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Gilham's Cavalry, School of the Trooper

 

ARTICLE VII.

SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.

    382. THE object of this school is to make troopers skilful in the management of their horses and arms, in all directions, and at all gaits. To accomplish this, the instructor must attend particularly, from the commencement., to placing the men well on horseback, and to habituating them in the application of correct principles.

    The instruction should always commence at a walk, in order to give the troopers the facility of seating themselves well, and of calming their horses, as they are generally more restive on first being brought together. The instruction should also terminate at a walk.

    At the commencement it is generally necessary to make the troopers march repeatedly on the same track, at a walk, and at a trot; when, however, they already have some skill in the management of their horses, which is almost invariably the case with volunteer cavalry, this exercise is less necessary, and the instructor may proceed almost at once to the changes of direction, and other movements.

    When the instructor wishes to rest the men, he commands:

REST.

    At this command the trooper is no longer required to remain immovable.
   
    When the instructor wishes to resume the drill, he commands:

ATTENTION.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.      335

    When the trooper resumes his immovable position, and fixes his attention.

    In the first part of the instruction but a very few men should be under the same instructor, or small squares should be formed as in infantry.

To conduct the horses to the drill ground.

    383. The horses having the bridle reins near the neck, each trooper takes hold of the reins with the right hand, six inches from the mouth of the horse, the back of the hand up, the hand elevated and firm, to prevent the horse from jumping, and leads his horse to the ground, where under the direction of the instructor, he places it. in such position that all the horses shall 'be on the same line, or in one rank.

    The squad being formed, the instructor commands:

Count by fours.

    At this command, the men count from right to left, one, two, three, four, according to the place which each one occupies.

    The troopers should be without arms or spurs.

Position of the trooper before mounting.

    384. On the left side of the horse, abreast of the lower jaw; the reins in the right hand six inches from the mouth of the horse, the back of the hall(~ up. Heels upon the same line as nearly as the conformation of the man will permit, the feet at a little less than a right angle, and equally turned out; the knee straight without being stiff; the body perpendicular upon the haunches and slightly inclined forward; the left hand hanging by the side, the palm a little turned out, the little finger along the seam of the pantaloons; the head erect without being constrained, the chin drawn in, and eyes to the front.

To mount.

    385. The instructor commands:

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336      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

PREPARE TO MOUNT.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. (Fig. 87.) Nos. 1 and 3 move forward six paces, stepping off with the left foot, keeping opposite their intervals. Place the right foot three inches in rear of the left; make a face and a half with Fig 87the right on both heels, the right toe to the front; let go the right-rein; slip the right hand along the left rein; take two steps, stepping off with the right foot, and face to the left on the toe of the left foot, the right side towards the flank of the horse; carry back the right heel three inches in rear of the left; the right hand seizing the end of the reins is placed upon the cantle of the saddle.



Second motion. Place a third of the left foot in the stirrup, supporting it against the fore-arm of the horse; rest upon the point of the right foot, and seize a lock of the mane with the left hand over the reins as far forward as possible, the extremity of the lock passing out of the hand on the side of the little finger.




MOUNT.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. At the command mount, spring from the right foot, holding firmly to the mane, at the same time pressing the cantle with the right hand to prevent the saddle from turning; the body erect.

    Second motion. Pass the right leg stretched over the croup of the horse, without touching him; sit down lightly in the saddle, placing the right hand at the same time, without quitting the reins, upon the right holster, the palm of the hand resting upon it, the fingers on the outside of it, and take one rein of the bridle (if a snaffle) in each hand.

    If the trooper is using the curb bridle, he will pass the reins into the left (or bridle hand), the little finger between the reins, the other fingers well closed, and the thumb upon the second joint of the first finger; the elbow slightly detached from the body, the hand four inches above the pommel of the saddle, the fingers six


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SCHOOL OF 'I'HE TROOPER.      337

inches from, and turned towards the body; the right hand at the side.

    The instructor should allow but a short interval between the first and second motion, because, were the trooper to remain a long time on the stirrup, the horse would become restive, and move out of place, then command:

Form – Rank.

    Nos. 1 and 3 raise the wrists (or the bridle hand), and hold the legs close to the body of the horse to keep him quiet; Nos. 2 and 4 enter the intervals without jostling and without precipitation.

After mounting, the instructor causes the stirrups to be crossed upon the neck, the left stirrup over the right.

Position of the trooper, mounted.

    386. The buttocks bearing equally upon the saddle, and as far forward as possible; the thighs turned upon their flat side, or knees turned in, without effort, embracing the horse equally, and stretched only by their own weight and that of the legs; a supple bend of the knees; the legs below the knee free, and falling naturally; the toes falling in like manner; the loins supported without stiffness; the upper part of the body at ease, free and erect; the shoulders square; the arms free, the elbows falling naturally; the head erect, at ease, and not drawn in between the shoulders; when the snaffle is worn, one rein in each hand, the fingers closed, the thumb along each rein, the wrists as high as the elbow, at six inches from each other, the 'lingers turned towards each other, the upper extremity of the reins leaving the hand on the side of the thumb.

    The instructor then commands:

1. Eyes RIGHT (or LEFT). 2. FRONT.

    At the word right, the head is turned gently to the right, so that the corner of the left eye, next the nose, may be in a line with the buttons of the jacket.

    At the command front, the head is gently turned to the front.

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338    MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

The use of the reins.

    387. The reins serve to prepare the horse for the movements he is required to execute, to direct him, and to stop him. Their action should be progressive, and in accordance with that of the legs.  When the trooper makes use of the reins, the arms should act with suppleness, and their movements ought to extend from the waist to the shoulder.

The use of the legs.

    388. The legs serve to urge the horse forward, to support him, and to aid him in turning to the right or left. Whenever the trooper wishes his horse to move forward, he should close the legs by degrees behind the girths, causing their effects to correspond with the sensibility of the horse, taking care neither to open or elevate the knees, of which the bend should be always pliant. The trooper relaxes the legs by degrees, as he closed them.

The effect of the reins and legs combined.

    389. In elevating the wrists, or the bridle-hand, a little, and closing the legs, the trooper “gathers his horse” in elevating the wrists, or bridle hand, he slackens the pace; in repeating this movement of the wrists, or bridle-hand, he stops the horse, or he "reins back." The trooper ought to elevate the wrists without curving them, at the same time drawing them slightly towards the body.

    In opening the right rein, and closing the right leg, the trooper turns his horse to the right. To open the right rein, the right wrist is carried, without turning it, more or less to the right, according to the sensibility of the horse. When the curb is worn, move the bridle-hand forward and to the right.

    In opening the left rein, and closing the left leg, the trooper turns his horse to the left. The left rein is opened upon the same principle as that on which the right is opened. When the curb is worn, move the bridle-hand forward and to the left.

    By lowering the wrists, or bridle-hand, slightly, the horse is at liberty to move forward; the closing of the legs puts him in motion.

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SCHOOL OF 'I'HE TROOPER.     339

    390. The instructor commands:

1. Squad forward. 2. MARCH.

    At the command squad forward, elevate the wrists, or bridle hand, slightly, and close the legs, in order to gather the horse.

