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SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.
74. THIS school, which has for its object the instruction of soldiers, having an influence on, and being intimately connected with, the instruction of companies, on which depends that of the battalion, ought to be established and inculcated, with the utmost care and attention.
Division of the School of the Soldier.
75. The School of the Soldier shall be divided into three parts. The first will include all that ought to be taught without arms.
76. The second will include the analysis of the manual exercise, and of the loadings and firings.
77. The third will comprehend the different steps, the principles of marching to the front and to a flank, alignments, wheelings and changes of direction.
78. Each part shall be divided into lessons, as follows:
Position of the soldier without arms.
Motion of the head to the right and left.
Lesson 2. Facings.
Lesson 3. Principles of the ordinary step.
Lesson 4. Principles of the oblique step.
Lesson 1. Principles of shouldered arms.
Lesson 2. The analysis of loading and firing, and of the manual exercise.
Lesson 3. Loading in quick, and quickest time.
Lesson 1. The union of from six to ten men, in order to march to the front ; and practising the different steps.
Lesson 2. To march by a flank.
Lesson 3. Principles of alignment.
Lesson 4. Principles of wheeling and changes of direction.
79. Each lesson shall be followed by observation, demonstrating the utility of the principles, which shall have been prescribed. The instruc—
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER-PART 1.
ter cannot study them too much, nor be too particular in their application.
80. Commands shall be always animated and loud, in proportion to the number of recruits at exercise.
81. There shall be two sorts of commands, viz. those of caution and those of execution.
82. The words of caution, which are in these regulations printed in italics, must be distinctly pronounced ha a full voice, dwelling a little on the last syllable.
83. The commands of execution will be distinguished by CAPITALS, and shall be pronounced with a firm, quick tone.
84. Those commands, the expression of which shall be separated by dashes, will be divided in pronouncing them.
85. The Instructors will always explain what they teach, in few words, clearly and distinctly. They shall, themselves, always execute what they command, in order thus to exemplify the principle they are explaining. They will endeavor to accustom the recruit to assume the proper position. and will not place him in it till his want of comprehension shall oblige them so to do.
86. The first part of the School of the Soldier shall be taught to squads of three or four men, when the number of instructers will permit: they will be placed in one rank, without arms, one pace from each other.
Position of the Soldier.
87. (Pl. III. Fig. 1.) The heels on time same line, as near each other as the conformation of the man will permit; the feet forming with each other on angle something less than a right one, and turned out equally; the knees straight, but not stiff; the body perpendicular on the haunches, and Inclining a little forward; the shoulders kept back and falling equally; the arms hanging naturally; the elbows near the body; the palm of the hand turned a little to the front, the little finger back, and touching the seam of the pantaloons; the face well to the front; the chin a little drawn in, without constraint; and the eyes cast on the ground, at the distance of fifteen paces.
Remarks on the Position of the Soldier.
98. The instructer, having established the position, shall teach the recruit the motions of the head, to the right and left by the command,,
1. Eyes—RIGHT. 2. FRONT.
99. At the conclusion of the second part of the first command, the soldier will turn his head to the right, but not immediately, so that the corner of the left eye, nearest the nose, shall be in a line with the buttons of the coat, his eyes being fixed In the line of the eyes of the men of the rank he stands in.
100. At the second command, the head resumes its habitual position to the front.
101. The motion of Eyes—LEFT, will be executed by inverse means.
102. The instructer small take care that the motion of the head may not alter the squareness of the shoulders, which might happen if the motion were too sudden
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART I.
103. When the instructer wishes the squad to rest, he will command,
104. At this command, the soldier will not be required to maintain either his position or steadiness; but his heft heel shall not quit its place.
105. The instructer, to make the squad resume its position, will command,
106. Attention. 2. SQUAD.
106. At the first word, the soldier will fix his attention; at the second, he will resume the prescribed position and steadiness.
107. In going through the facings, from a halt, the left heel never quits the ground.
108. To execute the face to a flank, the instructer will command,
1. Squad. 2. Right (or left)—FACE.
109. ONE MOTION. At the second command, the recruits will turn on the left heel, and, at the same time, carry the right heel to the side of the left, placing it on the same line. This line will be exactly at right angles with that previously occupied by the heels.
112. To mako a full face to the rear, the command will be,
1. Squad. 2. About—FACE.
113. FIRST MOTION. At the worth About, make a half face to the right; slip the right foot to the rear, the hollow opposite to, and full three Inches from, the heel; seize, at time same time, the cartridge-box by the corner with the right hand.
114. SECOND MOTION. At the word FACE, turn on the two heels, raising a little the toes, the hams straight, and face to the rear; bring, at the same time, the right hand to the side of the left, and let go the cartridge-box.
118. To face to the left about, is deemed useless, as the same front can always be gained by facing to the right about.
119. With firelocks, in the first motion of facing to the right about, each man will turn the firelock with the left hand, the lock to the front, and replace it at the position of carry (or shoulder) arms, at the instant of bringing the right heel by the side of the left.
120. The instructer will take great care that the motions in this lesson do not derange the position of the body, which ought to remain thrown forward. He will also, frequently, after the command Right (or left)—FACE, give the command,
121. At this, the squad shall face back to its proper front, by the left, if It had last faced to the right; and by the right, if it had last faced to the left; but a full face from the rear to the proper front shall be preceded by the command, About—FACE.
Principles of the Ordinary Step.
132. The length of the ordinary step shall be twenty-eight inches, reckoning from heel to heel; and ninety of these paces shall be taken in a minute
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART I.
133. The instructer, seeing the recruit confirmed in his position, shall explain to him the principles and mechanism of the step, by placing him-self three or four paces in front of, and facing the recruit, and by showing him, slowly, the mode of executing the step, thus exemplifying the principles he is explaining. He will command,
1. Forward. 2. MARCH.
134. (Pl. III. Fig. 2.) At the first word, the recruit shall throw the weight of the body on the right leg.
135. At the second, he will smartly throw forward the left foot twenty-eight inches, without a jerk, the ham straight, the toes pointing a little downwards, and, as well as the knee, turned slightly out. He will, at the same time, throw forward the weight of the body, und, without stamping will plant the foot flat, precisely at the distance prescribed from the right toe, the whole weight of the body resting on the foot which comes to the ground. The recruit shall, smartly, but without a jerk, pass the right foot to the front, near the ground, and will plant it at the same distance, and in the same manner, as has been explained for the left foot. He will march in this manner, keeping the shoulders square, and the head direct to the front.
138. When the instructer wishes the squad to halt, he will command,
1. Squad. 2. HALT.
137. At the second word, let the rear foot be brought up to the side of the other.
Remarks on the Principles of the Step.
