BACK to The Drill Network

BACK to The Liberty Greys

THE

Volunteer's Manual

CONTAINING FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE

RECRUIT

IN THE SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER AND SQUAD.

WITH ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE DIFFERENT

POSITIONS, IN THE FACINGS AND MANUAL OF ARMS

and the loadings and firings.

arranged according to scott's system of infantry tactics.

by lieut. col. d. w. c. bAXTER

OF THE SECOND REGIMENT OF NATIONAL GUARDS, now in the service of

the united states.

________________________________

"In time of peace, prepare for War."--WASHINGTON

"A standing army being at variance with a republican form of government, the safety of her institutions depends alone upon the patriotism of her citizens."

__________________

__PART I.__

PHILADELPHIA

PUBLISHED BY KING & BAIRD

No. 607 SANSOM STREET

1861

___________________________________________

Entered according to an Act of Congress, in the year 1861 by

D. W. C. BAXTER,

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States in and

for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

__________________________________________________________________

TO

Lieut. Gen. Winfield Scott

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN ARMY

A RECRUIT IN MAY, 1808, AGED 22 YEARS.

A CAPTAIN,   .   .   .   1809

BRIGADIER GENERAL,   .   .1814

A LIEUT. COLONEL,   .    1812

MAJOR GENERAL,   .   .  . 1815

A COLONEL,    .   .   .  1813

LIEUT. GENERAL,   .   .   1856

This Manual

OF THE ARMS REQUIRED BY OUR VOLUNTEER SOLDIERY,

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

AS A SLIGHT TESTIMONIAL OF THE RESPECT INSPIRED BY A LIFETIME

DEVOTED TO THE SERVICE OF HIS COUNTRY AND

IN DEFENCE OF

THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER

(Editorial Note:  As this page is left blank in the original, it seems a good place to insert some notes, such a student might well have done in the period. 

First, the manual can be difficult to navigate, as Col. Baxter chose to ignore the organizational structure that he outlined in his introduction.  There is no Lesson 4 in Part One, although the information is there without the heading.  There are no Lessons 3 and 4 in Part Two.  Again the information is there.  Note that the directions for the direct fire are in the load directions.

There is no Part Three, which is not surprising since Col. Baxter covered all the material in depth in Part One.  The links for Part Three point to the appropriate places in Part One. 

At the very end of the manual, there is paragraph announcing a "Part Second " of this work.  I have never seen it.  Since Col. Baxter went on active duty with his regiment, it likely that it was never published.)

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

_______

The instructions here given are of the greatest importance to the Recruit, and therefore should be thoroughly understood, being indispensable to the instruction of the Company; on which, again, depends that of the Battalion.

The School of the Soldier will be divided into three parts.  the first comprehending what should be taught recruits without arms; the second, the Manual of Arms, and the loading and firings; and the third will embrace the principles of alignments, the steps to the front, to the rear, and the oblique-step; the principles of wheeling from a halt and on the march; to change direction by a turn, and by file.

Each part will be divided into lessons, as follows:

I.

Lesson 1. Position of the soldier.  Eyes right, left and front.

Lesson 2. Facings

Lesson 3. Principles of the direct step in common time.

Lesson 4. Principles of theoblique-step in common time.

II.

Lesson 1. Principles of shoulder arms.

Lesson 2. Manual of Arms

Lesson 3. Loading.

Lesson 4. The firings, direct, oblique and by file.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

III.

Lesson 1. The principles of alignment.

Lesson 2. The March to the front and the oblique steps in common time.

Lesson 3. The March by the flank and the changing direction.

Lesson 4. Principles of wheeling and turning.

These lessons will be followed by remarks and illustrations, the better to explain the principles prescribed.

__________________

LESSON I.

Position of the Soldier.

(Fig. 1) HEELS on the same line, and as close together as the conformation of the man will permit

TOES turned out equally, as to form nearly, but not quite, a right angle.

Fig. 1.

Explanation to Fig. 1.

The dotted lines, A,C, and B, represent a right angle, E,C and D, an angle less than a right angle, upon which the feet are placed; the line C F, passing between the heels and

bisecting the line E D, represents toes equally turned out.

KNEES straight, but not stiff; the lower extremities, from the heels to the hips, perpendicular.

The upper part of the BODY inclining a little forward.

The SHOULDERS square and falling equally.

ARMS hanging naturally.

ELBOWS near the body.

The palm of the hands turned a little to the front; the little fingers behind the outside seam of the trowsers.

The FACE full to the front.  The chin drawn slightly in without constraint.  EYES striking the ground, at the distance of fifteen paces.  Weight of the body resting upon the balls of the feet.  (See figs. 2,3.)

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

Fig. 2.

Explanation to Fig. 2.

The line A B represents the weight of the body resting on the balls of the feet.  The inclination of the body so far forward that if a line were dropped from the breast it would fall just outside the toes.

Explanation to Fig. 3.

The perpendicular line through the centre of the body shows the weight thereof resting on both feet equally.  The line C D passing direct through the shoulders represents them as square and of equal height.

Fig. 3.

Remarks on the position of the Soldier.

Heels on the same line.

Because, if one heel were in front of the other, the shoulder on that side would incline to the front, thereby destroying the uniformity of the line, or otherwise causing constraint.  And as close together as the conformation of the man will permit.  Because men who are knock-kneed, or have large calves, could not close their heels without constraint.

Toes turned equally out, at less than a right angle.

Because, if one toe were turned out more than the other, the shoulders would be deranged; and if turned out too much, the body could not incline to the front without constraint.

Knees straight, without stiffness.

Because, if stiffened, constraint and fatigue would be unavoidable.  This the recruit should be careful to avoid; having to stand a great deal, he should bend his

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

knees frequently, this he can do without being perceptible; it will also enable him to step promptly at the command.

Body erect on the hips, and inclining a little forward.

Because 1st. It gives equilibrium to the position by throwing the weight of the body on the balls of the feet.  (See Fig. 4.)  2d. Because you can march more steady, and much longer, and with less fatigue; with practice, a soldier could at any time allow a sheet of paper passed under his heels without losing his equilibrium.

Fig. 4.

[Fig.4.  The shade lines represent the ball of the foot.]

It is usual to see recruits, when told to stand erect, project the belly, throw back the shoulders and raise the shin; this naturally throws the weight of the body upon the heels, and makes his position so insecure that a sudden puff of wind might easily throw him upon his back.

Shoulders square.

Because, if the shoulders be advanced beyond the line of the breast, and the back arched, the recruit has the appearance of being round shouldered, or weak in the chest, he cannot align himself nor handle his fire-lock with address.  if, on the other hand, the shoulders are pressed back too much, the spine becomes curved too much at the small, when fatigue and constraint necessarily follows.

The arms hanging naturally; the elbows near the body; the palms turned a little to the front; the little fingers behind the outer seams of the trowsers.

Because these positions are all equally important to the Soldier in the position of SHOULDER-ARMS.  It also prevents the recruit from occupying more space in a rank than is necessary to a free use of his fire-lock.  They assist also in keeping the shoulders square.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

The face full to the front;  the chin a little drawn in, without constraint.

