,
removing obstacles, working on intrenchments and fortifications, and
for making mines and approaches.
Pivot. The officer or soldier stationed at the flank of a company, on whom the different wheelings are made.
Place of Arms. When an army takes the field, every stronghold or
fortress which supports its operations by affording a safe retreat to
its depots, heavy artillery, magazines, hospitals, etc., is called a
place of arms. In offensive fortifications, those lines are called
places of arms or parallels, which unite the different means of attack,
secure the regular approaches, etc., and contain bodies of
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 131
troops who either do duty in the trenches, protect the workmen, or are destined to make an impression on the enemy's outworks.
Platoon. A term implying a subdivision of troops, either less or more than a company, who act in concert of fire.
Point of Alignment. The point on which troops form and dress by.
Point Blank Range. Is when a cannon or musket is leveled horizontally,
so that the muzzle neither mounts nor sinks, but that the surface lines
of the piece and the object are in the same plane.
Police Guard. A regimental guard, detailed every day, commanded by a lieutenant. that furnishes ten sentinels for special duty.
Pontoon. A kind of vessel hull formed of wood, and covered with copper,
for the purpose of forming temporary bridges to cross rivers.
Pontooning. The art of constructing a temporary bridge by means of pontoons.
Pontoon Train. The whole equipment requisite for pontooning.
Portfire. Paper-cases filled with saltpeter, sulphur, and mealed powder, to serve as a slow match for artillery.
Post. A spot of ground, fortified or not, where a body of men can be in
a condition to resist an enemy. An Advanced Post is a spot of ground
seized by a party to secure its front and the post behind it. Post of
Honor, an honorable position. The advanced guard is the post of honor,
and the right of the two lines is entitled to the same distinction.
Prestige. Illusion, charm, moral force.
Profile. The drawing of a section of a parapet, or other work, sideways.
Projectiles. Shot or shell discharged from artillery. Provost-Martial.
An officer appointed to preserve good order and discipline, apprehend
offenders, and superintend their punishment.
Punishment. In military usage means any infliction of sentence for
dereliction of duty or transgression, and consists of arrests,
confinements, deprival of arms, cashiering, drumming out of camp, etc.
In cases of treason, desertion and spying, the penalty is death by
shooting or hanging. See "Army Regulations," Article 27.
Pyrotechny. In a military acceptation, is the manufacture of bombs, grenades, rockets, fire-lights, etc.
132 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Quarters. Military stations, as head-quarters, home-quarters, regimental-quarters, etc.
Raid or Razzia. A plundering or marauding incursion.
Raise (To) a Siege. To abandon the siege of a fortress.
Rally (To). To re-form troops disordered or dispersed. A
Rallying-Square, is a square formed around an officer by skirmishers
surprised by cavalry.
Rampart. The exterior elevation of a fortified place upon which guns are placed in pooition.
Random-Shot. Is when a piece is elevated an angle of forty-five degrees upon a level plane.
Ranging. Disposing troops in proper order for battle, maneuver, march, etc.
Rank and File. The horizontal and vertical lines of troops when drawn up.
Rappeler. A particular beat of the drum to recall soldiers to the defense of their colors.
Rations. A certain allowance either for officers or men, given in bread, meat, or forage, when troops are on service.
Ravelin or Demilune. A work constructed on the counterscarp before the curtain of a fortress.
Ravine. In field fortification, a deep hollow.
Raw. In military acceptation, unseasoned, wanting knowledge in military
tactics, etc. Raw Troops, inexperienced soldiers, who have been but
little accustomed to the use of arms .
Razed. Works and fortifications when demolished, are said to be razed.
Recoil. Or, as it is properly termed, the Kick, is the rebound or
backward motion which a cannon or gun takes from the explosion of an
overcharge of powder.
Reconnoissance. The act of reconnoitering an enemy's position.
Reconnoiter (To). To view and examine a position. Balloon reconnoitering is by means of balloons.
Recruits. Men raised on the first formation of a corps, or to supply the places of those who have been disabled or killed.
Recruit Horses. The horses for completing regiments of cavalry.
Redans. In field fortification, are indented works, lines, or faces,
forming sallying and re-entering angles, flanking one another,
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 133
generally constructed on the side of a river running through a garrison town.