    At the command march, lower the wrists, or bridle-hand, slightly, and close the legs more or less, according to the sensibility of the horse. The horse having obeyed, replace the wrists, or bridle-hand, and the legs by degrees.

    After some steps the instructor commands:

1. Squad. 2. HALT.

    At the first command, the trooper gathers his horse without slackening his pace.

    At the command halt, the trooper braces himself in the saddle; elevate the wrists, or bridle-hand, at the same time, by degrees, and close the left to prevent the horse from backing. The horse having obeyed, replace the wrists and the legs by degrees.

    To turn to the right, or left.

    391. The instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left). 2. MARCH. 3. HALT.

    At the command squad to the right, gather the horse.

    At the command march, open the right rein, or move the bridle hand to the right, and gradually close the right leg. In order not to turn the horse too short, perform the movement on the fourth of a circle three paces in length. The movement being almost completed, diminish the effect of the rein and the right leg, supporting the horse at the same time with the left rein and leg to terminate the movement.

    At the command halt, elevate the wrists or bridle-hand slightly, and hold the legs near, in order to keep the horse straight in the new direction; replace the wrists and the legs by degrees.

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340 MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.  

To turn about to the right, or left.

    392. The instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left), about. 2. MARCH. 3. HALT.

    This command is executed on the principles prescribed for the turn to the right or left, with this difference, that the horse should pass over a semicircle of six paces, and face to the rear.

To make a quarter turn to the rIght or left.

    393. The instructor commands:

1. Squad right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH 3. HALT.

    At the command right oblique, gather the horse.

    At the command march, open the right rein a little, or move the bridle-hand slightly to the right, and close the right leg slightly, in order to make the horse execute a quarter turn to the right; cause the horse to feel, almost at the same time, the effect of the right, rein and the left leg, to terminate the movement without increasing the degree of obliquity.

    At the command halt, elevate the wrist, or bridle-hand, and close the legs slightly, to keep the direction of the quarter turn to the right; replace the wrists and legs by degrees.

    The instructor commands halt, almost immediately after the command march; he does not require great exactness in this movement, the object of which is to give the trooper the first idea of the oblique march.

To rein back, and to cease reining back.

    294. The instructor commands:

1. Squad-backwards. 2. MARCH 3. Squad. 4. HALT.

    At the command backwards, gather the horse. At the command march, keep a firm seat, elevate the wrists, or bridle-hand, and close the legs. As soon as the horse obeys, lower and elevate the wrists or bridle-hand, in regular succession, which is called yielding and checking. If the horse throws the haunches to the

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SCHOOL OF 'I'HE TROOPER.     341

right., close the right leg; if to the left, close left left leg. If these means are not sufficient to replace the horse in his proper position, open the rein on the side towards which the horse throws the  haunches, causing him to feel slightly, at the same time, the effect of the opposite rein.

    At the command squad, the trooper prepares to stop. At the command halt, lower the wrists, or bridle-hand, and close the legs. The horse having obeyed, replace the wrists, or bridle-hand, and the legs by degrees.

To dismount.

    395. The instructor causes the stirrups to be let down, and the feet put in them. He then commands:

1. PREPARE TO DISMOUNT.

One time, and two motions.

    First motion. Nos. 1 and 3 move forward six paces, and keep themselves opposite their intervals. Pass the right rein of the snaffle (when it is worn) into the left hand, the extremity of the reins leaving the hands on the side of the thumb.

    Second motion. Seize the reins of the snaffle (or of the curb bridle) above and near the left thumb with the right hand, the back of the hand up, and place this hand upon the right holster. Disengage the right foot from the stirrup, and seize with the left hand a lock of the mane over the reins.

2. DISMOUNT.

One time, and two motions.

    First motion. At the command dismount, rise upon the left stirrup; pass the right leg extended Over the croup of the horse, without touching him, and bring the right thigh near the left., the body well sustained; at the same time place the right hand on the cantle of the saddle, slipping it along the reins without letting them go; descend lightly to the ground, the body erect, the heels on the same line. Let go the mane with the left hand.

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342      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    Second motion. Make a face and two steps to the left, stepping off with the left foot; slip the right hand along the left rein, seize both reins with the same hand six inches from the mouth of the horse, back of the hand up, and take the position of the trooper dismounted.

To file off.

    396. The instructor commands:

1. By the right (or left) - FILE OFF. 2. MARCH.

    At the command march, the trooper of the right (or left) steps off with the left foot, leading his horse to the front; he takes four steps, turns to the right, (or left,) and marches, in the new direction, at the same time holding the hand high and firm to keep the horse from jumping. Each trooper executes, in succession, the same movement, when the one who precedes him has moved four paces to the front.

Exercises in the riding house.

    397. In the instruction which follows, the squad is supposed to be 'exercising in a riding house whose sides are about ninety, and ends thirty, yards in length, or on a riding ground which is bounded by lines corresponding to the walls of the riding house.

    Two of the best instructed troopers are designated to be conductors; they are placed on the right and left of the squad, and use their stirrups.

To march to the right (or left) hand.

    398. The squad being drawn up in the riding house, or on the ground, parallel to its length, the instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left). 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD.

    (Fig. 88.) At the command march, the troopers conform to what is prescribed in order to execute a turn to the right from a halt, as directed in No. 391.

    At the command forward, the troopers, in lowering their wrists find closing the legs, march straight forward, and follow the conductor.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.      343

    At the extremity of the riding house, the conductor turns to the right, when the troopers march to the right hand, leaving between them the distance of four feet from head to croup.figure 88


    The trooper marches to the right hand, when he has the right side towards the interior of the riding horse. He marches to the left hand, when it is the left side.

To turn to the right (or left) in marching.

    399. The troopers follow the conductor, and make a turn to the right (or left), in marching, or arriving at the angles of the riding house. The instructor directs the trooper to advance the outer hip and shoulder, without inclining inward, in order to conform to the movement of the horse.

To halt, and to step off.

    400. The troopers marching in column on one of the long sides, the instructor commands:

1. Squad.       2. HALT.

    The troopers stop as prescribed in No. 390.

    To recommence the march, the instructor commands:

1. Squad forward.      2. MARCH.

To pass from the walk to the trot, and from the trot to a walk.

    401. The troopers becoming habituated to the movement of the horse, the instructor causes them to pass to the trot. When they are in column on one of the long rides, he commands:

1.Trot. 2. MARCH.










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344.      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    At the command trot, gather the horse, without increasing his gait.

    At the command march, lower the wrists a little, and close the legs more or less, according to the sensibility of the horse. As soon as the horse obeys, replace the wrists and the legs by degrees.

    The instructor should employ this gait cautiously at first, and at a moderate trot, that the men may not lose their position.

    To pass from the trot to the walk, the instructor commands:

1. Walk 2. MARCH.

    At the command walk, gather the horse without affecting his gait.

    At the command march, elevate the wrists, or bridle-hand, by degrees, and hold the legs near, in order to prevent the horse from stopping. As soon as the horse obeys, replace the wrists and legs by degrees.

Changes of hand.