Because, if there be stiffness in the latter position, it would communicate itself to the whole of the upper part of the body, embarrass its movements and give pain and fatigue,

Eyes direct to the front, and meeting the ground at about fifteen paces.

Because this is the surest means of preserving the squareness of the shoulders, and therefore should be strictly enforced.

The above position of the soldier having been so minutely explained, it is of the utmost importance to the recruit that he study it well; for his own personal ease and comfort depends upon it.

Having to take individuals into the service from almost every calling in life, and it being almost an impossibility to find two men physically alike in every particular, it was found necessary for the sake of uniformity, at least, that some established rule should be laid down to cover these defects of differences, when, after careful study and consideration on the part of some of the most scientific men of Europe and America, the above position has been prescribed, and when we take into consideration that it is the greatest amount of endurance, with the least amount of fatigue, that is required of the soldier; we are satisfied the recruit will at once see the necessity of giving it his careful consideration.

It has always been a matter of great surprise to us, that after so much thought and labor bestowed upon the physical endurance of men, that there has been so little attention given to suitable equipments for them.  In our opinion, one-half the effect is lost by the harness fixings which are put upon them, when a loose fitting uniform, free about the neck and breast, would be much more desirable than the heavy belts and leathern stock now used.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

Eyes-RIGHT.

This command is usually given as Right (orLeft) DRESS.

At the word RIGHT, DRESS (as the case may be) turn the head to the right (without moving the shoulders), bring the inner corner of the left eye in a line with the centre of the body.  The eyes fixed on a line with the eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same rank.

The object of this command is, to correct any irregularity that may exist in a line composed of six or more men.  The object, then, of turning your head is to assure yourself that your are in line; to be sure of this, you should able to see only a glimpse of the left cheek of the second man from you; if you see too much of his side face, (it being turned the same as yours), you will be too far to the front, and if you do not see him at all, you will be too far to the rear.  In either case, the line could not be formed correct; for whilst all the men on the right of you form a perfect line with themselves, those on the left of you would be compelled to form a line running off at an angle with it.  You will therefore promptly place yourself in the line by short steps forward.  You should never overstep the line upon which you are to dress.  Avoid also inclining you head to the front, for this compels the man next to you to come too far to the front, in order to see the second file from him, which is the next man to you on the side you are dressing.  If you turn your head too much, you will perhaps throw forward the shoulder on the side opposite to that which you are dressing.

After the principles of Dressing are properly understood, six or eight men should be united in one rank, elbow to elbow, and numbered from right to left, in order to be taught the principles of alignment.  The instructor will at first teach them to align themselves man by man; to this end he will command the three men on the right flank to march three paces to the front, and having aligned them, he will caution the remainder of the squad to move

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT

up as they may be successively called, each by his number, and will align themselves correctly on the line of the first three men.  Three men will then be taken from the left flank, to from a basis to be dressed upon, governed by the same principles as above, substituting in the command left for right.

Each man, as designated by his number, will turn the head and eyes to the right (or left) and will march three paces forward, shortening the last so as to find himself about six inches from the alignment, which he ought never to pass; he will next move up steadily by steps of two or three inches, the thighs extended, to the side of the man next to him on the alignment, so that, without deranging the head, the line of the eyes, or that of the shoulders, he may find himself in the exact line of his neighbor, whose elbow he will lightly touch, without opening his own.

The alignment being correct, the command will be

FRONT.

When you will turn the head and resume the position direct to the front.

When the men shall have thus learned to align themselves man by man correctly, the instructor will cause the entire rank to align itself at once, by the command:

Right (or left) DRESS.

At this, the rank, except the three men placed as a basis of alignment, will move up in quick time, and place themselves on the new line, as prescribed.

The instructor, seeing the rank aligned, will command:

FRONT.

Alignments to the rear will be executed on the same principles, the men stepping back a little beyond the line, then dressing up by steps of two or three inches, the instructor commanding:

Right (or left) Backward-DRESS.

REST.

At this, the recruit will not be required to preserve the steadiness of his position.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

Neither is he required to keep silent.  If he leave his position, it should not be out of sight or hearing of his commanding officer, without permission.  If the command,

In Place- REST,

should be given, instead of the above, the same freedom will be permitted except that no man shall leave his place. If, on the other hand, strict silence is required, and the men should be brought to a position of rest, the command will be:

Parade-REST.

Carry back the right foot about four inches to the rear, (without moving the left); rest the weight of the body on that leg, bending the knee but slightly; cross the hands on front of the body, the left hand on top and supporting the right wrist; shoulders square to the front; head erect, and the eyes meeting the ground fifteen paces in advance.  In this position, remain steady until the command:

Attention-SQUAD,

is given.  At the word SQUAD, bring up the right heel beside the left, drop the hands, and take the position of a soldier at ATTENTION.

________________________

LESSON II.

FACINGS.

Facing to the right or left, will be executed in time or pause.

Squad.  By the right flank-Right. FACE.

The recruit should be careful to hear the cautionary command (which is in italics) but not attempt to execute the movement until the last command is given, which is FACE.  At the last sound of that word, turn to the right upon the left heel by raising a little the left toe and right heel from the ground; place the

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

right heel beside the left and on the same line, so that the line of heels will be exactly at right angles with their former position.

(Fig.5)  The dotted lines A. B., in this figure represents the feet at a front face.  The black shoes represent their position when flanked to the right.  Observe the left heel has not been moved from its position, although it has turned or twisted, while the  right foot B has been completely carried from its old to its new position.

Fig.5

Squad.  By the left flank, left.  FACE

At the word face, turn to the left upon the left heel, raising a little the left toe and right heel for that purpose; bring the right heel beside the left, but do not move the latter.

(Fig. 6.) Represents the feet at a left flank.  Observe the position of the heels; the dotted lines represent their position to the front.

To face about (that is, to turn completely around), the command will be ABOUT FACE, and will be executed in two times or pauses.

Fig. 6.

Squad.  ABOUT-FACE.

At the word ABOUT, the recruit will turn the left toe to the front, carry the right foot to the rear, the hollow opposite to, and three inches from the left heel; at the same time seize the inner front corner of the cartridge-box with the right hand, if on, if not, place the back of the right hand  to the rear of and against the right hip.

At the word FACE, turn upon both heels by raising both toes, extend the hams and face to the rear, at the same time bringing the right heel beside the left, and drop the right hand.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

If under arms, the recruit will at the first motion (or pause) which is ABOUT, turn his piece with the left hand, the lock to the front, and replace his hand and piece the instant he has faced.

Fig. 7.

Fig. 8.

(Fig. 7.)  Represents the feet at the first time, or pause; the dotted lines A. A., represents the left toe turned to the front,--observe the heel is in its old position; B. B., represents the right foot as having been carried to the rear and placed at right angles with the left, and distant from it three inches, the dotted shoes represent the feet at a front face. 