Redoubts. Works about musket-shot from a fortress, surrounded by a
ditch. Field Redoubts are temporary defenses or fortifications, thrown
up during a war of posts, or on account of sudden emergency.
Re-form (To). In a military acceptation, is, after some maneuver or
evolution, to bring a line to its natural order, by aligning it on a
Refuse (To). To throw back, or keep out of that regular alignment which
is formed when troops are on the point of engaging an enemy.
Relief. A fresh detachment of troops who replace those on duty,
Relieve (To) the Guard. Is to put fresh men on guard. To relieve the
trenches, is to relieve the guard of the trenches, by appointing those
for that duty who have not been there already, or whose turn is next.
To relieve the sentries is to put fresh men from the guard on that
Rendezvous. The place appointed for the assembly of a body of troops in case of alarm.
Reserve. A select body of troops retained in the rear of an army, to
support the attacking force, or to rally it in case of disaster.
Respited (To be) on the Muster Roll. Is to be suspended from pay, etc.,
during which period all advantages of promotion, pay, etc., are
stopped. Not much used in our army parlance.
Retreat. The retrograde movement of an army or body of men. To be in full retreat is to retire expeditiously before the enemy.
Retrenchment. A work raised to cover a post, and fortify it against an
enemy; such as fascines loaded with earth, gabions, barrels, etc.,
filled with earth, sandbags, and generally all things that can cover
the men, and stop the enemy; bnt it is more applicable to a ditch
bordered with a parapet; and a post thus fortified, is called a
retrenched post, or strong post.
Revetement. A strong wall built on the outside of the rampart and
parapet, to support tbe earth, and prevent its falling into the ditch.
Revolver. Fire-arms which produce a series of successive discharges from the chambers, of the barrel of a single arm or stock.
Ricochet. Boundings or leaps of round shot. Ricochet-Firing, is
134 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
firing at a slight elevation, in a direction enfilading the face of a
work; so that when the shot falls over the parapet, it makes several
hounds along the rampart, with destructive effect on the guns and
Rideau. A rising ground, or eminence, commanding a plain.
Rifle. A firelock of which the bore is furrowed or grooved in a spiral
or screw-like form. The rifles of the highest repute are the Enfield,
Minie, Sharpe's, Whitworth's, Colt's repeating rifle, etc. See article
on "Rifles," in the body of this work.
Riflemen. Expert marksmen, armed with rifles.
Rifle Pits. Pits in which riflemen ensconce themselves, to pick off the gunners at the embrasures of a fortress.
Rocket. A firework, used either as a signal or a projectile. Roll. A uniform beat of the drum.
Roll- Call. The calling over the names of the men.
Roster. A plan or table by which the duty of officers, battalions and
squadrons is regulated. See "Army Regulations," pages 73-74.
Round. A general discharge of cannon or musketry.
Round of Ammunition. The number of ball-cartridges with which a soldier is supplied.
Round-Robin. A compact of honor which officers enter into, (when they
have cause of complaint against their superior officer), to state their
grievances, and to endeavor to obtain redress, without subjecting one
individual more than another to the odium of being a leader, or chief
mover. The term is a corruption of ruban rond, which signifies a round
Rounds (Visiting). The visitation and personal inspection of guards and sentries on duty.
Rounds (Grand). The rounds which are gone by general officers, governors, commandants, or field-officers.
Route. The order for the march of a regiment or detachment, specifying its various stages.
Rifle. A vibrating sound made by drummers on the drum, not so loud as the roll.
Running Fire. A rapid succession of fire.
Safeguard. A protection granted for the preservation of an enemy's lands or persons from insult or being plundered.
Salamanders and Serpents. Brittle earthern vessels, filled with
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 135
serpents, which were thrown among a storming party on the point of ascending a breach, for the purpose of annoying them.
Sally or Sortie. A sudden attack made by the besieged against the troops or works of the besiegers.
Sally-Ports. Openings in the glacis of a fortress, for the purpose of
egress and regress of troops engaged in a sally or sortie.