402. When the troopers have marched some time to the right (or left) hand, to make them change hands in the breadth of the riding house, or ground, without stopping, the instructor commands:

1. Right (or left) - TURN. 2. FORWARD.


    (Fig. 89.) At the word turn, the leading file turns to the right. At the command forward, he moves straight forward and crosses the riding-house, or ground, in its breadth, followed by the other troopers.

    The leading file being at two paces from the opposite track, the instructor commands:

1. Left (or right) - TURN. 2. FORWARD.

    At the command turn, the leading file turns to the left; and at the command forward, he follows the track. All the troopers turn in succession on the same ground.

    The instructor causes these changes of hand to be made at a walk, and at a trot.

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SCHOOL OF 'I'HE TROOPER.     345

figures 89-90 

To turn to the right (or left) by trooper, in marching.

    403. The troopers marching in column, and having arrived about the middle of one of the long sides, the instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left). 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD.

    (Fig. 90). At the command squad to the right, gather the horse at the command march, each trooper executes a turn to the right. in marching. At the command forward, each trooper moves straight to the front.

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346      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    The troopers being at two paces from the opposite track, the instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left). 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD.

    At the command march, each trooper executes a turn to the right, following the same principles; and at the command forward, all return to the track.

    The same movements are repeated to resume the order in which the troopers were originally.

To turn about to the right (or left) by troopers, in marching on the same line.

    404. The troopers having made a turn to the right as has just been explained, and having arrived near the opposite track, the instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left) about. 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD.

    (Fig. 91.) At the command, squad to the right about, gather the horse. At the command march, each trooper executes a turn to the right about in marching, following the principles laid down in No. 392. At the command forward, each trooper moves directly to the front.

    The instructor gives the command march, at the moment the troopers are within two paces of the track; the troopers are then re-formed in column upon the opposite track, by the movement of squad to the right (or left).

To turn about to the right (or left) by trooper, in marching in column.

    405. The troopers marching in column, and the leading file having arrived near the end of one of the long sides of the riding house, or ground, the instructor commands:

1. Squad to the right (or left) about. 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD.

    (Fig. 92.) At the command squad to the right about, gather the horse. At the command march, each trooper executes a turn to tlwe

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347    SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.

figures 91-92

right about in marching. At the command forward, each trooper moves forward.

    On arriving at the short side opposite, the leading file turns to the left without command; the squad returns to the original order, by executing the inverse movement.

    406. To rest the squad, the instructor causes the troopers to turn to the right (or left), when they are about the middle of one of the long sides of the riding house, or ground, andĚ gives the command halt, when they are out of the track. The instruction is recommenced by a turn to the right (or left).

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348      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    To terminate the drill, the stirrups are let down, and the feet placed in them, when the instructor commands the troopers to dismount, and file off.

    During the rests, the instructor exercises the troopers in vaulting on, and from, their horses, without commands.

To leap to the ground.

    The trooper, holding the reins as in dismounting, seizes a lock of the mane firmly with the left hand; places the right hand upon the pommel, raises himself upon his wrists, brings the right thigh by the side of the left, remains an instant in this position, and descends lightly to the ground.

To leap on the horse.

    The trooper seizes the mane with the left hand, places the right hand which holds the reins upon the pommel of the saddle, springs lively, raising himself upon the two wrists, remains an instant in this position, and places himself lightly in the saddle.

    The instructor sometimes gives the command to rest in marching, in order to calm the horses after a quick pace, and to relieve the troopers. During the rest in marching, the troopers relax themselves, but without changing the pace, and without losing their distance.

Exercises in two ranks.

    407. The troopers are placed in two ranks opened, with a distance of six paces between. the ranks, and the horses at one foot from each other. In this instruction from twelve to sixteen troopers may be united. The stirrups are crossed as in the preceding cases; the men wear spurs.

    The instructor commands:

In each rank - count FOURS.

    At the last part of the command, the men count in each rank, from right to left, pronouncing in a loud and distinct voice, in the same tone, without hurry, and without turning the head; one, two, three, four, according to the place which each one occupies.

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SCHOOL OF 'I'HE TROOPER.     349

    At the command:

PREPARE TO MOUNT.

    Nos. 1 and 3 of each rank move six paces to the front; stepping off with the left foot, keeping opposite their intervals,  and regulating by the right. The troopers then execute the first motion of prepare to mount as directed for a single rank.

    After the troopers are mounted, the instructor commands:

Form - RANKS. 

    At the command, ranks Nos. 1 and 3 raise the wrists (or bridle hand), and hold the legs close to the body of the horse to keep him quiet; Nos. 1 and 4 enter the intervals without jostling and without precipitation.

    The rear rank being formed, closes to the distance of two feet from the front.

Of the spurs.

    408. The instructor explains to the troopers the use and the effect of the spur.

    If the horse does not obey the legs, it is necessary to employ the spur. The spur is not an aid, it is a means of chastising. It is only necessary to use it occasionally, but always vigorously, and at the moment the horse commits the fault.

    In order to use the spurs, it is necessary to keep steady the body, the waist, and the wrists; to cling to the horse with the thighs and the calves of the legs; turn the toes a little out; lower the wrists a little; press the spurs close behind the girths, without moving the body, and let them remain there until the horse obeys; then replace the wrists and legs by degrees. In using the spur, the troopers should not bear too much upon the rein, as this would counteract the effect of the spur.

    409. To conduct the squad to the riding house, or ground, the instructor commands:

1.By file to the right (or left). 2. MARCH.

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350.      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    (Fig. 93.) At the command by file to the right, gather the horse. At the command march, the trooper on the right of each rank executes a turn to the right, and moves forward, the trooper of the rear

figure 93-94

rank approaching, in marching, to within one foot of the one of the front rank. This movement is executed by all the other troopers in succession.

To march to the right (or left) hand.

    410. In entering the riding house, or ground, the instructor

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SCHOOL OF 'I'HE TROOPER.      351

marches his squad parallel to the long sides, and when the head of the column arrives towards the middle, he commands:

1. Right and left-TURN. 2. FORWARD..

    (Fig. 94.) The leading file of the front rank turns to the left, the one of the rear rank turns to the right; when these files have arrived within two paces of the track, the instructor commands:

1. Right-TURN. 2. FORWARD.

    The two columns then march to the right hand, and at the same pace.

    The troopers preserve the distance of four feet from head to croup.

    The leading files regulate the pace of their horses so as to arrive at the same time at the opposite angles of the riding-house, or ground, the leading file of the rear rank regulating himself on him of the front.

    To pass a corner to the right, a turn to the right is executed; to pass a corner to the left, a turn to the left is made in marching; the movement of each one should be independent of the trooper who has gone before, their hands and legs alone should determine the horse to go to the right or to the left.

To pass from the walk to the trot, and from the trot to the walk.

    411. The troopers marching in column upon the long sides, the instructor causes them to commence the trot.

    Whenever the change is made from a slow gait to one more rapid. as from a walk to the trot, it is necessary to commence slowly, and increase it gradually to the degree prescribed.

    The troopers marching in column at a trot upon the long sides, the instructor causes them to pass to the walk.

    Whenever the change is made from a lively gait to one more slow its from the trot to the walk, it is necessary to commence the last gait as gradually as possible, and to reduce it by little and little to the degree indicated.