(Fig. 8.)  Represents the feet at word FACE (second time or pause); observe the left heel is still upon its own ground, whilst the right foot has been carried back beside it (the left).  At the first time or pause (fig. 7, see also Fig. 9.) the body makes a third of a face

Fig. 9. Fig. 10.

to the right, that is, the line of shoulders has changed obliquely to the right.  The right elbow is disengaged to the rear of the man on your right; body resting slightly more on the left than on the right foot.  Although the shoulders have  changed to the right, the face is still to the front.

(Fig. 9.)  Represents the recruit in the position of BOUT, or one time or pause.

(Fig. 10.)  Represents the position of FACE, or second time or pause.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

LESSON III.

PRINCIPLES OF THE DIRECT STEP.

The length of the direct step in common time will be twenty-eight inches, reckoning from heel to heel, and at the rate of ninety in a minute. 

Squad, forward, MARCH.

At the word forward, throw the weight of the body on the right leg without bending the knee, (this is done to prepare you for the next command:--MARCH.  At this command step off with the left foot smartly, but without a jerk, plant it twenty-eight inches on a line straight to the front, depressing a little the toe, the knee slightly turned out, the foot striking the ground flat, without shock, the weight of the body swinging forward so as to rest upon it at that instant.  Next pass the right foot in like manner in front of the left, and at the same distance, counting the time as you march upon each foot.  This enables you to march more steady, by contracting the muscles of both thighs equally, some instructors have the bad habit of counting the time on one foot only, such as LEFT, LEFT; this has the effect to make the recruit step unequally, the most weight falling on that foot; besides it gives him (the recruit) the appearance of limping; to avoid this, count the time on both feet respectively as they come to the ground in front, as:-- LEFT; RIGHT; LEFT; RIGHT; or ONE; TWO; ONE;TWO; and so on, until you are able to march steady and straight forward without faltering.  Avoid swinging the arms too much, if too much freedom of the arms are allowed the shoulders will be affected by it, while they should remain steady and square to the front, a slight motion of the arms, particularly the one disengaged with the fire-lock is better than none at all, otherwise there would be a stiffness throughout the entire body.  You plant the foot flat, because if the heel were to strike the ground first, the body would move forward with a jerk at every step made; the upper part of the body must incline forward, and the knee bent a little, so as to facilitate in placing the foot flat.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

Avoid raising the foot too much, as time would be lost in marching; it also causes the knee to bend more than should be allowed; pass the foot near the ground in making the step, and you will incur less fatigue.

To arrest the march, the command will be

Squad, HALT.

The second command will be given the instant either foot is to the front and coming to the ground.  The foot in the rear will be brought up and placed beside it without shock. 

The recruit having been well instructed in the principles of the direct step, he will be placed in a rank composed of six or more men.  The rank being aligned, to march by the front, a well-instructed man will be placed on the right or left, according to the side on which the guide is to be, when the command will be:

Squad, forward,  Guide right (or left)  MARCH.

At the command march, the rank will step off promptly with the left foot; the guide should take care to march straight to the front; the men should touch lightly the elbows toward the side of the guide, be careful not to open out the left elbow toward the nor the right arm, yield to pressure coming from the side of the guide, and resist that coming from the opposite side, keep the head direct to the front, no matter on which side the guide may be, and if found before or behind the alignment, shorten or lengthen the step by degrees, almost insensibly, without altering the cadence, until the fault is corrected. 

 Mark time, MARCH.

At the second command, which will be given at the instant either foot is coming to the ground, make a semblance of marching, by advancing first one foot, and then the other, always bringing back the advanced foot and placing its heel by the side of the other.

Change step, MARCH.

At the second command, given at the instant either foot is coming to the ground, bring up quickly the foot in the rear to the side of that just come to the ground, and step off with the latter.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

TO MARCH TO THE REAR.

Squad, backward.  Guide right (or left).  MARCH.

At the command MARCH, step off smartly with the left foot fourteen inches to the rear, (just half the length of the step to the front,) and so on with the feet in succession, the head direct to the front, touching the elbow towards the side of the guide, and yielding to pressure from that side, until the command halt.  At this command bring the foot in front by the side of the other.

Having become thoroughly acquainted with the mechanism of the above step we will proceed to illustrate the

PRINCIPLES OF THE OBLIQUE STEP.

The recruit being at a halt--to oblique to the right--carry the right foot obliquely to the right, and twenty-eight inches from the left, reckoning from heel to heel, and eighteen inches to that side--the toe pointing direct to the front (to avoid twisting the shoulders)--the weight of the body falling on that leg.  Next pass the left foot by the shortest line, eighteen inches in front of the right heel--throw the weight of the body on that leg--then step off with the right as before, and then with the left, and so on; continue until the principles above are perfectly familiar--learn to preserve the cadence at the same time, by counting regularly with each step; ONE; TWO; ONE; TWO.

The oblique to the left will be executed in the same way, stepping off with the left foot instead of the right; be particular and avoid twisting the legs in practicing this step; the heel of the left foot, if obliquing to the right should be perpendicular to the right heel, and vice versa, and not to exceed that line to the right or left in the least.  This is perhaps one of the most important steps in the evolutions of the company, and should therefore be thoroughly understood.

After practicing this step, as above, the recruit will be commanded on the regular way, without analyzing each step, as follows;

(The recruit is supposed to be marching to the front)

Right-Oblique,  March.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

At the command, march, given the instant the left foot comes to the ground, step with the right foot obliquely to the right, observing particularly the instructions above. 

Be careful as to the head and shoulders, keep them square to the front, and preserve the cadence of ninety steps to the minute.

To resume the step to the front, the command will be:

Forward, MARCH.

The command, march, will be given the instant the right foot comes to the ground;  make the step to the front with the left foot, twenty-eight inches, reckoning from heel to heel

Left-oblique, MARCH.

The command, march, will be given the instant the right foot comes to the ground in front;  step off with the left foot obliquely to the left.  To resume the direct step--

Forward, MARCH.

MARCH will be given the instant the left foot strikes  the ground to the left and front; commence the direct step with the right foot.

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK

The squad being in one rank and correctly aligned, the instructor will command:

In two ranks form squad.  By the right flank, right,

FACE. MARCH

At the third command, face to the right, the man on the right will face to the rear, and at the command MARCH, he will make one step to the rear, (now front) at the same time all will step off with the left foot, the second man from the right stepping behind the first, the third man along side of him and on his right, the fourth behind the third, and so continue until all are formed into two ranks, each man as he comes into line turning his head and dressing to the left and then resume his front.  As the two ranks now face the rear, to face them to their proper front, the instructor will command,

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

Squad. BOUT.  FACE.

At the second and third commands he will face about.

The ranks being correctly aligned the instructor will command:

Squad.  By the right flank. Right.  FACE.

At the word FACE both ranks will face to the right.  The files will be distant from each other thirteen inches, measuring from the breast to the back of the man in front; the rear rank man will find himself on the right side of his file leader if faced to the right, and on his left if faced to the left.

Squad.  Forward.  MARCH.

At the second and third commands, execute what has been prescribed for the direct step; avoid looking down at the feet of the man in front of you, or straddling the legs.

By file left (or right).  MARCH.