146. The instructer will explain to the recruit, occasionally, the cadence the step, by giving the words one and two, when the feet ought to be respectively planted on the ground, observing that ninety cadenced steps are taken in a minute.
Principles of the Oblique Step.
147. This step will be in common time.
149. (Pl. 11. Fig. 1.) The recruit being steady in his rank, the instructer will make him step off with the right toot, to the right and front, obliquely, and shall make him plant it twenty-six inches from the left ; observing to make him turn the point of the right foot a little inwards, to prevent the throwing forward the left shoulder. The recruit will rest in this position.
150. At the word two, by the instructer, the recruit shall advance his left foot over the shortest line, and plant it eighteen inches In front of the right heel. He will rest in this position.
151. He will continue to mare h lath is manner, at the words one and two, stopping at each step, and paying the greatest attention to keeping the shoulders square, and the head direct to the front.
152. The oblique step to time left shall be executed on the same principles, the recruit stepping off with the left foot.
153. After some lessons of this kind, the recruit shall oblique to the right and left, without dwelling on the step, as follows.:
154. The recruit marching to the front, in common time, the instructer will command,
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
155. At the second word, which shall be given at the instant when the left foot is coming to the ground, the recruit shall commence the oblique step to the right, observing to conform to the above directions relative to the execution and length of the step, and squareness of the shoulders to the front but without stopping at each step. He will thus march on at the prescribed rate of ninety paces in a minute.
156. Obliquing to the left shall be executed on the same principles; the instructer giving the word MARCH, at the instant when the right foot comes to the ground.
157. To resume the march to the front, the iustructer will command,
1. Forward. 2. MARCH.
158. At the second word, which shall be given when either foot is coming to the ground, the recruit shall resume the march to the front, and time ordinary step of twenty-eight inches.
Remarks on the Oblique Step.
General Remarks on the Direct and Oblique Steps.
162. To ascertain whether the position of the body conform to the principles prescribed; whether the step be regularly formed; and whether the weight of the body rest on the foot which is on the ground; the instructer shall frequently post himself from ten to twelve paces in front, facing the recruits. If he do not perceive the sole of the shoe, when they raise and plant the foot; and if he observe no waving of the upper part of the body, he may rest assured that the principles are properly observed.
163. When the principles of the step are shown to three or four men at a lime, accurate dressing need not be required, as that might divide their attention ; besides, when they have acquired the habit of taking the cadenced step, they will have learnt the true means of preserving the alignment.
165. The instructer shall not pass the recruits to this Second Part of the School of the Soldier, until they are perfectly confirmed in the position of the body, and in the execution of the direct and oblique steps.
166. The instructer shall then place four men in one rank, elbow to elbow, and shall instruct them to hold their arms, at a shoulder, as follows
Principles of Shouldered 4rrna.
161. The recruit being placed, as directed in the first lesson of the First Part, the instructer will make him raise and turn up the left hand, without bending the wrist, the fore arm only acting. The instructer will then raise the musket perpendicularly, and place it as follows
(Pl. lII. Fig. 1.) The musket in the left hand, the arm being a little bent; the elbow back, and joined to the body without pressure; the palm of the hand firmly against the exterior rounding of the butt; the exterior edge of the butt resting on the joints of the fingers next the palm; the heel of the butt resting between the first and second fingers; the thumb above, in front; the third and little fingers under the butt, which must be more or
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER-PART II.
less kept back, according to the conformation of the recruit, in such manner that the firelock, seen from the front, may rest always perpendicular, and that the movement of the thigh, in marching, may not derange it in its perpendicular position; the ramrod against the hollow of the shoulder; the right arm hanging naturally, as in No. 87.
Remarks on Shouldered Arms.
172. The instructer, previously to proceeding to the second lesson, shall make the recruits, at shouldered arms, practise the motions of eyes right, eyes left, and also the facings to the right, to the left, and to to the right-about.
The Analysis of Loading and Firing, and of the Manual
173. This shall be taught to four men in a rank, elbow to elbow, and to the same afterwards in two files.
174. The execution of each command shall be divided Into distinct motions, that the recruit may the better understand its mechanism.
176. At the last syllable of the command, the recruit shall execute the first motion smartly. At the words two and three, the other motions shall be executed. When the recruits shall know thoroughly the position of each motion of a command, they will be instructed how to execute the commands without dwelling on each motion separately; but they must observe the mechanism of the motions, the better to confirm them in time use of the firelock.
176. This lesson shall be taught in the following order: —The instructer will command,
Load by twelve commands.
177. FIRST MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 3.) Half face to the right, on the left heel, placing at the same time the right foot square behind the left heel, the hollow of the foot resting against that heel; turn the firelock, with the left hand, the lock outwards, at the same time seizing the small of the stock with the right hand, the firelock being detached from the shoulder, and supported perpendicularly on the palm of the left hand remaining under the butt.
178. SECOND MOTION. With the right hand bring down the firelock into the left, which receives It at the swell, the thumb extended, the butt under the right fore arm, the small resting against the body under the right breast; the muzzle as high as the eyes; the guard turned a little outward, the left elbow supported on the side of the haunch; the thumb of the right hand will be placed against the hammer above the flint, at the moment the firelock is thrown into the left hand; the four fingers of the right hand shut, the right fore arm along time butt.
179. ONE MOTION. Throw open the pan with the thumb of the right hand, the left hand holding the piece firmly; draw back the right elbow; carry the hand to the rear, passing it between the butt and body, and open the cartridge-box.
180. ONE MOTION. Take the cartridge within the thumb and two first
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
fingers; place it between the teeth, the right hand passing between the body and the butt.
181. ONE MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 4.) Tear the cartridge, holding it near the opening; sink down the cartridge, holding it perpendicularly against the pan, the palm of time right hand turned towards the body, the right elbow, against the butt.
182. ONE MOTION. Sink forward the head, cast the eyes to the pan, filling it with powder; press close the top of the cartridge at the opening, between the thumb and fore-finger; raise the head, place the right hand behind the pan, holding the little and third finger firm against the back of the pan.
183. ONE MOTION. Hold the firelock firm with the left hand; shut the pan forcibly with the two last fingers, holding always the cartridge between the thumb and two fore-fingers; seize immediately the small of the stock with the two last fingers and palm of the right hand; the right wrist chose to the body, the elbow to the rear, and a little detached from the body.
184. FIRST MOTION. With the right arm smartly stretched, without lowering the right shoulder, swing round the firelock to the left thigh, along which the butt must press strongly, turning, at the same time the ramrod towards the body, opening and letting the piece slip through the left hand as far as the middle pipe, the cock resting on the thumb of the right hand; face at time same time to the front, turning on the left heel, carrying the right foot forward, the heel resting against the hollow of the left.