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352       MANUAL  FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

Change of direction in the breadth of the riding house, or ground.

    412. The instructor causes the change of direction in the breadth of the riding house, or ground, a directed for the changes of hand, taking care to give the command in sufficient time to prevent the columns from meeting at the end of the change of direction.

    (Fig. 95.) The change of direction ought to be executed so as neither to stop nor check the rear of the column j the troopers, and
figures 95-96

particularly the leading files, ought to turn without slackening the pace, aiding themselves not only with their hands, but also with their legs.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.        353

Change of direction in the length of the riding-house, or ground.

    413. (Fig. 96.) This change of direction is executed on the same principles as that in the breadth of the riding house, or ground, the instructor observing, in order to commence it, to command right or left, at the instant the leading files arrive at the first angle, and to command turn, when having passed the corner, they are at three paces from the middle of the short side.

    The troopers then cross the riding house, or ground, in its length in a right line, without touching each other, passing to the left, andĚ re-enter upon the track at the commands:

1. Right (or left)-TURN. 2. FORWARD.

Change of direction diagonally.

    414. When the leading files have passed the second corner, and have arrived upon the long sides, the instructor causes a diagonal change of direction to be executed at the commands:

1. Right (or left)-TURN. 2. FORWARD.

    (Fig.97.) At the command turn, the leading files make a half turn to the right. At the command forward, they move straight forward, cross the riding house, or ground, diagonally, pass each other to the left, and re-enter upon the track at the commands:

1. Left (or right). 2. TURN. 3. FORWARD.

    All the other troopers execute the same movement in succession, in turning upon the same ground that the leading files have turned.

Change of direction obliquely by the trooper.

    415. The squad commences a change of direction in the length of the riding house, or ground; as soon as all the troopers have turned, and are in the same direction, the instructor commands:

1. Column. 2. HALT.

    (Fig. 98.) The troopers stop at the same time, keeping their horses straight, and at their distances.

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354       MANUAL  FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    The instructor causes the troopers to make a quarter-turn to the right (or left) from a halt. This movement being executed, he as-

figures 97-98

sures himself of the exactness of the directions and intervals, and then commands:

1. Squad forward. 2. MARCH.

    The troopers march at the same gait, each in the direction he has taken. When they arrive one foot from the track, the instructor commands:

FORWARD.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER       355

    At this command, make a quarter-turn to the left in advancing, with the hand light and leg near, to follow the track.

    The instructor causes these movements to be repeated without halting; for this purpose, after having- commenced the change of direction in the length of the riding house, or ground, as soon as the two ranks are in column, he commands:

1.Squad right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD.

    At the command right oblique, gather the horse, At the command march, execute a quarter-turn to the right; having taken this direction, keep the legs equally near, and march straight forward at the same gait. At the command forward, return upon the track) or return to the original direction.

To march in a circle.

    416. When the leading files have passed over about one-third of the long sides, the instructor commands:

1. In circle to the right (or left). 2. MARCH.

    (Fig. 99.) At the command in circle to the right, the leading files, and in succession the troopers, gather their horses. At the command march, the leading files describe a circle between the two tracks; they are followed by the other troopers, who march exactly in the same direotion.

To change hand on the circle.

    417. The instructor commands:

1.Right (or left)-TURN. 2. FORWARD.


    (Fig. 100.) At the command turn, the leading files turn to the right. At the command forward, they move straight forward, directing themselves, in passing the centre, towards the opposite point of the circumference.

    When the leading files are two feet from this point, the instructor commands:

1.Left (or right) - TURN. 2. FORWARD

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356       MANUAL  FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

figures 99-100

    At the command turn, the leading files turn to the left, At the command forward, they re-enter upon the circle at the new hand. All the other troopers follow the leading files.

    When the instructor wishes to resume the exercise upon the right line, he takes care that the leading files are at opposite points of the circumference; and when they are on the track of the long sides, he commands:

FORWARD.

    At this command the leading files straighten their horses and re-enter on the traek, followed by the other troopers.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER        357

    418. (Fig. 101.) To reunite the troopers in order to conduct them to the quarters, the instructor causes them to close to the distance of two feet; he then orders a change of direction in the breadth of the riding house, or ground, at the moment the leading files are opposite each other.

figures 101-1022 HERE)

    When the leading files, in the act of meeting each other, arrive towards the middle of the space, the instructor commands:

1. Left and right - TURN. 2. FORWARD.

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358     MANUAL  FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

    The leader of the front rank turns to the left, that of the rear rank to the right, the two columns thus reunite, the troopers of the rear rank approaching to within one pace of those of the front.

    The column having arrived on the ground where the squad was formed, the instructor commands:

1. Front. 2. HALT.

    (Fig. 102.) At the command front, the first trooper of each rank turns to the left and moves straight forward. At the command halt, the trooper of the front rank stops; and when the rear rank trooper finds himself at two feet from the front rank he stops also.

    All the other troopers execute a turn to the left, in succession, when they are nearly opposite the place they are to occupy in the rank, and halt abreast of this rank.

    419. To terminate the exercise, the instructor gives the command to dismount in two ranks as follows: at the command

PREPARE TO DISMOUNT,

    Nos. 1 and 3 of the front rank move forward six paces; Nos. 2 and 4 of the rear rank rein back four paces, and keep themselves opposite their intervals, dressing by the right.

    After the troopers have taken these positions they go through the first motions of prepare to dismount as directed for a single rank, followed by the dismount.

    After the dismount the instructor commands:

Form - RANKS.

    At the word ranks, Nos. 1 and 3 of each rank elevate the right hand slightly, to keep the horse quiet; Nos. 2 and 4 return quietly to their intervals.

Exercises with stirrups.

    420. The stirrup should support only the weight of the leg; the foot ought to be inserted one-third of its length, the heel lower than the toe. The stirrups are of proper length, if, when the trooper

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.       359

raises himself on the stirrups, there is a space of six inches between the fork and the saddle.

To turn to the right (or left), by the trooper, in marching.

    421. The instructor causes this movement to be executed as is ready prescribed (No. 398), at the commands:

1. Squad to the right. 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD,

    He will observe that, the troopers marching in two columns, the command march ought to be given atfigure 103 the moment the leading files arrive opposite the last trooper but one of the other column.



    (Fig.103.) Immediately after the command forward, the troopers move straight forward, preserving their gait and direction, so that each one may find before him the interval and the place hc is to occupy in the column on the opposite track. In passing into the intervals, the legs should be kept ncar, to prevent the horse slackening his gait.



To pass in succession from the head to the rear of the column.



    422. This movement is executed in succession in the two columns, at a simple warning from the instructor, by two right (or left) about turns.



    The trooper designated to pass to the rear of the column gathers his horse and executes the movement in advancing, so as not to retard those who are behind him. He holds the outer leg near, in order to describe a semicircle of more than six paces; he marches then parallel to the column, and when he has re-entered upon the track by a second turn, he closes to the distance of four feet from
















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360    MANUAL  FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

the last trooper. The trooper who follows, and who becomes the leader, should gather his horse, and direct him with the outer rein and the inner leg, to prevent his following the horse which has left the column.