At the command MARCH, the first file will change direction to the left (or right) in describing a small arc of a circle, and will then march straight forward; the two men of this file in wheeling will keep up the touch of the elbows, and the man on the side to which the wheel is made will shorten the first three steps.  Each file will come successively to wheel on  the same spot where that which preceded it wheeled.

Squad by the left (or right) flank.  MARCH,

At the command MARCH, which will be given as the left foot is coming to the ground, if it be by the left flank, (and as the right foot is coming to the ground if by the right flank,) (see Fig. 11.) the men will turn the body a half face to the left, plant the right foot obliquely in the front of and near to the right toe, and step with the other foot in the new direction without altering the cadence.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

Explanation to Fig. 11.

The recruit is supposed to be marching on the perpendicular line A, and the instructor wishes to change direction to the left.  the command March is given as the left foot (marked 2) comes to the ground.  The right foot (marked 1) is carried obliquely in front of and near to the left foot, and the latter steps off in the new direction, B, which is at right angles with A.

Fig. 11.

Squad.  HALT

At the second command, the squad will halt, and afterwards no man will stir, although he may have lost his distance.

Front.  FACE.

At the second command, each man will front by facing to the left, if marching by the right flank, and by a face to the righ, if marching by the left flank.

WHEELINGS

Wheelings are of two kinds; from halts or on fixed pivots, and in march or on movable pivots.

Wheeling on a fixed pivot takes place in passing from a corps in the order in battle to the order in column, or form the latter to the former.

Wheels in marching take place in changes of direction in columns, as often as this movement is executed to the side opposite to the guide

In wheels from a halt, the pivot man will flank and stand fast in his place.

In wheels in marching, the pivot man takes steps of full nine inches, to clear the wheeling point before the next subdivision arrives on the same ground, which is necessary in order that the succeeding subdivisions may not lose their distances by being delayed.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

In both cases, the man on the wheeling flank will always take the full pace of twenty-eight inches.

Wheeling from a halt, or on a fixed pivot.

The squad being at a halt the instructor will place a well-instructed man on the wheeling flank to conduct, and then command:

By squad, right wheel.  MARCH.

At the command MARCH, the squad will step of with the left foot, turning at the same time the head a little to the left, the eyes fixed on the line of the eyes of the men to the left; the pivot man will face to the right, the man next to him on the left will make very short steps, or merely mark time in gradually turning his body, in order to conform himself to the movement of the marching flank; the man who conducts this flank, will take steps of twenty-eight inches, and from the first step advance a little the left shoulder, cast his eyes from time to time along the rank, and feel constantly the elbow of the next man lightly, but never push him.

The other men will feel lightly the elbows of the next man toward the pivot, resist pressure coming from the opposite side, and each will conform himself to the marching flank--shortening his step according to his approximation to the pivot.

The instructor will make the rank wheel round the circle once or twice before halting, in order to cause the principles to be better understood, and he will he will be watching that the centre does not break.

The wheel to the left will be executed according to the same principles.  To arrest the wheel, the instructor will command:

Squad.  HALT.

At the second command, the squad will halt.  The instructor going to the flank opposite to the pivot will place the guide of that flank in the direction he may wish to give the rank, taking care to leave between him and the pivot only the space necessary to contain the other men.   He will then command:

School of the soldier

Left (or right)  DRESS.

At this the squad will place itself on the alignment of the man established as the basis in conformity with the principles prescribed for dressing.

The instructor will next command FRONT.

Wheeling in Marching, or on a movable pivot.

The squad being in march, the instructor will command:

Right (or left) wheel.  MARCH.

The first command will be given when the rank is yet three paces from the wheeling point.

At the second command MARCH, the wheel will be executed in the same manner as from a halt, except that the touch of the elbow will remain toward the marching flank (or side of the guide) instead of the side of the actual pivot; that the pivot man, instead of merely turning in his place, will conform himself to the movement of the marching flank, feel lightly the elbow of the next man, take steps of full nine inches, and thus gain ground forward in describing the arc of a small circle, to clear the point of the wheel.  The middle of the rank will bend slightly to the rear.  As soon as the movement shall commence, the man who conducts the marching flank will cast his eyes on the ground over which he will have to lass.

The wheel being ended, the instructor will command:

Forward.  MARCH

The first command will be pronounced when three paces are yet required to complete the change of direction

At the command MARCH. which will be given at the instant of completing the wheel, the man who conducts the marching flank (or guide) will direct himself straight forward; the pivot man and all the men will retake the step of twenty-eight inches and bring the

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

head direct to the front.

TURNING.

To change direction to the side of the guide in marching, the instructor will command:

Left (or right turn.)  MARCH

The first command will be given when the rank is yet four paces from the turning point. 

At the command MARCH, to be pronounced at the instant the rank ought to turn, the guide will face to the left (or right) in marching, and without slackening the or quickening the cadence (rate of march) and without shortening or lengthening the step.  The whole rank will promptly conform itself to the new direction; to effect which, each man will advance the shoulder opposite to the guide, take the double quick step, to carry himself in the new direction, turn the head and eyes to the side of the guide, from which he will take the step, and then resume the direct position of the head.  Each man will thus arrive successively on the alignment.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

PART II.

LESSON I.

THE PRINCIPLES OF SHOULDER ARMS.

The position of the hand upon the butt.  (See Fig.s 12, 13. )

(Fig. 12.) Front view.     (Fig. 13.) Inside view.

The musket in the left hand, the palm pressing upon the outer flat of the butt; the outer edge of the latter on the upper joints of the fingers; the thumb, on the front screw of the butt plate; the remaining fingers under the butt; the fingernails next to the left thigh; the butt more or less kept back, so that the piece shall appear perpendicular; the stock below the tail-band resting against the hollow of the shoulder, just within the joint: (See fig. 14.) the elbow slightly bent, and near the body; (See Fig. 15.) the right arm hanging naturally, as prescribed in the position of the soldier.

Fig. 14. Front view. Fig. 15. Side view.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

Sometimes the recruit, in order ( as he thinks) to carry the musket perpendicular, will project the right thigh and depress the left, this he should avoid; be careful that the arm is not bent too much, nor that it be too straight, but just sufficiently bent to throw the weight of the piece upon the muscle, and not upon the bone of the arm.

__________________

LESSON II.

MANUAL OF ARMS.

The manual of arms should be taught to two men placed at first side by side, in one rank, elbow to elbow, and next in a single file, that is one behind the other.  Each command is executed in one time (or pause), and is divided into motions.  The rate (or swiftness of each motion, except the motions relative to the cart-

ridge , to the rammer, and to the fixing and unfixing of the bayonet, is fixed at the ninetieth part of a minute; but the motions here excepted should be executed with promptness and regularity.  As soon as the men shall well comprehend the positions of the several motions, they will taught to execute the times without resting on the motions.

1. Support. 2. ARMS.

One time and three motions.

(First motion.) At the command arms raise the piece with the left hand (elbow bent) about four inches, without turning the piece-at the same time with the right hand seize the small of the stock, thumb under and against the shoulder of the lock, fingers closed and against the out-side of the small or handle.  (See fig, 16.) The * and dotted lines upon the right side represent the motion

Fig. 16

First motion.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

Fig. 17        Fig. 18      Fig, 19       Fig. 20

   Second motion.  Third motion.   Side view of    Rest

    Support arms.   support arms.

the motion of the right hand , and that on the left, the raising of the left hand.