185. SECOND MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 5.) Quit the firelock with the right hand, sinking it with the left along and near the body, raising at the same time the right hand to the muzzle, holding the top of the cartridge up; let the butt fall to the ground gently, the left hand against the body, under the lowest coat button, the musket in contact with the left thigh, the butt of the ramrod opposite the centre of the body.
186. ONE MOTION. (Pl. lII. Fig. 5.) Glance the eye to the muzzle of the barrel; turn smartly the upper side of the right hand towards the body, in order to discharge the powder into the muzzle, raising the elbow as high as the wrist; shake the cartridge, and insect it in the barrel, and leave the hand reversed, the fingers closed without pressure.
187. FIRST MOTION. Lower smartly the right elbow, and seize the ramrod between the thumb and fore-finger bent, the other fingers closed; draw it smartly, extending the arm, the nails uppermost; seize it backhanded at the middle, with the fore-finger and thumb, the palm of the hand outwards; turn it quickly between the bayonet and the body, at the same time closing the fingers upon it; the ramrod of each man in the rear rank grazing the right shoulder of the man in his front; the ramrod parallel to the bayonet, the arm extended, the eyes upward, the butt of the ramrod opposite the muzzle, without being inserted.
183. SECOND MOTION. Insert the butt of the ramrod as low as the hand.
188. ONE MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 13.) Extend the arm its whole length, in raising the right hand to seize the ramrod with the thumb extended
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
and the fore-finger bent, the other fingers being closed; drive the ramrod forcibly into the barrel, ramming home twice; seize it again by the small end, between the thumb and fore-finger bent, the others closed, the right elbow close to the body.
190. FIRST MOTION. As in the first motion of drawing ramrod, bring the small end of it opposite to the upper pipe, and hold it there without entering it.
191. SECOND MOTION. Introduce the small end into the pipe, and force it into its place; raise the right hand quickly, and place it, somewhat bent, on the butt of the ramrod, the palm downwards.
192. FIRST MOTION. (Pl. Ill, Fig. 1) Raise the firelock with the left hand, along the left side, the left hand as high as the shoulder, the left elbow resting on the firelock, keeping the barrel outwards; at the same time sink down the right hand, in order to seize the firelock at the small of the stock.
193. SECOND MOTION. Raise the firelock with the right hand; let the left hand fall, to seize and support the butt, carrying back, at the same time, the right heel to the side of the left, and in the same alignment; support the firelock against, and at the heft shoulder with the right hand in the position indicated for shouldered arms; the right hand touching the small of the stock, without pressing against it.
194. THIRD MOTION. Let the right hand fall smartly to the right thigh, hanging there, as already prescribed.
195. FIRST MOTION. As in the first motion of loading.
196. SECOND MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 7.) Bring the firelock with the right hand before the middle of the body; place the left hand, with the little finger touching the feather-spring, and the thumb as high as the chin, pointing upwards along the wood of the stock, the S (or plate opposite to the lock) being turned almost towards the body, the ramrod towards the front; and apply, at the same time, the thumb of the right hand to the head of the cock, the fore-finger under, and against the guard, and the three other fingers joined to the first.
197. THIRD MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 7.) Sink down smartly the right elbow, cocking at the same time, and seize the firelock at the small of the stock.
198. ONE MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 9).) Sink down smartly the muzzle of the piece, slipping the left hand along the stock, as far its the tailpipe; apply the butt to the right shoulder; the muzzle a little below the level of the eye, the elbows kept lowered; shut the left eye; look along the barrel with the right eye; lower the head towards the butt in order to aim; and place the fore-finger on the trigger.
199. (Pl. III. Fig. 10.) The men of the rear rank will, at the same time, step with the right foot eight inches to the right, towards the left heel of the man on their right, throwing the weight of the body on the right leg
200. That the soldier may be habituated to wait fur the word fire, the instructer shall frequently order arms to be recovered by the following command:
201. ONE MOTION. (Pl. Ill. Fig 7.) Raise the firelock smartly, and resume the position of the third motion of ready.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
202. ONE MOTION. Done in the same manner as in Nos. 108, 199.
203. ONE MOTION Apply, with force, the first finger to the trigger, without moving the head, and remain in that position.
204. ONE MOTION. Bring down the firelock smartly into the position of the second motion of load, except that the thumb, in lieu of being placed against the hammer, will, with the fore-finger bent, seize the top of the cock, the other fingers remaining shut. The men of the rear rank shall bring back the right foot behind the left, placing the hollow of that foot against the left heel.
205. If, in this position, the Instructer wish to make the ranks re-load, he will command,
205. ONE MOTION. Raise the cock to the half-cock notch, taking care not to cock it; carry the right hand, between the butt and the body, to the cartridge box, and open it.
207. When, instead of loading, the instructor wishes to shoulder arms, he will command,
208. At the word Shoulder, the recruits will half-cock, as has been explained, shut pan, and seize the firelock at the small of the stock. At the word ARMs, they will shoulder smartly, and front.
209. The squad, being formed in a single rank, elbows touching, arms shouldered, will be taught to fire both as a front and second rank, kneeling, as in a square against cavalry. The kneeling position will be assumed at the word READY, as above, after the precautionary command,
Front rank kneeling.
210. FIRST MOTION. Turn the firelock, the lock outwards; seize it with the right hand at the small, as in the first motion of loading, and remain facing to the front, turning the point of the left hand a little inwards.
211. SECOND MOTION. (Pl. Ill. Fig. 8.) Throw the right foot smartly to the rear, the heel raised, and the foot resting on the toes, bent; kneel down with the right knee ten or twelve inches in the rear, and about six inches to the right of the left heel, observing not to come down suddenly; bring down the firelock at the same time with the right hand, and seize it with the left at the swell; place the butt on the ground without shock, in front of the right thigh, so that the beak of the butt may be opposite to the left heel, and, at the same time, seize the cock between the thumb and fore-finger.
212. THIRD MOTION. Cock the piece.
213. At the subsequent command, LOAD, the men representing a front rank shall, without stooping forward, smartly spring up, keeping in, or back, the right shoulder, to avoid the firelocks of the rear rank.
Rear rank kneeling.
214. FIRST MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 11.) As front rank kneeling.
215. SECOND MOTION. As front rank kneeling, except that the right knee shall be placed about ten inches to the right of the left heel, or as far as practicable without constraint.