Being at a halt, to commence the move at a trot.

    423. The troopers being in column upon the long sides, the instructor commands:

1. Column forward. 2. Trot. 3. MARCH.

    At the command trot, gather the horse. At the command march, lower the wrists and close the legs by degrees; as soon as the horse obeys, replace the wrists and legs slowly.

Marching at a trot, to halt.

    424. The troopers marching at a trot, and in column on the long sides, the instructor commands:

1. Column. 2. HALT.

    At the command column, gather the horse. At the command halt, elevate the wrists by degrees, until the horse stops; and hold the legs always near, to keep him straight, and to prevent his stepping back. The horse having obeyed, gradually replace the wrists and legs.

    The instructor should require all the troopers to set off freely at the trot, at the command march, and to stop altogether without jostling, at the command halt.

To pass from the trot to the trot-out, and from the trot-out to the trot.

    425. The troopers marching at the trot, and in column upon the long sides, the instructor commands:

TROT-OUT.

    At this command, lower the wrists a little, and close the legs gradually; as soon as the horse obeys, replace the wrists and the legs by degrees.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER      361

    This gait should be executed only during one or two turns towards each hand; in continuing it longer, the horses lose their steadiness, and the equality of their gaits is destroyed.

    426. To pass from the trot-out to the trot, the instructor commands:

SLOW TROT.

    At this command, elevate the wrists by degrees, and close the legs, to prevent the horse from taking the walk; as soon as the horse obeys, replace the wrists and legs by degrees.

To pass from the trot to the gallop.

    427. Before commencing this exercise, and when the rear rank arrives opposite one of the short sides of the riding house, or ground, it is formed by causing the troopers to front and halt, as directed No. 391, paying attention to make them move forward six paces from the track.

    The troopers of the front rank continue to march, take between them the distance of four paces, pass to the trot and commence the gallop in succession, at the indication of the instructor, as follows:

    On approaching the corner, lengthen the trot, and gather the horse, feeling the left rein slightly, in order to keep back the left shoulder, and leave the right perfectly free.

    At the moment of passing the corner, close the legs equally but not suddenly. The horse having taken the gallop, hold a light hand and the legs near, to keep him at his gait.

    After one or two turns, the troopers pass from the gallop to the trot, and from the trot to the walk. The instructor makes them change hand in the breadth of the riding ground, and recommence the same exercise to the left hand. The troopers of the front rank are then formed as those of the rear rank, upon the other short side, and the troopers of the rear rank go through with the same exercise.

To passage to the right or left.

    428. The two columns marching at a walk upon the long sides, the instructor causes the movement squad to the right (or left) to be executed, No. 398, and having halted the troopers he commands:

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362     MANUAL  FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

1. Right (or left) pass. 2. MARCH. 3. Squad. 4. HALT.

    (Fig. 104.) At the command right pass, bear the shoulders of the horse to the right, in opening the right rein a little, and closing the right leg. This movement is one of preparation; it indicates to the trooper that the shoulders of the horse should always commence the march, and precede the movement of the haunches. At the com-

figures 104-105

the horse to the right, closing the left leg at the same time, that the haunches may follow, without leaning the body to the left: make use of the left rein and the right leg, to support the horse and moderate his movement.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER     363

    After some steps upon the side, the instructor halts the squad.

    At the command halt, cause the effect of the right rein and left leg to cease instantly, employing the opposite rein and leg; straiten the horse, and replace the wrists and legs by degrees.

    To passage to the left, employ the same principles and inverse means.

    The instructor causes this movement to be executed in the commencement, by each man separately, and then by all at the same time.

To passage to the right, or left, bring in column.

    429. (Fig. 105.) The troopers being on the track, and marching to the right (or left) hand, the instructor orders a change of direction in the length of the riding house or ground; and when the two columns are by the side of each other, he halts them and causes them to execute passage to the right (or left). When the troopers have nearly arrived at the track the instructor halts them.

Principles of the Gallop.

    430. A horse gallops on the right foot, when the right fore and hind leg move in advance of the left fore and hind leg. This gait is generally divided into three distinct times or treads. The first time is marked by the left hind foot which reaches the ground first; the second by the left fore and right hind foot which touch at the same instant, and the third by the right fore-foot.

    A horse gallops on the left foot when the left fore and hind leg move in advance of the right fore and hind leg. In this case, the right hind foot first reaches the ground, then the right fore and left hind foot, and lastly the left fore foot.

    A horse gallops true when he gallops on the right foot, in exercising or turning to the right hand, and on the left foot, in exercising or turning to the left hand.

    A horse gallops false when he gallops on the left foot in exercising or turning to the right hand, and on the right foot, in cxercising or turning to the left hand.

    A horse is "disunited" when he gallops with the near fore leg

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364      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

followed by the off hind leg, or with the off fore leg followed by the near hind leg.

    When the horse gallops on the right foot, the rider experiences a sensible tnovement in his position from right to left, and when he gallops on the left foot, the rider experiences a sensible movement in his position from left to right.

    When the horse is disunited, the trooper experiences irregular movements in his position; the centre of gravity of the horse is deranged, and his strength impaired.

To gallop on right lines.

    431. After the troopers of the rear rank are formed as directed No. 427, the instructor causes the men of the front rank to take the distance of four paces from each other; these troopers marching at the trot, and to the right hand upon one of the long sides, the instructor commands:

1. Gallop. 2. MARCH.

    At the command gallop, gather the horse and keep him perfectly straight. At the command march, carry the bridle-hand slightly forward and to the left, to enable the right shoulder to move in advance of the left, and close the legs behind the girths in order to urge the horse forward, causing him to feel the effect of the left leg lightly. 'I'he horse having obeyed, hold a light hand and the legs near, to keep him at his gait.

    To preserve the movement of the horse true, it is necessary for the trooper to accommodate himself to all his motions, particularly in passing corners, when the slightest derangement in the seat would render the action of the horse irregular.

    When a horse gallops false, or is disunited, the trooper is ordered to take the trot and pass to the rear of the column, taking care not to interfere with those who follow. When he arrives at the rear, he resumes the gallop.

    The troopers should make but a turn or two at the gallop to each hand, and should always be required to pass to the trot in order to change hand.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER  365

    When the troopers manage their horses well, the distance between is generally reduced to four feet.

    The rear rank is carried through the same exercise, and then both ranks at once.

To gallop on the circle.

    432. When the troopers have been sufficiently exercised at the gallop on straight lines, the instructor causes them to make a few tuns on the circle, following the principles laid down in No. 416.

    This exercise is commenced on very large circles; the diameter is diminished as the troopers become more skilful.

WHEELINGS.

    433. There are two kinds of wheels; the wheel on a fixed pivot, and the wheel on a movable pivot. The wheel is always on a fixed pivot, except when the command is right (or left) - turn. The troopers should execute this movement without disuniting, and without ceasing to observe the alignment.