(Second motion.)  Quit the butt with the left hand; place the left fore-arm under the hammer, the little finger on top of and resting on the body belt, hand opposite to the centre of the body; the weight of the musket resting on the fore-arm near the wrist, and the piece perpendicular.  (See Fig. 17.)  The dotted line shows the motion of the left hand.

(Third motion.)  Drop the right hand by its side and the position is complete.  (See Fig. 18.) The dotted line shows the falling of the right hand.

REST.-  (When at a support arms. PARADE-REST will always be understood.)- At this command throw back the right foot four or six inches to the rear of its present position, at the same time carry the right hand to the small of the stock and under the left

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

stock and under the left fore-arm; shoulders remaining square to the front. (See Fig. 20.) 

1. Attention.  2.  SQUAD.

At the second command, resume the position of support arms.  (See Fig. 21.)

1.  Carry.  2. ARMS.- One time and three motions.

(First motion.)  Carry quickly the right hand to the small of the stock.  (See Fig. 22.)

(Second motion.)  Place quickly the left hand upon the butt.  (See Fig. 23.)

Third motion.  Let fall smartly the right hand into its place; and drop with the left hand the piece into the position of shoulder arms.  (See Fig.24.)

1.  Present.  2.  ARMS.- One time and two motions.

(First motion.)- With the left hand, turn the piece, lock to the front.  At the same time, seize it with the right hand at the

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

Fig. 25.            Fig. 26.            Fig. 27.

small; thumb next the body; the left hand remaining under the butt; the barrel perpendicular and detached from the shoulder about two inches. (See Fig. 25.)

(Second motion) Complete the turning inward of the piece with the right hand so as to bring it erect before the centre of the body, the rammer to the front; the right hand under and against the guard; at the same time seize it smartly with the left hand above and near to the lock, the little finger resting on a portion thereof, the thumb along the stock and barrel pointing toward the muzzle,. the left fore-arm resting against the body without constraint, the hand at the height of the elbow.  (See Fig. 26.)

1. Shoulder.  2.  ARMS.- One time, two motions.

(First motion.)  Raise and turn the piece with the right hand, barrel to the front;  carry it to the left side, supported by the

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

right hand at the hammer; the left hand under the butt at its proper length.  (See Fig, 27.)

(Second motion.)  Drop the right hand smartly by its side, but do not move the left hand or the piece.  (See Fig. 28.)

1. Arms.  2. PORT.- One time, one motion.

Throw the piece diagonally across the body, the lock to the front, seize it smartly at the same time with both hands, the right at the small, the left at the tail band, the thumbs pointing towards the muzzle, the barrel sloping upward and crossing opposite to the point of the left shoulder, the butt proportionally lowered, so as to make it slope at an angle of forty-five degrees; the palm of the right hand above, that of the left under the piece, and the nails of both hands next to the body, to which the elbows will be closed. (See Fig. 29.)

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

1. Shoulder.  2.  ARMS.- Two motions.

(First motion.)  Bring the piece smartly to the left shoulder, placing the left hand under the butt, at the full extent of the left arm; the right hand remaining at the hammer.  (See Fig. 30.)

(Second motion.)  Drop the right hand smartly by the side.  (See Fig. 31,)

1. Order.  2.  ARMS.- One time, two motions.

(First motion.)  Drop the piece smartly from the left hand, cause it to turn slightly, lock to the front, seize it at the same time with the right hand two inches above the tail-band, turn it, barrel to the rear, carry it to the right side, butt two inches from the ground, muzzle near the hollow of the right shoulder, little finger behind and against then stock and barrel, the other fingers extended and joined, thumb against the right thigh, wrist

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

pressing in so as to turn the toe (or beak) of the butt out, that it may not strike the foot in the second motion- left hand hanging naturally.  (See Fig.  32,)  in which the dotted musket represents the position of the piece at the instant the right hand seizes it.  The dotted line at the bayonet shows the curve made in passing to the front and side of the body.) 

(Second motion.)  Let the piece slip through the right hand to the ground, without shock and take the position about to be described. 

Position of Order Arms.

'

The hand low, the barrel between the thumb, and fore-finger extended along the stock, the other fingers extended and joined, the muzzle near the right shoulder the rammer to the front, the toe (or beak) of the butt against and in a line with the toe of the right foot, the barrel perpendicular.  (See Fig. 33.)

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

REST.

Take the position as represented in fig. 34.  See also the remarks on the REST at page 11.112.

1,  Attention.  2.  SQUAD.

At the second command, resume the position of order arms.  (See Fig, 35.)

1.Shoulder.  2.  ARMS>

(First motion.)  Raise smartly the piece with the right hand, carry it against the left shoulder, turn it so as to bring the barrel to the front; place at the same time the left hand under the butt, and slip the right hand down to the lock.  (See Fig. 36.)

(Second motion.)  Let fall smartly ht right hand into its position.  (See Fig. 37.)

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

1.  Charge.  2.  BAYONET.

(First motion.)  Make a half face to the right by turning up[on the left heel, the left toe to the front, carry the right foot to the rear, the hollow opposite to and three inches from the left heel, feet at right angles.  (See Fig. 38.)

The dotted lines A, A, B, B, represent the movement of the feet, (both moving in position at the same time,) the left foot turning upon the left heel; at the same time turn the piece with the left hand, lock to the front, and seize it with the right at the small, the barrel perpendicular and detached from the shoulder, the left hand remaining at the butt.  (See Fig. 39.)

(Second motion.)  With the right hand carry the piece to the right side, at the same time let it fall in the left hand, a little in advance of the tail-band, the right hand grasping securely the handle in front of and against the right thigh, the lock turned a little up, the left elbow pressed firmly against and a little in front of the left side, the left thumb extended along the stock and pointing towards the muzzle, the bayonet at the height of the eye,

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

or always in a line between your eye and the eye of your adversary.  (See Fig. 40.)

1. Shoulder. 2. ARMS.

One time, two motions.

(First motion.)  Face to the front by turning back the left toe to its place, place the right heel beside the left, feet square, spring up the piece perpendicular in the right hand, carry it to the left side, place the left hand under the butt, the right hand remaining at the small; this must be done in the time of one motion, (or the ninetieth part of a minute.)  (See Fig. 41.)

(Second motion.)  Let fall smartly the right hand.  (See Fig. 42.)

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

1.  Unfix.  2.  BAYONETS.-  One time, three motions.

The third motion of unfix cannot be executed in the regular time (or cadence) but will nevertheless be done promptly.

(First motion.)  Drop the piece by a smart extension of the left arm, at the same time seize it with the right hand at, above and near the tail band.  (See Fig. 43.)

NOTE.  This figure does not represent the feet correctly, the heels should not be moved.  (See also Fig. 44,) observe the dotted line at the muzzle, represents the sinking of then piece and also falling a little to the front.