216. THIRD MOTION. As front rank kneeling.
217. At the command LOAD, after firing, spring up as a front rank, from the kneeling position, and place the feet as in No. 204.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
218. FIRST MOTION. The same as the first motion of load, except that the recruits remain square to the front.
219. SECOND MOTION. (Pl. IV. Fig. 1.) Complete the turning inwards of the firelock, with the right hand, in order to carry it perpendicularly opposite to the left eye, the ramrod in front, and the cock as high as the lowest coat button, holding the firelock with the right hand, under and against the guard; seize it smartly, at the same time, with the left hand above the lock, the little finger touching the feather-spring, the thumb extended along the barrel, and against the stock, the fore arm joined to the body, without constraint, and remain fronted, without moving the feet.
220. FIRST MOTION. Turn the firelock with the right hand, barrel outwards; raise, and place it against the left shoulder with the right hand; let fall the left hand under the butt, the right hand held easy against the small of the stock.
221. SECOND MOTION. Let the right hand fall smartly to its position.
222. FIRST MOTION. Sink down smartly the firelock to the full extent of the left arm, seizing it, at the same time, with the right hand, above, and near the tall-pipe; quit it with the left hand, and carry it opposite to the right shoulder, the ramrod In front, the little finger behind the barrel, the butt three inches from the ground, the right hand supported against the haunch, the firelock perpendicular, and the left hand hanging freely by the side.
223. SECOND MOTION. Let the firelock slip through the hand, and fall easy to the ground, assuming the position about to be described.
Position of Ordered Arms.
224. (Pl. IV. Fig. 2.) The hand must be sunk how; the barrel between the thumb and fore-finger extended along the stock; the other three fingers extended and joined; the muzzle about two inches from the right shoulder; the ramrod in front; the beak (that is, in this position, the front) of the butt in a line with the toes, and the barrel perpendicular. If the ground be muddy, the butt may rest on the right foot.
225. FIRST MOTION, Raise smartly the firelock with the right hand; carry it to the left shoulder, turning the barrel to the front; place, at the same time, the left hand under the butt, and slip the right hand down to the lock, the little finger resting against the hammer.
228. SECOND MOTION. Let the right hand fall smartly to its position.
227. When the lnstructer wishes the recruits to stand at ease, he will command,
1. Order—ARMS. 2. REST.
228. At this command, the soldier will only be required not to move his left foot, nor to displace the heel of his firelock.
229. To resume the position of steadiness with ordered arms, the Instruct will command,
1. Attention. 2. SQUAD.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
Inspection of Arms.
231. The recruits being at ordered arms, the instructer will command.
232. ONE MOTION. Face once and a half to the right, on the left heel, carrying the right foot perpendicularly to the rear of the alignment six inches from, and forming a right angle with, the line of the left; seize the firelock smartly, with the left hand raised to the level of the lowest button of the waistcoat, inclining the muzzle to the rear, without moving the butt from its place, the ramrod turned towards the body; carry, at the same time, the right hand to the bayonet, seizing It by the socket and shank, in such a manner, that the extremity of the socket may be an inch above the hand, and that, in drawing it, the thumb may extend on the hand; draw it from the scabbard, carry it to the muzzle of the firelock, and fix it there; immediately seize the ramrod, drawing it as has been prescribed; spring it into the barrel, and then face back immediately to the front, into the position of ordered arms, No. 224.
233. (Pl. IV. Fig. 4 and 5) The instructer will then inspect successively the firelock of each soldier, passing in front of the rank. Each soldier, as the instructer passes him, will raise his firelock smartly with the right hand, seize it with the left hand between the tail-pipe and feather-spring, the lock outwards, the left hand as high as the chin, the firelock opposite the left eye; the instructer shall take it with his right hand at the small, and, after having inspected it, shall return it to the soldier, who will receive it back within the left hand, half-cock and shut pan, if necessary. and resume the position of ordered arms.
234. When the instructer has passed the recruit, he will return his ramrod, resuming the position of ordered arms.
235. If, instead of inspecting arms, bayonets are only to be fixed, the instructer will command,
236. Perform the motion of inspect arms, except springing the ramrod into the barrel, amid immediately face to the front.
237. If, after firing, with bayonets fixed, the instructor wish to determine whether the cartridges have been discharged, he will command,
238. ONE MOTION. Put the ramrod into the barrel, as has been prescribed above, and immediately face to the front. The recruits shall return ramrods successively, after the inspector has passed them, resuming the original front.
239. The soldier, in this case, will not raise up his firelock, in order to present it to the instructer when he passes him. If the instructer wish to satisfy himself whether the firelock be loaded, he can take hold of the small end of the ramrod, and spring it in the barrel.
240. Bayonets being fixed and shouldered, if the instructer wish arms to be piled, he will command,
L Front rank one pace forward. 2. MARCH. 3. About—FACE.
241. At time word MARCH, the front rank will march one pace to the front, and, at time word FACE, will face to the right about, as already described. The instructer will then command,
1. Squad. 2. Trail—ARMS. 3. PILE—ARMS.
242. At the second command, both ranks will trail arms as in Nos. 276, 277.
243. The firelocks of every two contiguous files will be considered as number one, two, three, four , the front rank firelocks having the odd, and
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
the second rank firelocks the even numbers, and beginning on the right of both ranks
244. At the last command, butt No. 2 is advanced about a foot in the direction of No. 3, the muzzle inclined towards No. 3, with the barrel towards the left of the line. At the same time, the butt of No. 3 is advanced in like manner to meet No 2, the lock towards the right of the line. The shanks of the bayonets are crossed at right angles, that of No. 3 uppermost. In the meantime, the butt of No. 4 is moved about a foot to the right of the line, the barrel to the right, when the shank of the bayonet will cross the shanks of Nos. 2 and 3, diagonally. Butt No. 1 is moved towards the centre; the barrel to the front; the blade of the bayonet passing between the blades of Nos. 2and 4, and locking around the former. Each man will then bring back the butt of has firelock, near to his right foot.
245. When the squad is re-assembling for the purpose of resuming arms, the men will arrange themselves as they stood when piling arms; every man placing his right hand on his firelock without moving it. The instructer will then command,
1. Squad. 2. Take—ARMS.3. Shoulder—ARMS.
246. At the second command, all the men will at the same time gently raise their firelocks, and bring the butts together, when each will dis-engage his firelock, and assume the position of ordered arms. At the third command, the squad will shoulder arms.
247. The instructer will then command,
1. Front rank. 2. About—FACE.
248. At the second command, the front rank will face to the right about, as already described.
249. The instructer will then close and dress the ranks.
250.nnThe sergeants will pile their firelocks together, on the line of the rank of file-closers, opposite the centre of the squad, after the arms of the rank and file are piled, and will resume them as soon as the squad is re-assembled.
251. FIRST MOTION. (Pl. IV. Fig. 3) Grasp smartly the firelock about four inches below the lock, without turning it. and raise it a little.
252. SECOND MOTION. Quit the butt with the left hand, placing the left fore-arm extended across the breast, supporting the cock; the hand on the right breast.