    In every kind of wheel, the conductor of the marching flank should measure with his eye the arc of the circle he is to pass over, so that it may not be necessary for the files to open or close. He turns his head occasionally towards the pivot; if he perceives that the troopers arc too much crowded, or too open, he increases or diminishes the extent of his circle gradually. Each trooper of the front rank should describe his circle in the ratio of the distance at which he may be from the pivot. During the wheel, the troopers should turn the head slightly towards the marching flank, to regulate the rapidity of their march and to keep themselves aligned; they should also feel the boot lightly on the side of the pivot, in order to remain closed to that side. They should yield to pressure coming from the pivot, and resist that from the opposite direction. The horses are slightly turned towards the pivot, in order to keep them on the circular line they have to pass over.

The wheel on a fixed pivot.

    434. The object of the wheel on a fixed pivot is to pass from the order of battle to the order of column, and from the order of column

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366    MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

to the order of battle. The trooper who forms the pivot of the wheel turns upon his own ground, without advancing or reining back, and without passing to the right or left.

    The wheelings are executed at first in single rank; for this purpose the front rank is marched forward, and halted when arrived at a distance from the rear rank equal to double its front. The ranks being aligned, the instructor commands:

1. Squad in circle right (or left) wheel. 2. MARCH.

    (Fig. 106.) At the command march, the troopers put themselves in motion, turning the head towards the marching flank; the flank file conducts the flank at a walk, measuring with the eye the extent of the circle he is to pass over, that neither opening nor closing may be caused in the rank, and that the troopers may keep aligned. The pivot man turns upon his own ground, regulating himself upon the marching flank.

    When the squad has executed several wheels, to halt it, the instructor commands:

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 3. Left (or right) - DRESS. 4. FRONT.

    At the command halt, the troopers straighten their horses and halt with steadiness. At the command left (or right) -dress, they align themselves to the side indicated. At the command front, turn the head to the front.

The two ranks are then marched forward, preserving between them the same distance, and made to recommence the wheel. When the instructor wishes the squad to take the direct march, he commands:

1. FORWARD. 2. Guide left (or right).

At the command forward, the pivot resumes the gait at which it was previously marching. All the other troopers straighten their horses, and the two flanks move forward at the same gait, conforming to the principles of the direct march. At the command guide left (or right), the troopers regulate their movements towards tho side indicated.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.      367

    If the squad is wheeling to the  right, and the instructor wishes it to change the wheel to the left without halting, he command:

1. Squad in circle, left wheel. 2. MARCH.

    At the command march, the left flank halts, and becomes the pivot. The right flank, assuming the gait at which the left flank

figures 106-107-108

was marching, moves forward, and describes a circle proportionate to the extent of the front. All the other troopers straiten their horses, and guide them so as to pass new circles in the inverse sense.

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368      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.  

    435. The troopers being sufficiently exercised at the wheels in single rank at the walk and the trot, the ranks are closed and the wheels executed in double ranks. The instructor commands:

1. Squad in circle, right (or left) wheel. 2. MARCH.

    (Fig. 107.) At. the command march the troopers of the front rank execute the rnovement as prescribed above. The troopers of the rear rank turn the head and carry the hand towards the marching flank, so that each one may be out of the direction of his fileleader by two troopers. For this purpose, the moment the wheel commences, each rear rank man executes a quarter turn to the left, sustaining the haunches of the horse with the right leg, when the wheel is to the right or a quarter turn to the right, when the wheel is to the left, keeping during the wheel in the direction of his new file-leader, and remaining at the distance of two feet from the front rank.

    To stop the wheel, the instructor commands:

1. Squad. 2. HALT. 3. Left (or right) DRESS. 4. FRONT.

    At the command squad, the rear rank men straiten their horses, and return to the diection of their file-leaders. All the troopers halt at the command. At the command left (or right) dress, they align themelves towards the side indicated. At the command halt, turn the head to the front.

    When the instructor wishes the squad to resume the direct march, he commands:

1. FORWARD. 2. Guide left (or right).

    At the command forward, the rear rank men replace themselves behind their file-leaders, and march straight forward.

    The squad wheeling to the right, to wheel to the opposite side without halting, the instructor commands:

1. Squad in circle, left wheel. 2. MARCH.

    At the command in circle left wheel, the rear rank men return to the direetlon of their file-leaders. At the command march, the troopers conform to what has already been laid down.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.     369

    The squad being halted, to place it in a direction perpendicular to the original front, tbe instructor commands:

1. Squad right (or left) wheel. 2. MARCH. 3. HALT. 4. Left (or right)-DRESS. 5. FRONT.

    Which is executed on the same principles as the wheel on a fixed pivot.

    436. The squad being at the halt, to face it to the rear, the instructor commands :

1. Squad right (or left) about, wheel. 2. MARCH 3. HALT. 4. Left-DRESS. 5. FRONT.

    1.Which is executed as in circle to the right or left, the squad passing over a half circle.

    437. The squad being at a halt, to place it towards its right in a direction oblique to the original, the instructor commands:

1. Squad right (or left) half wheel. 2. MARCH. 3. HALT. 4. Left (or right) - DRESS. 5. FRONT.

    Which is executed on the principles of the wheel on a fixed point. The squad being on the march, the same movemcnts are executed at the commands: 1. Squad, right (or left) wheel, right (or left) about wheel, right half (or left half) wheel. 2. MARCH. 3. FORWARD. l. Guide right (or left).

    At the command march, the wheeling flank wheels at the gait at which the platoon was marching; the pivot flank halts. At the command forward, the pivot resumes its original pace, and the two flanks move forward at the same gait.

To wheel on a movable pivot.

    438. The wheel on a movable pivot is employed in the successive changes of direction in column. The conductor of the marching fiank should measure his gait, and describe his arc of circle so as to cause the files neither to open or elose. The pivot describes an arc of five paces, in slackening the gait. The centre men preserve the gait at which the squad was marching.  At the

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370      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

end of the wheel, the marching flank and the pivot resume the gait  at which they originally marched.

    The squad being on the march, to cause it to change direction, the instructor commands :

1. Left (or Right) - TURN. 2. FORWARD.

    (Fig. 108). At the command left (or right) the pivot prepares to slacken, and the marching flank to augment the gait. At the command turn, the squad turns to the left, or to the right, the pivot slackening its gait, in describing an arc of five paces; the marching flank augments its gait, and regulates itself by the pivot during the whole of the wheel. At the command forward, all the troopers straighten their horses, the pivot and marching flank move forward in the gait at which the squad was originally marching.

SABRE EXERCISE.

    439. For instruction in the use of the sabre the men of the squad are on foot, and in one rank about nine feet apart.

    The right side of the gripe is the side opposite the guard.
    The left side of the gripe is the side next the guard.
    Tierce is the position in which the edge of the blade is turned towards the right, the nails downwards.    
    Quarte is the position in which the edge of the blade is turned to the left, the nails upwards.

    440. The squad being in position, the instructor commands:

Draw - SABRE.

Two times and two motions.

    First motion. At the first part of the command, which is draw, turn the head slightly to the left, without changing the position of the body; unhook the sabre with the left lland, and bring the hilt to the front; run the right wrist through the sword-knot; seize the gripe, draw the blade six inches ont of the scabbard, pressing the scabbard against the thigh with the left hand, which secures it at the upper ring, and turn the head to the front.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.      371

    Second motion. At the last part of the command, which is sabre, draw the sabre quickly, raising the arm to the full extent; make a slight pause, carry the blade to the right shoulder, the back of it against the hollow of the shoulder, the wrist resting against the hip, the little finger on the outside of the gripe. This position is the same when mounted, except that the wrist then naturally falls upon the thigh.