(Second motion.)  Drop the piece with the right hand along the outside of the left thigh, to the full extent of the right arm, seize it with the left hand at the middle band, thumb on the rod, carry the but to the ground near to the left heel, at the same time carry the right hand to the bayonet, seize it at the socket about an inch below the heel of the palm, so that in wresting off

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

the bayonet the thumb may be extended on the blade.  (See Fig. 45.)

(Third motion.)  Wrest of the bayonet, return it to the scabbard between the left fore-arm and the body, (see Fig. 46,) place the little finger of the right hand on the butt of the rammer, at the same time sink the left hand to the full extent of the arm.  (See Fig. 47.)

1.  Shoulder.  2. ARMS- One time, three motions.

(First motion.)  Raise smartly the piece with the left hand to the height of the left shoulder, the left fore-arm extended along the stock from the wrist to the elbow; at the same time support the piece with the right hand under the hammer.  (See Fig. 48.)

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

(Second motion.)  Drop smartly the left hand to the butt.   (See Fig. 49.)

(Third motion.)  Drop smartly the right hand.  (See Fig. 50.)

To Unfix Bayonets from an Order.

1.  Unfix.  2. BAYONET.

One time and three motions.

(First motion.The recruit being at an order.  (See Fig. 51.)  Turn upon the left heel once and a half, carry the right foot to the rear, the heel opposite to and eight inches from the hollow of the left foot, feet at right angles, weight of the body more upon the right leg, (see Fig. 52, for the position of the feet,) at the same time seize the piece with the left

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

hand at the middle band, thumb on the rod, and the right hand at the bayonet, near the socket, thumb on the flat of the blade, (see Fig. 53,) barrel to the rear.

(Second motion.)  Wrench off the bayonet, place it in the scabbard, (same as the third motion from a shoulder,) place the right hand on the piece, below the left, at the full extent of the right arm, left hand remaining at the middle band.

(Third motion.)  Face to the front by turning on the left heel, bring the right heel beside the left, and drop the left hand.  (See Fig. 54.)

FIX BAYONETS from an order, will be executed the same as the unfix, with this exception: in the first motion, the right hand seizes the bayonet now in the scabbard; second motion, it is placed on the piece; the rest is the same as above.

1.  Secure.  2. ARMS.- One time and two motions.

(First motion.)  Seize quickly the piece with both hands,

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

by detaching it from the shoulder, the right hand at the handle near the lock, the left hand at the tail band, thumb extended along the rammer, piece perpendicular, barrel to the front, left fore-arm from the wrist to the elbow against the piece. (See Fig. 55.)

(Second motion.)  Depress the muzzle with the left hand, bring the lock under the left arm, drop the right hand.  (See Fig. 56.)  The object of this motion is to keep the lock dry in stormy weather; the recruit will see the necessity of keeping the lock well up under the left arm.  The thumb presses upon the rod to prevent its falling out.

To come to a shoulder from a secure, the command will be

1. Shoulder. 2.  ARMS.- One time and two motions.

(First motion.)  Spring up the piece with the left hand, at the same time seize it with both hands, the left under the butt, and

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RECRUIT.

and the right at the lock.  (See Fig, 57, side view, in which the dotted line will serve to illustrate its movement.  See also, Fig, 58, a front view.)

(Second motion.)  Drop the right hand, (see fig. 59.)

1.  Fix.  2.  BAYONETS.- One time and three motions.

(First and second motions.)  As the first and second motions of unfix bayonets except that at the end of the second motion, the right hand will go to seize the bayonet by the socket and shank, so that the lower (now upper) end of the socket shall extend about an inch

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

above the heel of the palm.  (See Figs. 60 and 61.)

(Third motion.)  Draw the bayonet from the scabbard, carry and fix it on the muzzle; (see Fig.62,) place the little finger of the right hand on the butt of the rammer.  (See Fig. 63.)

1.  Shoulder.  2.  ARMS.- One time and three motions.

(First, second, and third motions.)  Same as shoulder from unfix bayonets.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

1.  Trail.  2.  ARMS.- One time. two motions.

(First motion.)  As the first motion of order arms.  (See Fig. 64._

(Second motion.)  Incline a little the muzzle to the front, the butt to the rear, the right hand supported at the hip, the bayonet of the rear-rank man's piece should not touch the front rank man.  (See Fig. 65.)

1.  Shoulder. 2.  ARMS.

At the command SHOULDER, straighten the piece perpendicularly in the right hand; (See Fig. 66.)  at the command ARMS, execute what has been prescribed for the shoulder from the position of order arms.  (See Fig. 67.)

To the right shoulder.  Shift.  ARMS.- One time, one motion.

But for the better explanation, we will divide it into three.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

First.  Turn the piece with the left hand, lock to the front, at the same time seize it by the handle with the right.  (Same as first motion of present arms.)  (See Fig. 68.)

Second.  With both hands raise the piece, turn it barrel to the rear, rest the hammer on the right shoulder, muzzle inclining backwards at about an angle of thirty degrees; at the same time slip the right hand down to the butt; the toe or beak of the butt projecting between the first and second fingers.  (See Fig. 69, the left hand should remain at the butt.

Third.  Drop the left hand.  (See Fig. 70.)  When this id properly understood by the recruit, it must be done as one time, one motion.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

Shoulder.  ARMS.- One time, two motions.

(First motion.)  Raise the piece by extending the right arm, seize it with the left hand at the tail band.  (See Fig. 70.)  Carry it against the left shoulder, turning the barrel to the front, the right hand being at the handle, (See Fig. 71,) place the left hand under the butt.

(Second motion.)  let the right hand fall into its position.  (See Fig. 72.)

Arms.  AT WILL.

Carry the piece at pleasure on either shoulder, or with one or both hands, the muzzle always up.  (See Fig. 73.)

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

LOADING AND FIRING.

Load in ten times.

LOAD.  (Two motions.)

One.  Drop the piece by a smart extension of the left arm, seize it with the right hand above and near the tail band; at the same time carry the right foot forward, the heel against the hollow of the left foot.  (See Fig.74, front view, and Fig. 75, a side view.)

Two.  Drop the piece with the right hand along the left thigh, seize it with the left hand at the middle band, and with the left hand let it descend along to the ground, without shock, the piece touching the left thigh, and the muzzle opposite to the centre of the body; carry the right hand quickly to the cartridge-box and open it.  (See Fig. 76.)

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

HANDLE-CARTRIDGE.  (One motion.)

Seize the cartridge with the thumb and next two fingers, and place it between the teeth, back of the hand against the cheek, elbow at the height of the hand.  (See Fig. 77.)

TEAR-CARTRIDGE.  (One motion.)

Tear the paper down to the powder, by twisting the hand and closing the elbow into the body, hold the cartridge upright between the thumb and next two fingers, near the top; and in this position place it in front of and near the muzzle, the back of the hand to the front.

CHARGE-CARTRIDGE.  (One motion.)

Fix the eye on the muzzle, turn quickly the back of the right hand towards the body, in order to discharge the powder into the barrel, raise the elbow to the height of the wrist, shake the cartridge, force it into the muzzle and leave the hand reversed, the fingers extended, the thumb extended along the barrel.  (See Fig. 78.)