233. THIRD MOTION. Let the right hand fall smartly to its position.
254. FIRST MOTION. With the right hand grasp smartly the small of the stock.
255. SECOND MOTION. Place the heft hand smartly under the butt.
236. THIRD MOTION. Let the right band drop smartly to the right side, and, at the same time, sink the firelock to the position of shouldered arms.
237. ONE MOTION. Carry the firelock sloped indifferently on either shoulder, or with either hand; the muzzle always well up.
268. At this command, the soldiers will quickly resume the habitual position of shouldered arms.
259. FIRST MOTION. Sink down the firelock by extending the lefl arm; grasp it, at the same time, with the right hand above, and near the swell, as in the first motion of order arms.
260. SECOND MOTION. With the, right hand lower the firelock along the left thigh to the ground; seize it with the left hand above the right, in
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
order to assume the position of the second motion of cast about, but without placing the right heel before the hollow of the left foot; strike off the bayonet with the right hand, returning it into the scabbard under the left arm, leaving the right hand near the socket.
261. THIRD MOTION. Raise the firelock with the left hand, seize it at the small with the right, resuming the position of shouldered arms.
262. FIRST MOTION. Grasp smartly the firelock with the right hand, the thumb against the S, and the forefinger against the cock; detach, at the same time, the firelock from the shoulder, keeping the barrel outwards; seize the firelock at the swell, with the left hand, the thumb extended along the ramrod, the firelock perpendicular, opposite the shoulder, the left elbow pressing on the firelock.
263. SECOND MOTION. (Pl. IV. Fig. 6.) Bring down the muzzle of the firelock, the lock under the left arm, the left hand remaining at the swell, the thumb pressing against the ramrod, to prevent its sliding out, the right hand falling, at the same time, into its position.
264. FIRST MOTION. Raise the firelock, but not too suddenly, lest the ramrod should escape from its pipes; seize it with the right hand, at the small, to support it against the shoulder; at the same time, quit the firelock with the left hand, placing it smartly under the butt.
265. SECOND MOTION. Let the right hand fall quickly into its position, sinking, at the same time, the firelock with the left hand, to the proper position of shouldered arms.
266. FIRST MOTION. As in the first motion of unfix bayonet.
267. SECOND MOTION. As the second motion of unfix bayonet, except that the right hand will seize the socket of the bayonet, as prescribed in inspection of Arms, No. 232, in order to draw it from the scabbard, and carry it smartly to the muzzle; the right hand remaining at the shank of the bayonet.
263. THIRD MOTION. Shoulder arms, as explained in the third motion of unfix bayonet.
269. ONE MOTION. (Pl. IV. Fig. 7.) At one motion, throw the firelock from the shoulder across the body, (meeting it smartly with both hands at the same instant,) to a diagonal position, in which the lock is to be turned to the front, and at the height of the breast; the muzzle slanting upward, so that the barrel may cross opposite the point of the left shoulder, with the butt proportionally. The right hand grasps the small of the butt, and the left holds the piece at the swell, close to the lower pipe, the thumbs of both hands pointing towards the muzzle; both elbows close to the body, the fingers of the left hand between the stock and barrel.
270. FIRST MOTION. Bring the firelock smartly to the left shoulder, placing the left hand under the butt.
271. SECOND MOTION. Drop the right hand smartly to its position on the right side.
272. FIRST MOTION. (Pl. III. Fig. 3.) As the first motion of load, grasping the firelock two inches below the cock.
273. SECOND MOTION. (Pl. IV. Fig. 8.) Bring down the firelock with the right hand Into the left, which seizes it a little above the swell, the barrel uppermost, the left elbow near the body, the right hand against the right haunch, the point of the bayonet as high as the eye. The men
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
in the rear rank will take care to avoid touching the men, who are in front of them, with their bayonets.
274. FIRST MOTION. Turn to the front on the left heel; bring up the right heel to the side of, and in a line with, the left; and spring up at the same time, the firelock with the right hand to the left shoulder, placing the left hand under the butt.
275. SECOND MOTION, Let the right hand fall smartly to its place.
276. FIRST MOTION. (Pl. IV. Fig. 9.) The first motion of order arms, No. 222.
277. SECOND MOTION. Incline forward a little the muzzle of the fire-lock, the butt towards the rear, and about three inches from the ground. The right hand, against the haunch, will steady the firelock in such manner, that the bayonets of the men of the rear rank will not touch the men in front.
278. At the word Shoulder, raise the firelock perpendicular in the right hand. At the word ARMS, execute what has been prescribed for shouldering, from ordered arms.
Remarks on the Analysis of Loading and Firing, and of
the Manual Exercise.
Loading in Quick Time.
281. Its object is to enable the soldier to distinguish the motions, which, should be rapidly executed, from those executed with more regularity and attention; such as those of prime, charge cartridge, and ram cartridge. It will therefore be divided into four principal divisions, as follows:
282. The first will be executed at the command LOAD; the three others, at the commands TWO, THREE and FOUR.
283. The instructer will command.
Load in quick time.
284. (Pl. III. Fig. 4.)Execute the motion of load; open pan, handle cartridge, tear cartridge, prime.
285. (Pl. III. Fig. 6.) Shut pan, cast about, charge cartridge.
280. (Pl. III. Fig. 6.) Draw ramrod, ram cartridge.
287. (Pl. III. Fig. 1.) Return ramrod, shoulder arms.
Loading in Quickest Time.
288. The instructer will next teach the recruit to load in quickest time, which shall be executed the same as loading in quick time, but continued and without pauses. The instructer will command,
Load in quickest time.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
Remarks on the Loadings.
291. These are either direct or oblique, and will be executed as will be explained.
292. The instructer will give the following commands:
1. Squad. 2. READY. 3. AIM. 4. FIRE. 5. LOAD.
293. (Pl. II. Fig. 2.) These several commands shall be executed as has been already prescribed.
294. At the second command, the men will assume the indicated position, according to the rank in which they are respectively placed: at the fifth command, they shall load and shoulder arms.
295. Oblique firings are executed to the right and left, by the same commands as the direct fires, with this difference, that the command AIM shall be preceded by the caution Right (or left) oblique; at which caution the men of the rear rank will fix their eyes on the interval through which they are to aim.
Position of the Ranks in the Oblique Firings to the Right.
296. At the word READY, both ranks will execute what has been prescribed for the direct fire.
297. At the word AIM, the front rank man will direct his firelock to the right, inclining the left knee inwards, without moving the feet.
298. The rear rank man will advance the left foot about six inches, and towards the toe of the right foot of the front rank man of his file, advancing also the body, bending the left knee a little, and will direct his firelock to the right.