Salute. A discharge of artillery or musketry, or of both, in honor of
persons or events. The term also signifies the ceremony of presenting
Sap. A trench or approach sunk underground to protect the workmen from
the fire of the garrison. A flying sap is that in which the working
parties place the gabions themselves, and instantly fill them
Sapping. The method of carrying on the approaches, by excavating
trenches so as to protect the workmen from the fire of the garrison.
Sappers. Soldiers belonging to the corps of artificers and engineers
who work at the saps. Sapping party, the men who form a brigade or
party of sappers.
Saucisse, Saucisson. In mining, a long pipe, or bag, made of cloth,
well pitched, or sometimes of leather of one and a half inch in
diameter, filled with powder, laid from the chamber of a mine to the
entrance of the gallery. The term also signifies a kind of fascine,
longer than those usually made, for the purpose of raising batteries,
or repairing breaches. They are also used in making epaulements,
stopping passages, making traverses over a wet ditch, etc.
Scaling Ladder. A ladder for scaling or mounting walls or ramparts.
Scarp (To). To render a slope accessible by cutting it down.
Sconce. A redoubt or small fort.
Scour (To). A term to express the act of firing a quick and heavy
discharge of ordnance or musketry for the purpose of dislodging an
enemy; as to scour the rampart or the covered way. The expression also
signifies to clear, or to drive away, as to scour the streets, to scour
the trenches, etc. To scour a line, is to so flank it so as to be able
to see along it, and that a musket ball discharged at one end, may
range to the other.
Scouts. Men employed to gain intelligence of the forces and movements of an enemy_
136 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Sentinel, Sentry. A soldier posted to watch the approach of an enemy,
prevent surprise, or to stop and challenge those who approach his post_
Sergeant (Covering). A non-commissioned officer, who during the
exercise of a battalion, regularly stands or moves behind each officer
commanding or acting with a company.
Shells. Hollow iron balls, filled with powder, thrown from mortars or
howitzers. Message Shells are shells in the inside of which a letter or
other papers are put.
Shot. A denomination given to all kind of balls used for artillery and
fire-arms, whether round, grape, chain, case, or canister.
Siege. The position which an army takes, on its encampment, before fl
fortified town, or place, for the purpose of reducing it. The first
operation is investing the place, tbat is, taking possession of all the
avenues, forming lines of circumvallation, opening the trenches, etc.
In siege-operations, the rear of an attack is the place where the
attack begins; the front or head of the attack, that part next to the
Sight. A small piece of brass or iron, which is fixed near the muzzle
of a musket or pistol, to serve as a point of direction, and to assist
the eye in leveling. Rifles have two sights, one at the breach, and the
other at the muzzle; and some rifles have telescope sights.
Signal. A sign for conveying intelligence by balls, rockets, or flags.
Signals are also given by the short and long rolls of the drum during
the exercise of a battalion. They are frequently given for commencing a
battle, either with drums and trumpets, sky rockets, the discharge of
cannon, etc. The term is also used for an order for marching, etc.
Secret signals are in frequent use in our army, both for conveying
orders and intelligence. A new "code" has recently been adopted by
General Scott. "Codes" change as often as necessary to preserve their
Signal-Staff. A flag planted upon the spot where the general, or commanding officer, takes his station.
Size-Roll. A list containing the names of the men composing a troop or company, with the height or stature of each specified.
Soldiers Thigh. A figurative expression for an empty purse or a pair of
trowsers which set close and look smooth, because they have no pockets,
or nothing in them.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 137
Sobriquets (Regimental and Divisional). Are cognomens obtained for some
special conduct or circumstance. The habit of naming regiments has
become very general. We have, for instance, "The Advance Guard," "The
Garibaldi Guard," "The Union Guard," "The Scott Guard,"" The
President's Guard," "The Invincibles," etc.
Spike (To) Cannon. To drive a large nail or iron spike into the vent.
Squad. A small number of men, cavalry, or infantry, who are collected
together for the purposes of drill, etc. To squad, is to divide a troop
or company into parts, for the purpose of drilling the men
separately, or in small bodies. The awkward squad, consists not only of
recruits at drill, but of soldiers who are ordered to exercise with
them, in consequence of some irregularity while under arms.
Squad-Roll. A list containing the names of each squad.
Squadron. A body of cavalry, composed of two troops.