DRAW-RAMMER.  (Two motions.)

One.  Drop smartly the right elbow and seize the rammer between the thumb and forefinger bent, the other fingers shut;  (See Fig. 79,)  Draw it smartly extending

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

the arm; (See Fig. 80,) seize the rammer again at the middle, between the thumb and three fingers, the hand reversed, the palm to the front, the nails up, the eyes following the movement of the hands, (See Fig, 81 and 82,) clear the rammer from the pipes by again extending the arm.

Two.  Turn rapidly the rammer between the bayonet and the face, closing the fingers, (See Fig. 83,) (the rammer of the rear rank man grazing the right shoulder of the man of the man of the same file in front, respectively) the rammer parallel to the bayonet, the arm extended, the butt of the rammer opposite to the muzzle, but not yet inserted, the eyes fixed on the muzzle.

Three.  Insert the butt of the rammer and force it down as low as the hand.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

RAM-CARTRIDGE.  (One motion.)

Extend the arm to its full length to seize the rammer between the right thumb extended and the forefinger bent, the other fingers closed; with force ram home twice (the right elbow down and bear the piece) and seize the rammer at the little end, between the thumb and forefinger bent, the other fingers closed, the right elbow touching the body.

RETURN-RAMMER.  (Three motions.)

One.  Draw briskly the rammer, reseize

it at the middle between the thumb and three fingers, the hand reversed, the palm to the front, the nails up, the eyes following the movement of the hand, clear the rammer from the barrel by extending the arm.  (See Fig. 84.)

Two.  Turn rapidly the rammer between the bayonet and the face, closing the fingers, (the rammer of the rear rank man grazing the right shoulder of the man of the same file in front,) the rammer parallel to the bayonet, the arm extended, the little end of the rammer opposite to the first pipe, but not yet inserted, the eyes fixed on that pipe.

Three.  Insert the little end, and with the thumb, which will follow the movement, force it as low as the middle band; raise quickly the right hand a little bent, place the little finger on the butt of the rammer, and force it down; lower the left hand on the barrel to the extent of the arm, without depressing the shoulder.

CAST-ABOUT.  (Two motions.)

One.  Raise the piece with the left hand along the left side, the hand at the height of the chin, the forearm touching the piece, the barrel to the front; drop at the same time the right

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

hand to seize the piece a little above the small, the forefinger touching the lock, the thumb on the S plate, and bring back the right heel to the side of the left.  (See Fig, 85.)

Two.  Make a half face to the right on the left heel, bring the left toe to the front, the right foot behind and at right angles with the left, the hollow of the right foot against the heel of the left.  At the same time seize the small of the stock with the right hand, and bring down the piece with both hands to the position of charge BAYONET.  (See Figs. 86 and 87.)

PRIME.  (One motion.)

Sustain the piece with the left hand (half-cock the piece), brush off the old cap, and with the thumb and first two fingers take a cap from the pouch, place it firmly on the cone, pushing it down with the thumb, and seize the piece with the right hand at the small.

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

SHOULDER ARMS.  (Two motions.)

As from Charge-Bayonet.

TO LOAD IN FOUR TIMES.

The first time will be executed at the command Load;  the three others at the words two, three, and four.

LOAD IN FOUR TIMES-LOAD.

Execute What is prescribed for Load, Handle-Cartridge, Tear-Cartridge, and Charge-Cartridge.

TWO.

Draw-Rammer and Ram-Cartridge.

THREE.

Return-Rammer and Cast-About.

FOUR.

Prime and Shoulder Arms.

TO LOAD AT WILL.

Load at will-LOAD.

At the command load, execute the loading as in four times, but without resting on the times.

READY.  (Four motions.)

One.  Make a half face to the right on the left heel, bring the left toe to the front, place at the same time the right foot behind, and at right angles with the left, the hollow of the right foot against the left heel; turn the piece with the left hand, the lock outward, and seize at the same time the handle (or small of the stock) with the right hand, the piece perpendicular, and

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

detached from the shoulder; (the left hand remaining under the butt.)  (See Fig. 88.)

Two.  Bring the piece with the right hand to the middle of the body, place the left hand just above the lock, the thumb extended on the stock at the height of the chin, the S plate almost turned towards the body, the rammer obliquely to the left and front, the left fore-arm in front of and against the stock.  (See Fig,89.)

Three.  Place the thumb on the hammer, the forefinger under and on the guard, the other the other three fingers joined to the first, the elbow at the height of the wrist.  (See Fig. 90.)

Four.  Close the right elbow smartly to the body in cocking, seize the piece at the small, let it descend along the body in the

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

left hand to the tail band, which will remain at the height of the shoulder, (and opposite to the centre of the body.)  (See Figs. 91-92.)

AIM.  (One motion.)

Drop smartly the muzzle, the left hand remaining at the tail band, support the butt against the right shoulder, the left elbow a little down, the right well elevated, shut the left eye, direct the right along the barrel, drop the head upon the butt to catch the object, and place the forefinger on the trigger.  (See Fig. 93.)

The rear rank man will. at the same time, carry the right foot about eight inches toward the left heel of the man on his right.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

FIRE.  (One motion.)

Apply the forefinger with force to the trigger without further lowering or turning the head, and remain in that position.

LOAD.  (From the fire-two motions.)

One.  Bring back the piece quickly with both hands, the rear rank men bringing back the right foot by the side of the left; depress the butt strongly by extending the right arm, and carry it with the right arm thus extended top the left side, the barrel turned to the front and opposite to the left shoulder; open the left hand to let the piece slide through it to the middle band, the back of the hand to the front, the left forearm touching the stock, the hand at the height of and opposite the chin; at the same time face to the front, and carry the right foot forward, the heel against the hollow of the left foot.

Two.  Quit the hold of the right hand; with the left hand remaining at the middle band, let the piece descend to the ground,

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

without shock, and take the position of the second motion of the first time of loading.

SHOULDER-ARMS.  (From the fire-two motions.)

One.  At the word shoulder, bring back the piece with both hands.  (See Fig. 94.

Two.  Face to the front, carry the piece against the left shoulder and place the left hand under the butt.  (See Fig. 95.)

Let fall smartly the right hand into its position.  (See Fig. 96.)

RECOVER-ARMS.  (From the aim-one motion.)

At the word recover, withdraw the finger from the trigger; at the command arms, throw up smartly the muzzle, and retake the position of the fourth motion of ready.  (See Fig. 97.)

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

SHOULDER-ARMS.  (From the ready-one motion.)

At the word shoulder, face to the front, bring the piece to the middle of the body, the left thumb at the height of the chin, the piece supported by the left hand, holding it fast above the lock; next place the right thumb on the head of the cock, support the forefinger on the trigger, sustain at the same time the cock in its decent till it nearly touches the cone, raise the cock to the half-cock notch, (the reaching of which will be both felt and heard,) and seize the handle of the piece (or small of the stock) with the right hand.  (See Figs. 98 and 99.)  At the word armx, carry the piece smartly to the shoulder and retake the position of shoulder arms.  (See Fig. 100.)

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

FIRINGS.