299. Both ranks will throw back the right shoulder.
300. At the word LOAD, both ranks will resume the position prescribed for the direct fire. The rear rank men will bring back the left foot, and place the heel against the hollow of the right, bringing down the firelock to the above position.
Position of the Ranks in the Oblique Firings to the Left.
301. At the word READY, both ranks will execute what has been prescribed for lhe direct fire.
302. At time word AIM, the front rank man will direct his firelock to the left, inclining the left knee, without moving the feet.
303. The rear rank man shall advance the left foot about six inches, and towards the right heel of the front rank man on the left of his file; and shall also advance the upper part of the body, bending the left knee, and aim through the interval to the left of the front rank man of his file.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
304. Both ranks shall throw back the left shoulder.
305. At the word LOAD, both ranks shall draw back their firelocks, in the oblique position, in which they range., and shall prime in that position. The rear rank shall carry back the left foot, placing the heel against the hollow of the right; and, in casting about, both ranks shall take the same position as in the direct fire.
Remarks on the Oblique Firings.
Firing by File.
310. The instructer will command,
1. Fire by file. 2. Squad. 3. READY. 4. Commence—FIRING.
311. At the third command, both ranks will take the position prescribed in the direct and oblique firings.
312. At the fourth command, the men of the right file will aim and fire together; the next file will aim at the instant when the first has fired, and so on successively to the left; after the first fire, every man will load and fire without waiting for the others.
313. The men shall always front in casting about the firelock, and, after having loaded, they will assume the position indicated, No. 197. For this purpose, each soldier, after returning his ramrod, shall spring up his firelock with the left hand, letting it slip through that hand, which seizes it near the feather-spring, at the height of the chin; at the same time, he will half face to the right, in order to return to the prescribed position; place the thumb of the right hand on the head of the cock, in order to cock it, the little finger under and against the guard.
314. When the instructer wishes the firing to cease, he will command,
315. At this command, the soldiers will cease firing. Each man will half-cock, if cocked; will load, if unloaded; and, if loading, will complete the operation, and shoulder arms.
General Remarks on the Firings.
316. The firings shall be executed at first without cartridges, next with priming only, and afterwards with blank cartridges.
317. During the firings, it shall be required of the soldier to be attentive in observing, when he half-cocks, whether smoke proceeds out of the vent, which is a sure Indication that the piece has gone off. If the smoke do not appear, the soldier, In lieu of reloading, will prick the vent, and prime a second time. If the soldier, thinking he has fired, has loaded again, he ought to discover his mistake in ramming home, by the length, of the charge; and he would be very culpable were he to load a third time.
313. The instructer will inspect the arms, in order to ascertain whether the soldier has committed the fault of charging his firelock with two or more cartridges.
319. The instructer ought also to watch particularly that the soldier, in half-cocking, does not cock, a fault from which accidents might result. He will further impress the recruits with the importance of having the flint always in good firing order.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART II.
General Remarks on the Second Part of the School of the Soldier.
320. After some days of practice of the lesson relative to the use of arms, and after the recruits are confirmed in the position of shouldered arms, the lnstructer will terminate the lesson, by making the four recruits march for some time In one rank, at the distance of one pace from each other, in order to confirm them more and more in the mechanism of the direct and oblique steps. He will show them the mode of marking time, as follows:
To Mark Time.
321. The four recruits, marching with the ordinary step, shall receive the command,
1. Mark time. 2. MARCH.
322. At the second word, which shall be given at the instant the foot is coming to the ground, time soldier shall make a semblance of marching, by bringing back the heels alternately to the side of each other, without advancing, observing the cadence of the step.
323. The instructer, wishing the ordinary step to be resumed, will command,
1. Forward. 2. MARCH.
324. At the second word, given as above, the recruit shall resume the step of twenty-eight inches.
To Change Step.
335. To the recruits, marching with the ordinary step, the instructer will command,
1. Change step. 2. MARCH.
326. At the second word, to be given when either foot is coming to the ground, the recruits shall quickly bring up the foot in the rear to the side of that planted in front, which latter foot will step off.
The Side Step.
327. The squad being at a halt, and aligned, the Instructer, to teach this step, will suppose an interval of six or eight common paces to be gained to the right or left, on a fixed point. For this purpose, he will command,
1. Side step to the right (or left.) 2. MARCH.
328. At the first command, each recruit will glance his eyes to the right; at the second, he will carry his right foot about ten inches to the right, (or towards the left foot of his right hand man,) and instantly bring up his left foot, and so on, the whole with perfect precision of time, shoulders square to time front, and each man halting in his own person, when he has closed on the fixed point, or the man next to him.
329. The instructer will then order,
To Step Short.
330. The squad being on a march, the instructer, to teach this, will command,
1. Step short. 2. MARCH.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART III.
33l. At the second command, the foot advanced will finish its pace, and afterwards each recruit will step as far as the ball of his toe, and not farther, until the words Forward—MARCH, when he will resume the ordinary step.
Marching to the Front.
332. WHEN the four recruits shall be well confirmed in the principles and mechanism of the step, the position of the body, and that of shouldered arms, the instructer will unite from six to ten men, in order to instruct them in the principles of the touch of elbows, marching to the front and to a flank; the quick step, the back step, the principles of changes of direction, wheeling on a movable and a halted pivot, and the principles of alignment.
333. The instructer will place them in one rank, elbow to elbow, and command,
1. Squad—forward. 2. Guide left (or right.) 3. MARCH.
334. At the word MARCH, the rank shall step off smartly within the left foot.
335. The instructer will cause a well-instructed soldier to march two paces in front of the recruits, on the right or left of the rank, according to the flank to which the guide may be ordered.. He shall direct the soldier on the flank to march exactly in the trace of the man who precedes him, preserving the distance of two paces from him. This is the surest means of making the recruits contract the habit of taking the step of the prescribed length and cadence.
The instructer will cause the following rules to be observed:
336. Touch lightly the elbow towards the guide.
337. Not to open out the left elbow, nor the right arm.
333. Yield to pressure from the side of the guide, and resist that coming from the opposite side.
339. Not to lap elbows.
340. Not to swing the arms.
341. Retouch, insensibly, the elbow towards the guide, in case of the opening of files.
342. Keep always the head direct to the front, the eyes cast on the ground, about fifteen paces to the front, on whatever flank the guide may be posted:
313. If a recruit find himself too far advanced or behind, he will gradually resume his pace, by lengthening or shortening his step.
344. Finally, the instructer shall endeavor to make the recruit comprehend, that the alignment in marching cannot be preserved, without the regularity of the step, the touch of the elbow, and the squareness of the shoulders; for instance, that if some took longer steps, or marched quicker than others, the result must be a breaking of the rank; that if the head were not direct to the front, and the light touch of the elbow preserved, it would be impossible for them to judge whether they march in the same line with those on their right and left, and whether openings take place.