Present - SABRE.

One time and one motion.

    441. At the last part of the command, which is sabre, carry the sabre to the front, the arm half extended, the thumb opposite to, and six inches from the neck, the blade perpendicular, the edge to the left, the thumb extended on the right side of the gripe, the little finger by the side of the others.

Carry - SABRE.

    442. At the command sabre, carry the back of the blade against the hollow of the shoulder, the wrist resting against the hip, the little finger on the outside of the gripe.

Return - SABRE.

Two times and two motions.

    443. First motion. At the command return, execute the first motion of return sabre.

    Second motion. At the command sabre, carry the wrist opposite to, and six inches from, the ieft shoulder; lower the blade and pass it across and along the left arm, the point to the rear; turn the head slightly to the left, fixing the eyes on the opening of the scabbard.; return the blade, free the wrist from the sword-knot, turn the head to the front, drop the right hand to the side, and hook up the sabre with the hilt to the rear.

GUARD.

One time and one motion.

    444. At the command guard, carry the right foot two feet from

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372      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

the left, the heels on the same line; place the left hand, closed, six inches from the body, and as high as the elbow, the fingers towards the body, the little finger nearer than the thumb (position of the bridle-hand); at the same time, place the right hand in tierce at the height of, and three inches from the left hand, the thumb extended on the back of the gripe, the little finger by the side of the others, the point of the sabre inclined to the left, and two feet higher than the hand.

In tierce-POINT.

One time and three motions.

    445. First motion. At the command point, raise the hand in tierce as high as the eyes, throw back the right shoulder, carrying the elbow to the rear, the point of the sabre to the front, the edge upwards.

    Second motion. Thrust to the front, extending the arm to the full length.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

In quarte-POINT.

One time and three motions.

    446. First motion. At the command point, lower the hand in quart near the right hip, the thumb extended on the right side of the gripe, the point a little higher than the wrist.

    Second motion. Thrust to the front, extending the arm the full length.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

Left-POINT.

One time and three motions.

    447. First motion. At the command point, turn the head to the left, draw back the hand in tierce towards the right, at the height of the neck, the edge upwards, the point directed to the left.

    Second motion. Thrust to the left, extending the arm to its full length.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.     373

Right-POINT.

One time and three motions.

    448. First motion. At the command point, turn the head to the right and rear, carry the hand in quarte near the left breast, the edge upwards, the point directed to the right.

    Second motion. Thrust to the right, extending the arm to its full length.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

Rear - POINT.

One time and three motions.

    449. First motion. At the command point, turn the head to the right and rear, bring the hand in quarte opposite to the right shoulder, the arm half extended, the blade horizontal, the point to the rear, the edge upwards.

    Second motion. Thrust to the rear, extending the arm to its full length.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

Against infantry, left - POINT.

One time and three motions.

    450. First motion. At the command point, turn the head to the left, raise the hand in tierce near t~e neck, the point of the sabre directed to the height of the breast of a man on foot.

    Second motion. Thrust down in tierce.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

Against infantry, right - POINT.

One time and three motions.

    451. First motion. At the command point, turn the head to the right, carry the hand in quarte near the right hip, the point of tho sabre directed at the height of the breast of a man on foot.

    Second motion. Thrust in quarte.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

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374       MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

Front-CUT.

One time and three motions.

    452. First motion. At the command cut, raise the sabre, the arm half extended, the hand a little above the head, the edge upwards, the point to the rear, and higher than the hand.

    Second motion. Cut, extending the arm to its full length, and give a back-handed cut, horizontally to the rear.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

Right in tierce and carte - CUT.

One time and four motions

    453. First motion. At the command cut, execute the first motion of right cut.

    Second motion. Execute the second motion of right cut.
   
    Third motion. Turn the hand in quarte, and cut horizontally.

    Fourth motion. Return to the position of guard.

Left in quarte and tierce- CUT.

One time and four motions.

    454. First motion. At the command cut, execute the first motion of left cut.

    Second motion.  Execute the second motion of left cut.

    Third motion.  Turn the hand in tierce, and cut horizontally.

    Fourth motion.  Return to the position of guard.

In tierce-PARRY.

One time and two motions.

    455. First motion. At the command parry, carry the hand quickly a little to the front and right, the nails downwards, without moving the elbow; the point inclined to the front, as high as the eyes, and in the direction of the right shoulder; the thumb extended on the back of the gripe, and pressing against the guard.

    Second motion. Return to the position of guard.

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.      375

In quarte-PARRY.

One time and two motions.

    456. First motion. At the command parry, raise the sabre quickly and carry it quickly to the front and left, the nails upwards, the edge to the left, the point inclined to the front, as high as the eyes, and in the direction of the left shoulder; the thumb extended on the back of the gripe, and resting against the guard.

    Second motion. Return to the position of guard.

For the head- PARRY.

One time and two motions.

    457. First motion. At the command parry, raise the sabre quickly above the head, the arm nearly extended, the edge upwards, the point to the left, and about six inches higher than the head. The hand is carried more or less to the right, left, or rear, according to the position of the adversary.

    Second motion. Return to the position of guard.

Against infantry right - PARRY.

One time and three motions.

458. First motion. At the command parry, turn the head to the right, throwing back the right shoulder, raise the sabre, the arm extended to the right, and rear, the point upwards, the hand in tierce, the thumb extended on the back of the gripe, the edge to the left.

    Second motion. Describe a circle quickly on the right, from rear to front, the arm ex~ended; turn aside the bayonet with the back of the blade, bringing the hand as high as the head, the point upwards.
   
    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

Against infantry left - PARRY.

One time and three motions.

    459. First motion. At the command parry, turn the head to tho left, raise the sabre, the arm extended to the front llnd right, the

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376       MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

point upwards, the hand in tierce, the thumb extended on the back of the gripe, the back of the blade to the front.

    Second motion. Describe a circle quickly on the left, from front to rear along the horse's neck, the arm extended; turn aside the bayonet with the back of the blade, bringing the hand, still in tierce above the left shoulder.

    Third motion. Return to the position of guard.

    460. When the troopers begin to execute the above cuts, thrusts, and parries, correctly, the instructor requires them to make the application of them by combined motions, as follows:

    In tierce-POINT AND FRONT CUT.
    In quarte-POINT AND FRONT CUT.
    Left - POINT AND CUT.
    Right- POINT AND CUT.
    Rear-POINT AND CUT.
    Against infantry right-POINT AND CUT.
    Against infantry left-POINT AND CUT.

Inspection of SABRE.

One time and seven motions.

    461. First motion. At the word sabre, execute the first time of draw sabre.

    Second motion. Execute the second time of draw sabre.

    Third motion. Present sabre.

    Fourth motion. Turn the wrist inwards to show the other side of the blade.

    Fifth motion. Carry the sabre to the shoulder, as is prescribed in carry sabre.

    Sixth motion. Execute the first time of return sabre.