The firings are either direct or oblique.

For the direct fire, the instructor will command

1.  Fire by Squad.  2.  Squad.  3. READY.  4.  AIM 

5.  FIRE.  6.  LOAD.

These several commands will be executed as has been prescribed in the MANUAL OF ARMS.  At the sixth they will load their pieces and return immediately to the position of shoulder.

The firing will be re-commenced by the commands:

1.  Squad.  2.  READY.  3.  AIM.  4.  FIRE.  5.  LOAD.

When the instructor wishes the firing to cease, he will command:

CEASE-FIRING.

At this command the men will cease firing, but will load their pieces if unloaded, and afterwards bring them to a shoulder if at an aim, recover arms, half-cock, and come to a shoulder.

THE OBLIQUE FIRE.

The oblique firings will be executed to the right and left, and by the same commands as the direct fire, with this single difference-the command aim will always be preceded by the caution, right or left oblique. 

POSITION OF THE RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE TO THE RIGHT.

At the command ready, the two ranks will execute what has been prescribed for the direct fire.

At the cautionary command right oblique, the two ranks will throw back the right shoulder and look steadily to the right oblique.

At the command aim, each front rank man will aim to the right without deranging his feet; each rear rank man will advance the left foot about eight inches towards the right heel of the man,

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

next on the right of his file leader, and aim to the right, inclining the upper part of the body forward, and bending a little the left knee.

At the command load, both ranks will resume the position of load in the fire direct.

POSITION OF THE RANKS IN THE OBLIQUE FIRE TO THE LEFT.

At the command left oblique, the two ranks will throw back the left shoulder and look steadily to the left oblique.

At the command AIM, the front ranks will take aim to the left without deranging the feet; each man in the rear rank will advance the left foot about eight inches, and aim to the left, inclining the upper part of the body forward, and bending a little the left knee.

At the command load, both ranks will come to the position of load, as prescribed in the direct fire.

TO FIRE BY FILE.

The instructor will command:

1.  Fire by file.  2. Squad.  3. READY.  4.  COMMENCE FIRING.

At the fourth command, the right file will aim and fire, the two men together; the rear rank man in taking aim will carry the right foot about eight inches to the right; the next file aims at the instant the first has fired, and so on successively to the left.  After the first fire, every man will load and fire without waiting for the others.

Cease-FIRING.

At this command, the men will cease firing.  If they have fired, they will load their pieces and bring them to a shoulder; if at the position of ready, they will half-cock and shoulder

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

arms.  If in the position of aim, they will recover their pieces, half cock, and shoulder arms.

Inspection of Arms.

The squad being in two ranks, at shoulder arms, the instructor will command,

1.  Prepare to open ranks.  2.  To the rear open order.

MARCH.

At the first command, the guides upon the right and left of the front rank will place themselves upon the right and left of the rear rank respectively. 

At the second command, they will step perpendicularly to the rear four paces, (fourteen inches each) and halt.

At the command MARCH, the whole of the rear rank will step off together with the left foot first, until they have overstepped the guides who have halted to mark the distance, when the guide upon the right will command Right DRESS, turn your head to the right, and dress upon him.  The rank being properly aligned, the instructor will command, FRONT, resume the position to the front, he will then command order arms, and

Inspection-ARMS.  (Three motions.)

(First Motion.)  Face to the right, once and a half on the left heel, carry the right foot perpendicularly to the rear of alignments, about six inches from and at right angles with the left foot; (See Fig. 101,) seize promptly the piece with the left hand a little above the middle band, incline the muzzle to the rear without displacing the heel of the butt;  the rammer turned towards the body, (if the bayonet has been previously unfixed, perform what has been prescribed for the first motion of fix bayonets from an order,) carry at the same time the right hand to the rammer.

(Second Motion.)  (Draw and fix the bayonet, if off,)  Draw the rammer as been explained in loading in ten times, and let it glide to the bottom of the bore.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

(Third Motion.)  Face promptly to the front, seize the piece with the right hand, and retake the position of ordered arms.

The instructor will then inspect in succession the piece of each recruit, in passing along the front of the ranks.  Each, as the instructor reaches him, will raise smartly his piece with his right hand, seize it with the left, below the tail-band, the lock to the front, the left hand at the height of the chin, the piece opposite the left eye.  (See Fig. 102.)  The instructor will take it with the right hand at the handle, and, after inspecting it, will return it to the recruit, who will receive it back with the right hand, and replace it in the position of ordered arms.

When the instructor has examined the piece of the second man, and he has brought it to an ordered arms, the first will retake

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

the prescribed position of inspection of arms, and return the rammer, after which he will face to the front.

To Stack Arms.

The squad being at an order arms, with the files numbered from right to left, as one, two, three, &c.  The instructor will command,

Stack.  ARMS.

At this command, the front rank man of every even numbered file, will pass his piece before him, seize it with the left hand above the middle band, turn it barrel to the front, and place the butt outside of and near to the left foot, nearly opposite the right shoulder.  At the same time the front rank man of every odd numbered file, will pass his piece before him into his left hand a little below the middle band, hand opposite to and at the height of the elbow which should be close to the body.

The even numbered files of the front rank will then seize the piece of the odd file on his right with the thumb and first two fingers of the right hand, two inches above the middle band, carry, without turning it, opposite his right shoulder, swing the butt to the front and set it thirty-six inches in front of the right heel, barrel towards you, lock the shanks of both bayonets and press the muzzles to the right.  Every even numbered file of the rear rank will project his bayonet forward and insert it in through the opening below the shanks of the other two, bringing the three shanks together without shock, holding his piece with both hands, and advancing the right foot for that purpose.  When the front rank man of his file seizes it with his right hand between the tail and middle bands, brings it to the front and places the buss between the feet of the man on his right. (See Fig, 103)  Every odd numbered file of the rear rank will pass his piece into his left hand, barrel turned to the front, and place it against the stack, advancing his left foot for that purpose.

INSTRUCTION FOR THE RECRUIT.

Explanation of Fig. 103.

A is the front rank (even file) man's piece, the butt of which is placed outside of, and near to his left foot-B, is the odd file's (front rank) piece, its butt is placed thirty-six inches in front of the right heel of the even file-C, is the rear rank man's piece, (even file, the butt of which is placed between the feet of the odd file, (front rank.)

TAKE ARMS.

At this command, the front rank man of every odd file will remove his piece from the stack-the front ranks man of every even file will seize his own piece with his left hand, and that of the man on his right with his right hand, both below the middle bands.  The rear rank man of every even file will advance the hollow of his right foot towards the right heel of his file leader, and with his right hand, seize his own piece below the middle band-both men

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

will raise the stack, close together, turn the knuckles in, which movement unlocks the bayonets readily-the front rank man will pass the piece in his right hand over to the man on his right, and all taking the position of ordered arms.

This completes the instructions in the School of the Squad.  Part Second of this work will contain full instructions for the School of the Company, with numerous illustrations.  It will also contain valuable information in the shape of hints to Commissioned and Non-Commissioned Officers, not to be obtained in any other work.

BACK to The Drill Network

BACK to The Liberty Greys