345. The instructer shall next exercise them in obliquing to the right, with the guide on the left; and in obliquing to the left, with the guide on the right.
* Guide left is here given merely as a caution to the rank, that the touch of the elbow ought to be to the left, that is that the rank will dress by the Left.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART III.
346. In both the oblique and direct marches, the touch of the elbow ought to be kept up towards the guide; and thus each man will touch, lightly, the elbow of the man next to him on that side.
347. The oblique march to the side opposite to the guide being much more difficult than that to the side he is on, the instructer will recommend to the recruits to redouble their attention when thus obliquing.
343. When these various principles have become familiar to the recruits, and they are confirmed in the position of the body, the carrying of arms, the mechanism, length and cadence of the ordinary step, the instructer shall make the them pass from the ordinary to the quick step, and the reverse, as follows:
349. The rank marching with the ordinary step, the instructer will command,
1. Quick time. 2. MARCH.
350. At time word MARCH, given when either foot is coming to the ground, the rank will assume the quick step.
351. The length of the step shall be the same as that of the ordinary step; but one hundred and twenty of these steps must be taken in one minute.
352. Plummets, which vibrate the required times of march in a minute, are of great utility; they must be in possession of, and constantly referred to, by each instructer of a squad and the drum-major; the several lengths of plummets swinging the times of the different marches in a minute, are as follows:
353. Common time, ninety steps in a minute.
Plummet, seventeen inches and thirty-eight hundredths of an inch in length.
354. Quick time, one hundred and twenty steps in a minute.
Plummet, nine inches and seventy-eight hundredths of an inch in length.
355. A musket ball, suspended by a string not liable to stretch, and on which are marked the different required lengths, will answer the above purpose, may be easily procured, and should be frequently compared with an accurate standard in the adjutant’s possession. The length of the plummet is to be measured from the point of suspension to the centre of the ball.
356. With the exception of the oblique step, the quick time is that which will generally be ordered in all interior movements of battalions, and other corps, as in wheelings, filings, and successive formations generally.
Remarks on the Quick Step.
357. Marching in quick and common time will be executed by the same principles; but the impulse of quick time tending to produce excitement in the soldier, the instructer will pay particular attention that the cadence of this step, and the steadiness of the body, he preserved. The instructer will cause the recruits to mark time, change step, and step short.
358. When the instructer wishes time recruits to resume the ordinary step, he will command,
1. Common time. 2 MARCH.
359. At the word MARCH, given when either foot is coming to the ground, the rank shall resume the ordinary step.
360. The instructer shall cause the rank to halt, by the commands and means, Nos. 136, 137.
361. The rank being halted, the instructer shall cause it to march backward, as follows
1. Backward 2. MARCH.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART Ill.
362. At the word MARCH, the recruit will step smartly to the rear with the left foot, planting it fourteen inches from the right, reckoning from heel to heel, and so on, till the word HALT is given, which shall be always preceded by that of Squad. The recruits will halt, at this command, by bringing back the foot in front to the side of the other.
363. The instructer will take care that the recruits do not lean against each other; that they march straight backward; and that the proper position of the body and firelock be always preserved.
To March by a Flank.
364. The recruits being drawn up in one rank, elbow to elbow, the instructer will command,
1. Squad. 2. Right (or left)—FACE. 3. Forward—MARCH.
365. At the second command, the recruits shall face to the right or left.
366. At the word MARCH, they shall step off quickly, with the left foot, and In common time.
Remarks on Marching by a Flank.
367. The instructer will place a well-instructed soldier by the side of the heading recruit, on the flank to which the rank has faced, in order to conduct it, and regulate its step; and it will be enjoined on the soldier who is on the heading flank, to touch the elbow of the man who is to direct him.
368. At the word MARCH, the whole file will step off smartly together; first with the left foot, then the right, at the prescribed pace of twenty. eight inches, which will bring the foot last raised (except that of the file-leader) on the ground, about six inches in advance of the foot of the man immediately in front. In this way, only, can the original or facing distances of the men, in file-marching, be preserved.
369. The Instructer will be careful to cause the men in file to cover each other accurately, and will see that they do not bend the knee, or look downwards, either of which would cause time loss of the lock-step and cadence.
370. The instructer, during the march, will place himself five or six paces in front, to see that the principles prescribed above are strictly observed.
371. He will also, sometimes, place himself’ in rear of the file, and let it pass him fifteen or twenty paces, to observe whether the recruits cover the flle-leader exactly.
372. The instructer, to cause the rank to wheel by file, to the right or left, will command,
1. By file right (or left.) 2. MARCH.
373. At the second word, the leading man will turn to the right or left, and then march straight forward, each man turning successively on the same ground.
374. The instructer will cause the recruits, marching to the front, to face to the right and left, thus:
1. By the right (or left) Flank. 2. MARCH.
375. At the second word, to be given a little before either foot comes to the ground, the recruits will turn the body, plant the foot that is raised, in the new direction, and step off with the other foot, without altering the cadence of the step.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART Ill.
376. When the instructer wishes to halt and front, the rank marching by the flank, he will command,
1. Squad. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT,
377. At the second word, the rank marching In file will halt, and no man will move, even to rectify a false distance; this attention being necessary to habituate this soldier in the constant observance of his distance.
378. At the third word, each man will front, by facing to the left, if marching by the right flank; and by facing to the right, if marching by the left flank.
General Remark on Marching by a Flank.
379. When the recruits have acquired ease and facility In marching by a flank, the instructer will repeat the lesson in quick time: the practice of this will make them sensible of the necessity of maintaining the lockstep, In marching by a flank, and of observing the cadence of the step, and the upright position of the body.
380. The instructer will exercise the recruits in aligning themselves, one by one, that they may the better comprehend the principles of the alignment: and, for this purpose, he will order the two men on the right flank to step two paces to the front, and, having aligned them, he will caution each man, successively, to move up on the alignment of the two first.
381. Each recruit, on the caution from the instructer, to move up on the alignment, will turn his head and eyes to the right, to the position prescribed, No. 99; march in the cadence of the ordinary step, two paces to the front; shortening the last step, so as to be six inches in rear of the new alignment. which is never to be passed. The recruit will steadily, and without jerking, move, in short steps, to the side of the man next to him in the new alignment, without deranging the position of his head, the line of his eyes, or the squareness of his shoulders, so as to find himself in the direction of this man, whose elbow he is lightly to touch, without opening out his own.
382. Alignment to the left is executed on the same principles.
383. When the recruits shall have learned thus, one by one, to align correctly, the instructer will cause the whole rank to align at once, by the following command:
Right (or left)—DRESS.