    Seventh motion. Execute the second time of return sabre.

MANUAL FOR A BREECH-LOADING CARBINE, OR RIFLE, THE TROOPERS MOUNTED.

    462. Whenever the troopers are not exercising with the carbine, or rifle, it is slung by a belt, which passes from the left shoulder to

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.     377

the right side, the muzzle down, and in such a position that it may be seized by the right hand at any moment, and at the same time be entirely out of the way when the trooper is exercising with the sabre or pistol.

    The trooper, in conducting his horse to the ground before mounting, has the carbine passed over the right shoulder, the muzzle in the air.

    After mounting let the carbine fall by the side.

    At the first command to dismount, seize the carbine with the right hand a little above the band, and pass it over the right shoulder, the muzzle in the air.

    463. The trooper being mounted, with the carbine hanging by his right side, the instructor commands:

Advance - CARBINE (or RIFLE).

Two times.

    At the command advance, seize the carbine at the small of the stock with the right hand. At the command carbine (or rifle), elevate it, and place the butt upon the thigh, the muzzle at the height of the eye and opposite to the right shoulder, the lock to the front.

To load.

    464. The squad being in the position of advance carbine (or rifle), the instructor commands: Load in four times.

l. LOAD.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. At this command, place the carbine (or rifle) in the left hand, which seizes it a little below the band, the thumb along the stock, the muzzle elevated, at the height of, and opposite to, the left shoulder, with the right hand move back the catch, and seize the lever with the thumb and first two fingers.

    Second motion. Spring open the chamber, and carry the hand to the cartridge-box and open it.

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378    MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

2. Charge - CARTRIDGE.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. At the command cartridge, draw a cartridge, and insert it in the barrel, and seize the lever with the thumb and flrst two fingers.

    Second motion. Draw back the lever to its place, half cock, remove the old cap, and carry the hand to the cap box, and open it.

3. PRIME.

One time and one motion.

    At the command prime, place a cap on the nipple, press it down with the thumb, let down the cock, and seize the piece by the small of the stock with the right hand.

4. Advance - CARBINE.

One time.

    As prescribed above.

To fire.

    465. The squad being in the position of advance carbine, the instructor commands:

READY.

One time.

    At this command let fall the carbine in the left hand as in the first motion of load, cock it, and return to the position of advance carbine.

AIM.

One time.

At this command, carry the butt to the shoulder with the right hand, support the piece with the thumb and first finger of the left hand, a little below the barrel, the others closed in order to hold the reins without slackening them; place the face against the stock,

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.       379

shut the left eye, direct the right along the barrel to aim, and place the forefinger of the right hand on the trigger.

FIRE.

    At the command fire, pass the forefinger against the trigger and fire, without lowering the head or turning it, and remain in this position.

If, after firing, the instructor wishes to load, he commands:

LOAD.

    At the command load, bring down the carbine to the first motion of load; load at will, and take the position of advance carbine.

    If, after firing, the instructor does not wish to load, he commands:

Advance - CARBINE.

    Which is done as already prescribed.

    To drop the carbine, the instructor commands:

Drop - CARBINE.

One time.

    At the command carbine, lower the muzzle of the carbine, and cast the butt to the rear.

Inspection of arms.

    466. The instructor commands:

Inspection - CARBINE.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. At the command carbine, take the position of advance carbine.

    Second motion. Drop the carbine.

MANUAL FOR COLT'S REVOLVERS.

    467. The troopers being mounted, the pistol either in the holster or pistol. case, the instructor commands:
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                   
    1 With very little modification this manual will serve for Colt's Carbine and Rifle.

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380      MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.

Draw - PISTOL.1

Two times and two motions.

    1. First motion. At the first command, unbuckle the holster or pistol case, seize the pistol by the handle with the right hand, holding it between the palm of the hand and the three last fingers, the fore finger resting on the guard, the thumb on the handle

    Second motion. At the second command, draw out the pistol and elevate it, the guard to the front; the wrist at the height of, and six inches from, the right shoulder.

Load in six times.

1. LOAD.

One time and one motion.

    Place the pistol in the bridle hand, holding it by the handle in front of the body, the hammer between the thumb and fore-finger, and turned to the left, the muzzle pointing upwards. Carry the right hand to the cartridge-box, and open it.

2. Handle - CARTRIDGE.

One time and one motion.

    Seize the cartridge with the thumb and the first two fingers, and carry it to the mouth.

3. Tear-CARTRIDGE.

One time and one motion.

    Bite off the end and carry the cartridge opposite the ehamber nearest the lever, or, if the cartridge is furnished from the manufactory with the pistol, seize the end of the cord, which projects from one end of the cartridge, between the teeth, tear open the outer case, and take out the cartridge.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    1. lf it is a carbine or rifle, the command will be, advance-carbine (or rifle).

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SCHOOL OF THE TROOPER.      381

4. Charge - CARTRIDGE.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. Empty the powder into the chamber, and insert the ball, pressing it down as far as possible with the thumb and fore-finger; or, if it be a cartridge furnished from the manufactory, simply insert it in the chamber, pressing the ball down as before.

    Second motion. Turn the pistol with the left hand, bringing the hammer towards the body, and cock it with the thumb of tho right hand.

5. Ram - CARTRIDGE.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. Seize the lever with the catch, with the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, ram down the ball, and replace the lever.

    Second motion. Let down the hammer with the right hand, and carry tue hand to the cartridge-box.

    Repeat as above directed until all the chambers are loaded.

6. PRIME.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. Lower the muzzle towards the right side by turning the wrist of the bridle-hand, thc muzzle pointing downwards, the hammer to the front, the left wrist resting against the stomach; half-cock the pistol with the left thumb; turn the cylinder with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand until it clicks. Take a cap and press it on the cone. Turn the cylinder again until it clicks, and so on until all the cones are capped, the hammer resting on the safety notch.

    Second motion. Seize the pistol at the handle with the right hand, and bring it to the position of draw pistol.

    468. The instructor wishing to fire, will command:

READY.

One time and two motions.

    First motion. Place the pistol in the left hand, the little finger touching the key, the barrel nearly vertical, the muzzle a little in-

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382    MANUAL FOR VOLUNTEERS AND MILITIA.  

clined to the left and front, the guard to the front, the thumb on the head of the hammer, the forefinger along the guard.

    Second motion. Cock the pistol, and bring it to the position of draw pistol.

AIM.

One time.

    Lower the pistol, the arm half extended, and place the fore-finger lightly on the trigger, the muzzle directed to the height of a man's waist.

FIRE.

One time.

    Press the forefinger steadily on the trigger, fire, and retake the position of draw pistol.

    The mcn being at a ready, and the instructor wishing to fire all the barrels in quick succession, will give intimation to that effect, and command:

1. AIM. 2. FIRE.

    The men will aim and fire, come to the first position of ready, cock, aim, fire again, and so continue until the pistol is discharged; then take the position of draw pistol.

    469. The instructor wishing to reload, commands:

Load at will.

LOAD.

One time.

    Load the six chambers as heretofore directed, and take the position of draw pistol.

Return - PISTOL.

One time.

    Lower the muzzle of the pistol, and return it to the muzzle, or pistol-case.


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