Staff. In military acceptation, is either general, personal,
regimental, garrison, or district. A General Staff consists of a
quartermaster-general, an adjutant-general, majors of brigade,
aides-de-camp, etc. A Personal Staff consists of those officers who are
constantly about the person of a governor or a general, as his military
secretary, aides-de-camp, etc. A Regimental Staff, are the adjutant,
paymaster and surgeon.
Station (Military). A place for the rendezvous of troops. The term is
also used to designate the spot for offensive and defensive measures.
Step. The pace of the soldier while marching in slow, quick, or
double-quick time. Stepping Out, is lengthening the pace to
thirty-three inches, by leaning a little forward, without altering the
cadence. Stepping Short, is taking but ten-inch paces. In Stepping
Back, the pace and cadence are the same as in the slow march. The
Diagonal Step, is carrying the left foot forward nineteen inches in
tlIe diagonal line to the left. The Balance Step, popularly termed the
goose step, is alternately throwing out the feet, without gaining
Stockade. A work consisting of palisades.
Stock Purse. A saving made in a corps, and which is applied to regimental purposes.
138 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
Stores (Military). Provisions, forage, clothing, arms, ammunition, etc.
Stormers. The troops who immediately follow the forlorn hope in tue assault of the breach made in the walls of a fortress.
Strategy, Strategetics. The science of military command, and of planning and directing military movements.
Subaltern. An officer under the rank of captain. The term, in familiar expression, is abbreviated Sub.
Subdivision. A company told off for parade or maneuver into two equal parts.
Supernumerary Officers, and Non-Commissioned Officers. Those placed in
the rear for supplying the place of those who fall in action, and for
preserving order and regularity in the rear ranks while the front rank
is engaged or is advancing.
Swivel. A small piece of ordnance which turns on a pivot or swivel.
Tactics. The arrangement and formation of troops by means of maneuvers and evolutions.
Take (To) Ground to the Right or Left. To extend a line toward either of these directions.
Tambour. A work formed of palisades.
Tampions or Tompions. Wooden cylinders to put into the mouths of guns,
howitzers and mortars in traveling, to prevent dust or wet entering
Target. A mark employed in the practice of ball-firing.
Tarred (To be). A cant expression in use among the regiments of guards,
to signify the punishment which privates undergo among themselves, when
they have been tried and sentenced by their comrades.
Tirailleurs, Voltigeurs. In the French service tirailleurs are
skirmishers or marksmen, advanced in front to annoy the enemy, and draw
off his attentIon; or they are posted in the rear to amuse and impede
his advance in pursuit. Voltigeurs (springers, leapers), are employed
for the same purpose. The distinctive deployment of tirailleurs and
voltigeurs is, that the first move irregularly and scattered; the
second are formed and act in collective bodies,
Tire. Large guns, shots, shells, etc., placed in a regular form.
Tell (To) Off. To divide and practice a regiment or company in the several formations, preparatory to marching to the general
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 139
parade for field exercise. A regiment is told of into wings, grand
divisions, divisions, or companies, and subdivisions or
sections. A company is told off into subdivisions and sections.
Terre-Plein. In field fortifications, is the plane of a level country
around a work; in permanent fortification, it signifies the broad
surface of the rampart, which remains after constructing the parapet
Tete-de- Pont. A field-work or fortification, in front of a bridge, in
the form of a redan, a system of cremailleres, a horn or crown-work, or
portions of star or bastioned forts.
Touch (The). In a military sense, signifies the sensation felt by the
soldier, when properly in line, at the thick part of the arm,
immediately below the elbow, and which is communicated to him by his
right or left-hand man, according to the point of direction in which
the line is marching.
Tour of Duty. Duty by turn or succession.
Traverse. In siege operations, is a kind of retrenchment made in the
dry ditch to defend the passage over it. To Traverse a Gun or Mortar,
is to bring it about to right or left with handspikes, till it is
pointed exact to the object.
Train. All the necessary apparatus and implements of war, as cannon,
etc., required at a siege or in the field. Train of Artillery, the
ordnance belonging to an army in the field. Field Train, a body of men,
consisting chiefly of commissaries and conductors of stores, who belong
to the artillery. Train, in mining, a line of gunpowder laid for the
purpose of blowing up earthworks, etc.