384. At this word, the whole rank, except the two men previously placed as a base of alignment, shall steadily march up to, and place themselves on the new line, according to the principles prescribed, No. 351.
385. The intructer placed five or six paces in front of, and facing to the rank, shall carefully observe that the principles are adhered to; and, to verify this, he will proceed to the flank which has served for a base of alignment.
386. The instructer, seeing nearly the whole of the rank aligned, will command,
337. At this command, the recruits shall turn the head to the front, and remain steady.
333. Should the instructer observe that some file, or files, be not correctly aligned, he will order, such file, (or files,) forward, (or back,) desig-
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART Ill.
nating them by their numbers. The flies designated, only, will cast the eyes towards the side of the alignment, in order to judge how far they should move up or back, and will steadily place themselves on the line, turning afterwards the head to the front.
389. The instructer will previously number the files.
390. Alignments to the rear are executed on time same principles: thus recruits step back a little beyond the line, and then move up to it. by small steps to the front, as prescribed. No. 381.
391. The instructer will command,
Right (or left) backward—DRESS.
Remarks on the Principles of Alignment.
392. The instructer shall inculcate the observance of the following principles
393. That the soldier steadily arrive on the line.
394. That he do not bend the body back, or the head forward.
395. That he turn the head the least possible, and only so as to see the line of the eyes.
396. That he never pass beyond the line.
397. That at the command FRONT, all movement on the part of the soldier cease, even though he may not be aligned.
398. That, at the command such file, (or such files,) forward, (or back.) those not designated do not move.
399. That in alignments to the rear, the soldiers pass a little beyond the line.
400. Wheelings are of two sorts; on a halted, and on a movable pivot.
403. In wheels from a halt, the pivot man turns in his place, without advancing or receding; in wheeling from line into column, and from column into line, he will face as will be pointed out in the text, under those heads respectively.
404. In wheeling on a movable pivot, the pivot man takes steps of seven inches, in order to clear the wheeling point. This is necessary, in order that the divisions of a column may be enabled to change direction without losing their distance, as will he explained, School of the Company.
405. In both cases, the man on the wheeling flank will always take steps of twenty-eight inclines.
406. The movement of right or left turn is used only for changes of direction in column to the side of the guide. Great care must be taken not to confound this movement with wheeling on a movable pivot.
To Wheel on a halted Pivot.
407. The instructer will place a well-instructed man on the wheeling flank, to conduct it, and will command,
1. Squad—right wheel. 2. MARCH.
* Division is a general term, employed to signify any of those equal parts, into which the Battalion is broken, whether they are grand divisions, companies, platoons or sections.
The pivot, or (as it is sometimes called) the proper pivot flank of the column, is that, by wheeling up to which, the divisions of the column are brought into line in their regular order, and to their proper front. The other is called the reverse flank.
The flank of a division, on which a wheel is executed, is, with reference to that particular wheel, termed the pivot, although, with reference to the column, it may be the reverse flank.
SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER—PART III.
408. At the second word, the soldiers will step off with the left foot, and turn, at the same time, the head a little to the left, their eyes fixed in the direction of those of the men who are on their left. The pivot man shall only mark time, conforming to the movement of the marching flank: the man who conducts that flank will march steps of twenty-eight inches; from the first step, bring forward the left shoulder a little, cast his eyes on the ground he is to go over, and, from time to time, along the rank; and he will always feel the elbow of the man next to him, but without pressing him.
409. The other soldiers must keep up the light touch of the elbow to the side towards the pivot, and resist all pressure, coming from the opposite flunk, each man proportioning his step to his distance from the pivot.
410. The instructer shall make the rank describe a circle, once or twice, before he halts it, in order to render the principle understood; and he shall carefully see that the rank wheel straight, and do not open out from the centre, or break, or displace the pivot.
4th. He shall make the rank wheel to the left, on the same principles.
and will command a halt as follows:
1. Squad. 2. HALT.
412. At the second word, the rank will halt, and no man will move until a further command.
413. The instructer shall go to the flank opposite the pivot, and place the two outer men of that flank in the direction he chooses to give to the rank, leaving sufficient space between them and the pivot for the others to place themselves in, and command,
Left (or right)—DRESS.
414. At this command, the rank will place itself on the alignment of the two men who are to serve as a basis, conforming to the principles prescribed.
415. The instructer will then order, FRONT, which will be executed as prescribed, No. 387.
Remarks on Wheeling on a halted Pivot.
416. Turn the head a little towards the marching flank, and fix the eyes on the line of the eyes of the men who are towards that flank.
417. Keep up the light touch of the elbow towards the pivot.
418. Resist a pressure coming from the marching flank.
To Wheel on a Movable Pivot.
419. When the recruits wheel on a halted pivot, with accuracy, the rank will be taught to wheel on a movable pivot.
420. For the purpose, In order to cause the rank on the march to change direction on the reverse flank, the instructer commands,
1. Right (or Left) wheel. 2. MARCH.
421. The first command shall be given, when the rank is within two paces of the wheeling point.
422. At the second word, the wheel will be executed as on a halted pivot, except that the touch of the elbows will be towards the marching flank; that the pivot man, in lieu of turning in his place, shall conform to the movement or the marching flank, feel lightly the elbow of the man next to him, take steps of seven: inches, gain ground in advancing, and
SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.
move on a part of the circumference of a small circle, so as to clear the wheeling point, the centre of the rank curving a little towards the rear.
423. The wheel being effected, the instructer shall command,
1. Forward. 2. MARCH.
424. The first word will be pronounced two paces before the wheel is finished.
425. At the second, to be given at the instant the wheel is effected, the man directing the marching flank will move straight forward, and the pivot man, with the other men composing the rank, will resume the step of twenty-eight inches, directing the head to the front.
To Change Direction on the Pivot Flank.
426.This is effected by the following commands:
1. Left (or right) turn. 2. MARCH.
427. The first word shall be given when the rank is within two paces of the turning point, as above.
428. At the second word, to be given at time instant when the rank is to commence turning, the guide will turn to the left, (or right,) in marching. and, without changing the cadence, or without lengthening or shortening the step, will move forward in the new direction: the rest of the rank will quickly conform to the new direction of the guide; and, for this purpose, each man will advance the shoulder farthest from the guide, will turn the head and eyes to the flank the guide is on, touch the elbow of the next man towards the guide, placing himself on the same alignment with the guide, and then turn his head and eyes to the front. Each man arrives thus, successively, on the alignment of the guide.
429. The instructer, having taught the wheel on a fixed, and on a movable pivot, in common time, will next cause the squad to execute the same movements in quick time, giving the word quick before MARCH.
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