Trenches. Passages or excavations made by besiegers, in order to
approach more securely to the place attacked, on which account they are
also termed Lines of Approach. The tail in rear of the trench is the
place where it was begun; its head is where it ends. Returns of a
Trench are elbows and turnings which form the lines of approach. To
open the Trenches, is to break ground for the purpose of carrying on
approaches to the place. To mount the Trenches, is to relieve the guard
of the trenches. To scour the Trenches, is to make a vigorous sally on
the guard of the trenches, force them to give way, and quit their
ground, drive away the workmen, break down the parapet., fill up the
trench, and nail or spike the cannon. Counter-trenches, are trenches.
140 THE MILITARY HAND-BOOK.
made, by the besieged against the besiegers. Trenches are also made to protect an encampment.
Troop. A company of cavalry. Trooper, a horse soldier.
Trouee. An opening, a gap.
Trous-de-Loup, or Wolf-Holes. In field fortifications, are round holes
about six feet deep, and four feet in diameter, pointed at the bottom,
with a stake planted in the middle. They are frequently dug round a
redoubt, to obstruct the enemy's approach.
Tumbrils. Covered carts, which carry ammunition for cannon, tools for
the pioneers, miners and artificers; and sometimes the military chest.
Truncheon. A staff of command.
Trunnions. The arms by which a gun is attached to its carriage.
Turn (To) out the Line. To exhibit in battle array, men for the purpose of parade, or to bring them into action.
Under Arms. Troops are under arms when assembled, armed, and accoutered, on parade.
Upshot (To). To extract a ball from a piece.
Van-Guard. That part of an army which marches in front. Vedettes.
Mounted sentries, stationed- at the outposts of an army or an
Vent. The passage or opening in fire-arms, by which the fire is communicated to the powder composing the charge.
Visiting Officer. An officer whose duty it is to visit the guards,
barracks, messes, hospital, etc., for the purpose of noticing whether
the orders or regulations which have been issued respecting those
matters are observed.
Volley. The simultaneous discharge of a number of fire-arms.
Volunteers. Those who enter the service of their own accord.
Wad. In gunnery, a substance made of hay or straw, and sometimes of tow rolled up tight, in the form of a ball.
Wadding. Hay or straw, or any other kind of forage, carried along with the guns to be made into wads;
War (Council of). An assembly of officers convened by a general to
deliberate with him on enterprises, etc. The term is also used to
designate an assembly of officers sitting in judgment on delinquent
soldiers, deserters, cowardly officer., etc.
DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS. 141
War-Cry. A cry formerly customary in the armies of most nations, when
they were on the point of joining battle. Sometimes it consisted of
tumultuous shouts, or horrid yells, uttered with an intent of striking
terror into their enemies. At the battles of Crecy, Poictiers, and
Agincourt, the war-cry of the English was "God and St. George," that of
the French, "Monijoe and St. Denis." In our service, each regiment has
War Establishment. The number of effective men who compose the army in time of peace.
War (Seat or Theater of). The extent of country in which war prevails.
Watchword. The word given out in the orders of the day, in time of
peace; but in time of war, every evening in the field, by the general
who commands, and in garrison by the governor, or other officer
commanding in chief, to prevent surprise, or the ingress and regress of
a spy; it is generally termed the parole or sign, and to which is added
Wheel (To). In a military acceptation, is to move forward or backward in a circular manner, round a given point.
Wheelings. Different motions made by cavalry and infantry, either to
the right or left, or to the right or left about, etc., forward or
Windage of a Gun, Mortar, or Howitzer. The difference between the
diameter of the bore of the gun, and the diameter of the shot or shell
fired from it.
Wings of an Army. The extreme right and left divisions.
Wool Packs. Bags filled with wool, for the purpose of making lodgments
in places where there is but little earth to he thrown up to cover the
besiegers and working parties from the fire of the garrison.
Words (Cautionary). Leading instructions which are given to designate a
particular maneuver. The cautionary words precede the words of command,
and are issued by the chiefs of corps.
Works. This term implies all the fortifications about a place.
Zigzags. Trenches or paths
with several windings, so cut, that the besieged are prevented from
enfilading the besieger in his approaches.
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